Selected Crassulaceae species. A: Sedeveria 'letizia', B: Sedum 'Sun Red', C: Crassula rupestris, D: Echeveria 'Momotaro', E: Graptoveria opalina. 

Selected Crassulaceae species. A: Sedeveria 'letizia', B: Sedum 'Sun Red', C: Crassula rupestris, D: Echeveria 'Momotaro', E: Graptoveria opalina. 

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This study was conducted to determine the effects of supplementary lighting intensity and duration on selected Cassulaceae species grown in a hydroponic system. Five subfamilies in Crassulaceae with corresponding species were chosen as experimental units namely Sedeveria ‘Letizia ’, Sedum ‘Sun Red’, Crassula rupestris, Echeveria ‘Momotaro’, and Gra...

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... treatment combinations ( Fig. 1), plants under three hours of supplementary lighting with 8000 lux had tallest plants with 68.42 mm which were comparable to both six hours light duration regardless of intensity with 62.02 mm and 62.28 mm. However, Control and three hours supplemental light and low intensity gave the shortest plants which did not significantly differ ...

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... 관엽식물들의 실내재배와 관련한 생육 연구에서는 일장과 광도 별 조건에서의 생육과 관련한 연구들이 있었다 (Kim et al., 2005;Park et al., 2010;Kwon and Park, 2015;Nam et al., 2016 (Lee et al., 2021a), 여름과 같은 고온의 실내 환경을 기반으로 한 연구는 부족한 실정이다. ...
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When designing interior spaces, the use of indoor foliage plants is considered as an integral part of providing a wonderful ambiance owing to both their aesthetic and functional properties. Being indoors, these plants are subjected to continuous lighting conditions at high temperatures with varying light intensities, which affect their survival, growth, and leaf color quality. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the influence of different light intensity levels (60, 120, and 180 μmol m-2 s-1) on the growth and leaf color of commonly used indoor foliage plants (Hoya carnosa f. variegata, Epipremnum aureum f. variegata, Rhapis excelsa, Hedera helix, Chamaedorea elegans, and Spathiphyllum wallisii) under high temperature and continuous lighting conditions. The results demonstrated that the growth parameters of the indoor foliage plants, after 4 weeks of treatment, were relatively better when grown under lower light intensity levels (60 and 120 μmol m-2 s-1) compared to when grown under a higher light intensity level (180 μmol m-2 s-1). The CIELAB L * and b * values of a majority of the indoor foliage plants increased proportionally with the light intensity level, indicating that under a higher light intensity, the leaves tend to express yellow tones. In addition, SPAD units decreased as the light intensity increased. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that indoor foliage plants are sensitive to light stress under high temperature and continuous lighting conditions; therefore, it is recommended to cultivate them under relatively low light conditions (60 and 120 μmol m-2 s-1).
... Manipulating environmental factors can increase ornamental value, these improvements are unstable and easily relapse (Nam et al., 2016;Park et al., 2016;Hoang and Kim, 2018). Hence, the use of mutation induction in ornamental plants is conducted to develop new cultivars which has novel colors and variation to improve ornamental value, especially for ornamentals that are reproduced only through vegetative means (Broertjes and Van Harten, 1988). ...
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Mutation breeding is an important tool for developing new cultivars in horticulture. Among the many methods of mutation breeding, chemical mutation is highly effective and can be performed easily. Compared to natural breeding methods, higher mutation rates and the faster induction of desirable characteristics have been reported with the use of chemical mutagens. Succulents have recently gained popularity because of their unique geometrical shapes and their ability to survive with minimal watering. Succulents that have peculiar shapes and colors demand higher prices. In this study, we used colchicine, a chemical mutagen, and tested its application on three Echeveria succulent species. A phenotypic evaluation was conducted on the mutant succulents produced from the application of colchicine on propagated leaf cuttings. Phenotypic evaluation included plant parameters and morphological analysis. Ploidy analysis was conducted to confirm the effects of the mutagen treatments. In all selected Echeveria species, the use of colchicine produced mutant species that varied significantly from those of the control; however, treatment concentration and duration varied per species. The phenotypic evaluation revealed that colchicine-mutated plants exhibited compactness, with mutants being generally taller with a thicker but shorter plant diameter compared to that of the control. Mutated plants exhibited prominent changes in color for the a* and b* values. Similarly, changes in leaf shape were observed and were evident at their apexes. These morphological changes are attributed to the change in ploidy level, which was confirmed through stomata and ploidy analysis. Larger stomata size was accompanied by lower stomata density. Based on the flow cytometry analysis, mutated succulents exhibited a 2x-4x complex.
... Furthermore, succulent cuttings should not be drenched in water; a misting technique should be used as to provide sufficient moisture while reducing the probability of stem or leaf rotting, and may be watered every 4 -5 days (Wiesner and Johnson 1977). Nam et al. (2016) agavoides and E. marcus. Succulents exposed to this level of light had higher visual quality, normal plant development, and intensified color, which corresponds to increased anthocyanin content. ...
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The popularity of succulents as ornamental plants has increased in recent years. This is primarily because of their unique geometric shapes, which form a rosette, coupled with their ability to retain high levels of moisture. These features make ornamental succulents suitable as landscape plants as they can withstand extreme conditions and as potted plants for indoor spaces as they require minimal watering. Appropriate propagation techniques are important to increase production rates and plant quality in the shortest time possible. These ornamental plants may be propagated in various ways, both sexually, via seeds, and vegetatively, through a number of methods, such as stem cuttings, leaf cuttings, and micropropagation. In this review, methods for the propagation of ornamental succulents are described, including post-propagation care and management. Propagation aspects on which limited information is available are also highlighted. Potential areas for research required to produce data to further improve techniques, conservation, and rapid propagation efforts are discussed.
... Studies of Soh et al. (2015) have considered the use of LED lights for some succulent species. Studies of Nam et al. (2016) have also studied the effects of intensity but these were various Crassulaceae species which were grown under hydroponic systems of which the light was measured in lux values. ...
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This study was conducted to determine the effects of light intensity on the growth and development as well as the anthocyanin content of two Echeveria species, namely Echeveria agavoides and E. marcus. Three light intensity levels (high, 150 μmol・m-2s-1; intermediate, 75 μmol・m-2s-1; and low, 35 μmol・m-2s-1) served as the treatments, which were replicated four times. The results revealed that the tallest and largest plants were those under low light conditions. It was observed that there was a decline as the light intensity increased, which is attributed to the coping mechanisms of plants to search for light sources, which has a similar effect to bolting or an increase in the node-to-node distance. CIELAB color values of L* and a* for both species were significantly affected by the light intensity, indicating changes in the lightness of hue and green-to-red color pigmentation in plants. These results were strongly reflected in those of the anthocyanin content analysis, where a direct increase in the concentration was observed with increasing light intensity. The results of the anthocyanin analysis were also supported by the histogram, smart segmentation images, as well as the ratio of red and green pigments found in the images. Thus, a high light intensity should be used to increase the quality and provide conducive growing conditions for both succulent species.
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O cultivo de plantas suculentas se popularizou no Brasil, aumentando a necessidade da compreensão do comportamento das espécies sob condições diferentes de produção. Assim, objetiva-se com este trabalho avaliar a influência de fertilizante enraizador, temperatura e luminosidade na emergência de brotações e raízes para espécies suculentas. Três experimentos foram conduzidos de novembro 2020 a fevereiro 2021, em casa de vegetação, com delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, cada estudo com uma espécie: Echeveria elegans, Graptosedum Francesco Baldi e Sedum adolphii. Para cada espécie, os tratamentos foram arranjados em esquema fatorial (3x2), o fator A comparou fertilizante enraizador comercial e duas testemunhas (água e controle); e o fator B, as estacas foliares das espécies foram submetidas a dois ambientes de temperatura e luminosidade (24,8 oC e 449,8 µmol/m2s; 5 oC e 0 µmol/m2s). Avaliou-se aos 30 dias de instalação dos estudos: índice de velocidade de brotação; porcentagem de brotação; comprimento médio das raízes; comprimento médio do broto e massa seca total. O fertilizante beneficia a emissão de brotações e raízes na Echeveria elegans, porém tais efeitos não são verificados na ausência de luminosidade e baixa temperatura (5 oC). Esse ambiente também prejudicou as demais espécies avaliadas. Palavras-chave: Echeveria elegans; Graptosedum Francesco Baldi; Propagação; Sedum adolphii. Emergency of sprouts and roots of suculent species due to the application of rooting fertilizer, in contrasting environments ABSTRACT: The cultivation of succulent plants became popular in Brazil, increasing the need to understand the behavior of species under different conditions. Thus, the aim of this work is to evaluate the influence of plant rooting fertilizer, temperature, and light intensity on the emergence of new shoots and roots for succulent species. Three experiments were conducted from November 2020 to February 2021, in greenhouse, with completely randomized design, with four replications, each study with one species: Echeveria elegans, Graptosedum Francesco Baldi and Sedum adolphii. The treatments for each species were arranged in factorial scheme (3x2), factor A compared commercial plant fertilizer and two checks (water and control); and factor B, the leaf cuttings of the species were submitted to two environments in relation to temperature and light (24.8 oC and 449.8 µmol/m2s; 5 oC and 0 µmol/m2s). It was evaluated at 30 days of installation: sprouting speed index; sprouting percentage; average root length; average sprout length and total dry mass. The fertilizer benefits the emission of shoots and roots in Echeveria elegans, but such effects are not observed for absence of light and low temperature (5 oC). This environment also harmed the other species evaluated. Keywords: Echeveria elegans; Graptosedum Francesco Baldi; Propagation; Sedum adolphii.
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Plants under the genus Orostachys have been known as medicinal plants. This study deems to determine the growth and leaf color of Orostachys japonica and O. boehmeri when subjected to various LED light sources. A total of seven LED light treatments were used, i.e. red (630 nm), green (520 nm), blue (450 nm), purple (650 and 450 nm), 3000 K white (455, 600 nm), 4100 K white (455, 590 nm), and 6500 K white (450, 545 nm) LEDs. Results showed that O. japonica plants showed favorable growth under 4100 K white LED, while O. boehmeri plants had a positive growth response under white light LEDs (3000, 4100, and 6500 K). In leaf color analysis, the use of green LED showed the greatest change in CIELAB L * and b * values which were relatively higher compared to other treatments indicating that leaves turned yellowish. Further statistical analysis using Pearson’s correlation also suggested that there is a small negative association between dry weight and b * values of O. japonica, and a negative moderate association between plant weights (fresh and dry weight) and leaf color (L * and b * ) and positive association between said plant weights and a * color values of O. boehmeri. Therefore, it is recommended to cultivate O. japonica under 4100 K white LED and O. boehmeri under 3000, 4100, 6500 K white LEDs.
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Foliage plants are considered as an integral part of adding aesthetic and functional purposes in public places. Nowadays, various foliage plants are used to decorate and enhance the aesthetics of several government and private establishments which offer and run services non-stop that involve medical/police emergencies, entertainment, and travel. Under these conditions, indoor foliage plants are subjected to continuous lighting conditions. Thus, this study aimed to determine the growth and physiological response of common foliage plants (Hoya carnosa f. variegata, Epipremnum aureum f. variegata, Rhapis excelsa, Hedera helix, Chamaedorea elegans, and Spathiphyllum wallisii) under continuous light conditions with varying light intensity levels (60, 120, and 180 µmol m-2 s-1). Plant responses were evaluated using growth parameters and the chlorophyll fluorescence analysis of the OJIP curve and its specific energy flux parameters. Results showed that foliage plants showed positive growth and increase in mass yield in higher light intensities and had a minor impact on color quality. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis suggested that strong stress responses were evident in low light conditions, whereas in fluorescence parameters, continuous lighting conditions with high light intensities showed stress due to excess light to shade-tolerant plants.
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One of the crucial steps in the development of self-sufficient extra-terrestrial human colonies is water and biomass management. One of the attempts to simplify the treatment scheme is to directly implement greywater into soil-less cultivation as no greywater treatment unit would be necessary. In this case, the most essential key factor is the influence of surfactants. In this paper, an analysis of various experiment designs is investigated and shown. While full factorial design of experiment would require more than 500 000 tests, with duration of at least 30 days each, an approach to reduce this number to a total of 5 experiments is shown in this paper for initial experiments.
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Shading is a key element in the control of light intensity and is usually used during the summer when sunlight is at its most intense. Succulents are ornamental crops that have be extremely popular because of their leaf structure and other characteristics. A study was conducted to determine the effects of shading on the growth and development as well as the anthocyanin content of two Echeveria species: Echeveria agavoides and E. marcus. Three levels of shading were used, namely no shading/full light treatment, partially shaded conditions, and well-shaded conditions, which were achieved by placement inside controlled growing chambers for 4 weeks. The results revealed the bolting of growth in both height and diameter for both species when grown under shaded and partially shaded conditions, which were abnormal compared with the typical development. CIELAB color results also showed that a* was significantly affected by shading levels, exhibiting a higher positive value for succulents under full light or no shading. These results were consistent with the anthocyanin analysis, where the highest contents were identified in the species grown under full light. The image analysis also confirmed a higher percentage area based on the smart segmentation for red pigments compared with that for green pigments.