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Sel ection ofhandaxes,cl eavers and other large cutting tool s f rom G ran D oli na-TD 10.A,Ata' 88 TD 10 J 15,10;B,Ata' 00 TD 10. 1 N19,120;C,Ata' 00 TD 10. 1 J 21,13;D ,Ata' 00 TD 10. 1 L13,6;E,Ata' 03 TD 10. 1 J 10,34;F,Ata' 01 TD 10. 1 N 14,320;G,Ata' 09 TD 10. 2 H 20,82;H ,Ata' 12 TD 10. 2 J 11,1;I,Ata' 12 TD 10. 2. 2 H14,1;J ,Ata' 93 TD 10. 3 I 16,229.

Sel ection ofhandaxes,cl eavers and other large cutting tool s f rom G ran D oli na-TD 10.A,Ata' 88 TD 10 J 15,10;B,Ata' 00 TD 10. 1 N19,120;C,Ata' 00 TD 10. 1 J 21,13;D ,Ata' 00 TD 10. 1 L13,6;E,Ata' 03 TD 10. 1 J 10,34;F,Ata' 01 TD 10. 1 N 14,320;G,Ata' 09 TD 10. 2 H 20,82;H ,Ata' 12 TD 10. 2 J 11,1;I,Ata' 12 TD 10. 2. 2 H14,1;J ,Ata' 93 TD 10. 3 I 16,229.

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In Western Europe, Acheulean cultural evidence is well attested by ca. 0.5 Ma. However, recent work has proven that it was present earlier; at the end of the Early Pleistocene. The timing and mode of the Western European Acheulean needs still to be investigated, and this knowledge appears to be strongly dependent upon data from sites with sufficien...

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... Starting from MIS 9, the coexistence of Late Acheulean and MP technologies is evident. Assemblages with clear Acheulean technological features (large cutting tools) are present on open-air sites in the central Iberian Peninsula until at least MIS 6 (Torralba and different sites located around Madrid : Baena Preysler and Torres Navas, 2019;Méndez-Quintas et al., 2020;Santonja et al., 2016) and in northern areas until MIS 5 (Méndez-Quintas et al., 2019), which is long after the appearance of early MP assemblages (Álvarez Alonso and Arrizabalaga, 2012;Barroso Ruíz et al., 2011;Eixea et al., 2020a;Falguères et al., 2019;Fernández-Peris, 2007;Jiménez-Arenas et al., 2011;Ollé et al., 2016;Santonja et al., 2016;Fig. 10.10). ...
... An intricate analysis of the transition is necessary due to several factors. Firstly, the persistence of Lower Palaeolithic assemblages in the last third of the Middle Pleistocene (Oosterbeek et al., 2010;Yang et al., 2014;Cunha et al., 2017;Mathias et al., 2020;Key et al., 2021) and its variability (Mosquera et al., 2016;Baena et al., 2018;Sharon and Barsky 2016), which may have been responsible for several transitional models Nicoud 2013;Ashton et al., 2016;Moncel and Schreve 2016;Ollé et al., 2016a;de Lombera et al., 2020). In contrast, the EMP does not reflect a technological revolution, but it does add some innovations including a reduction in tool size (Mathias et al., 2020), the generalised use of hafting (Shea 1989;Bardo et al., 2020), and the use of a few new raw materials (Romagnoli et al., 2017). ...
... Secondly, cultural exchanges spawned particular technological variability for each site and region, which gave rise to a wide variety of results (Binford 1979;Dennell et al., 2011;MacDonald et al., 2012;Santonja et al., 2014aSantonja et al., , 2016Romagnoli et al., 2017). Other factors that influenced the degree of variability are numerous, and include: the purpose of the occupation, mobility patterns, the different strategies employed to optimise travel, more or less structured hunting strategies, the risks of predation and seasonality, the abundance or scarcity of edible resources in the local environment, the efficiency of resource provisioning, the nature of the chosen raw material, the skill of the knapper, the time available for knapping, recycling, the purpose of the tools, the stage of manufacture and wear of each lithic assemblage discovered, the cost in time or energy, the margins of error of the dating methods, the degree of disturbance of the assemblages when found, the patterns of land use and the geographical isolation of populations, the intraspecific needs of each group, their increasing complexity and social cohesion (Binford 1979;Houston and McNamara 1985;Kuhn 1995;Shenan 2000;Binford 2001;Baena et al., 2003;Eerkens and Lipo 2005;Fitzhugh 2001;Vaquero and Pastó 2001;Hublin and Roebroeks 2009;Terradillos 2010;Lazuén and González-Urquijo 2015;Romagnoli et al., 2016;Ollé et al., 2016a;Baena et al., 2018;Gallagher et al., 2019;Fernández-Peris et al., 2020;inter alia). ...
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San Quirce is an open‐air archaeological site situated on a fluvial terrace in the Duero basin (Palencia, northern Iberia). This paper presents new and consistent chronologies obtained for the sedimentary sequence using post‐infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (pIR‐IR) dating of K‐feldspars and single‐grain thermally transferred optically stimulated luminescence (TT‐OSL) dating of quartz. The new dating results indicate that the sequence is older than ~200 000 years and place San Quirce Level III within marine isotope stages (MIS) 8 and 7, between 274 ± 13 ka and 238 ± 13 ka. The main lithic assemblage at San Quirce comes from Level III. The predominant tool types found in this level are hammerstones, manuports and flakes, with a small proportion of cores and a significant presence of denticulates. Adaptation to local environmental conditions resulted in distinctive cultural habits, which were embedded in the cultural tradition of hominins occupying the site during the final third of the Middle Pleistocene. San Quirce preserves a simple cultural tradition that was employed by local hominins to engage in a diverse array of activities, and highlights the cultural diversity that appears to have been a characteristic feature of the Lower to Middle Palaeolithic transition 300–200 ka.
... Recent fieldwork and the revision of lithic collections over the past decade have renewed our interpretation of the timing and characteristics of the earliest Acheulean techno-complexes in Western Europe over a large geographical area, extending from Northwest Europe to the Mediterranean coast (i.e., Moncel et al., 2015;;Schreve et al., 2015;Voinchet et al., 2015;Abruzzese et al., 2016;Ollé et al., 2013;Ollé et al., 2016;Moncel and Ashton, 2018). Core-and-flake or Mode 1 assemblages are recorded as early as 1.4 Ma, particularly in Southern Europe, attesting to sporadic occupations mainly under warm and humid conditions, mostly during glacial/ interglacial transition phases (Arzarello et al., 2006;Blain et al., 2021). ...
... Sites seem to be either multi-activity sites (la Noira; Hardy et al., 2018) or specialized sites (possibly scavenging sites at Isernia-La-Pineta (Longo et al., 1997;Pineda et al., 2020). They point either to mobile groups using local raw materials with little evidence of semi-local stone procurement, or less mobile groups with strong ties to a specific place and environment (Gallotti and Peretto, 2015;Mosquera et al., 2015;Ollé et al., 2016). Isotopes of strontium on the human tooth of Isernia-La-Pineta indicate the relatively limited mobility of the corresponding individual (Lugli et al., 2017). ...
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Current data seem to suggest that the earliest hominins only occupied the Northwest of Europe during favourable climatic periods, and left the area when the climate was too cold and dry, in the same way as Neandertal and even Homo sapiens. However, several sites in England and the North of France indicate that the earliest hominins, possibly Homo antecessor and/or Homo heidelbergensis, could adapt to cool environments and open grasslands without the use of fire. Recent discoveries of Acheulean lithic assemblages in early glacial fluvial deposits at Moulin Quignon in the Somme Valley in the Northwest of France reveal new knowledge on the earliest occupations in north-western territories and indicate hominins’ capacity to live above the c. 45th N. under a cold climate. The site shows evidence of occupations at the beginning of MIS 16 at around 650–670 ka. These findings bring to the forefront the possible ability, flexibility and resilience of Acheulean hominins at around 700 ka to extend to northern territories during transitional climatic periods (interglacial/glacial events), even if the climate was not fully favourable. Recent fieldwork has changed our interpretation of the timing and characteristics of the earliest Acheulean techno-complexes in Western Europe over a large geographical area, from Northwest Europe to the Mediterranean coast. In Western Europe, the earliest evidence, Moulin Quignon, is now dated to a narrow timeframe, between 700–650 ka, and is the northernmost evidence of biface production. This latter is earlier than British Acheulean records. Based on new findings at Moulin Quignon, we explore whether Acheulean traditions and associated new technological abilities could have facilitated the dispersal of hominins in Western Europe over large territories, regardless of climatic conditions. Changes in behavioural flexibility, and not only phenotypic changes in Homo groups, have to be investigated. Here, we examine the behavioural and technological abilities of hominins in north-western Europe in light of the available environmental data and compare them to those in southern areas between 700 and 600 ka. This event occurred at the end of the “Middle Pleistocene Transition” (MPT), a period marked by cyclical climate changes and vegetation and faunal turnovers (less competition with big carnivores). The extension of the grassland habitat into higher latitudes could have led to the opening and/or closing of migration corridors in these regions, probably favouring hominin expansion depending on tolerance to climate variability.
... Starting from MIS 9, the coexistence of Late Acheulean and MP technologies is evident. Assemblages with clear Acheulean technological features (large cutting tools) are present on open-air sites in the central Iberian Peninsula until at least MIS 6 (Torralba and different sites located around Madrid: Baena Preysler and Torres Navas, 2019; Méndez-Quintas et al., 2020;Santonja et al., 2016) and in northern areas until MIS 5 (Méndez-Quintas et al., 2019), which is long after the appearance of early MP assemblages (Álvarez Alonso and Arrizabalaga, 2012;Barroso Ruíz et al., 2011;Eixea et al., 2020a;Falguères et al., 2019;Fernández-Peris, 2007;Jiménez-Arenas et al., 2011;Ollé et al., 2016;Santonja et al., 2016;Fig. 10.10). ...
... Starting from MIS 9, the coexistence of Late Acheulean and MP technologies is evident. Assemblages with clear Acheulean technological features (large cutting tools) are present on open-air sites in the central Iberian Peninsula until at least MIS 6 (Torralba and different sites located around Madrid: Baena Preysler and Torres Navas, 2019; Méndez-Quintas et al., 2020;Santonja et al., 2016) and in northern areas until MIS 5 (Méndez-Quintas et al., 2019), which is long after the appearance of early MP assemblages (Álvarez Alonso and Arrizabalaga, 2012;Barroso Ruíz et al., 2011;Eixea et al., 2020a;Falguères et al., 2019;Fernández-Peris, 2007;Jiménez-Arenas et al., 2011;Ollé et al., 2016;Santonja et al., 2016;Fig. 10.10). ...
Chapter
This chapter presents the first collective synthesis of Late Middle Palaeolithic lithic technology (MIS 4–3, ≈ 70-40 ka) from the Altai mountains to the Atlantic coast of Western Europe and the Mediterranean regions of Europe and the Levant. As early as the first half of the twentieth century, archaeological debates focused on characterising and interpreting Mousterian techno-typological variability. In recent decades, new data concerning several specific aspects of this question have modified our understanding of Neanderthal technology in terms of lithic economy. This chapter presents the main characteristics of Late Middle Palaeolithic lithic technologies, raw material management, tool forms and artefact transport patterns. This extensive overview reveals that it is still largely unclear whether spatio-temporal trends in the mosaic of reduction strategies exist, at least during MIS 4–3. Furthermore, disparities in available data from the different geographical areas currently precludes exhaustive inter-regional comparisons and introduces biases for identifying which variables reflect local adaptations or potentially more general trends. Currently, the degree to which lithic assemblage variability, including retouched stone tools, results from adaptations to different factors remains difficult to reliably assess. These factors include environmental constraints and the influence of local contexts, including the characteristics and accessibility of raw materials and the duration of site occupation. Stone tools assemblages may equally reflect specific traditions of certain Neanderthal populations or groups and communities-of-practice. Differences in assemblage composition and tool types most likely result from the combined influences of these aspects in association with subsistence strategies and other ecological factors, as well as social structure and other cognitive and behavioural features. Finally, the possibility that the specific dynamics between different Neanderthal populations and between Neanderthals and other human groups affecting aspects of technology cannot be ruled out.
... Possible Acheulean assemblages have also been noted in caves with different technological features from those recognized in open-air sites. At Atapuerca (Burgos) the complete sequence of Galería (Ollé et al., 2016;García-Medrano et al., 2017) and the upper levels of Gran Dolina (Ollé et al., 2016), as well as minor references at Sima del Elefante (de Lombera-Hermida et al., 2015). Another outstanding site is Gruta da Aroeira in Portugal (Daura et al., 2017 and. ...
... Possible Acheulean assemblages have also been noted in caves with different technological features from those recognized in open-air sites. At Atapuerca (Burgos) the complete sequence of Galería (Ollé et al., 2016;García-Medrano et al., 2017) and the upper levels of Gran Dolina (Ollé et al., 2016), as well as minor references at Sima del Elefante (de Lombera-Hermida et al., 2015). Another outstanding site is Gruta da Aroeira in Portugal (Daura et al., 2017 and. ...
... from top to bottom) displays large concentrations of faunal remains and lithic tools, that correspond to successive occupations in the cave. These assemblages are interpreted as "Mode 3″ and in the case of TD10.1 as a transition between "Mode 2″ and "Mode 3″ or "Late Acheulean" (Ollé et al., 2016), despite being a level stratigraphically above those attributed to "Mode 3". The Gruta da Aroeira assemblage (comparable to TD10.1) is characterized by extensive production of flake tools, with the presence of some handaxes, but without cleavers and other large flake tools, as is also the case in TD10. ...
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In the upper basin of the Guadiana River, especially in the sectors drained by its right-bank tributaries, the Bullaque and Becea rivers, important concentrations of Acheulean and Mousterian industries can be found in a superficial position. These industries have provided series containing tens of thousands of pieces. Deposits in stratigraphic position have also been identified, related to the fluvial terraces of the Guadiana and Jabalón rivers and some tributaries. Within the sector studied, in the province of Ciudad Real, the position of these deposits is related to alluvial fans developed on the slopes of the immediate reliefs. These fans, mainly composed of Lower and Middle Ordovician quartzite gravel, were eroded in their distal positions by the Bullaque and Becea rivers, forming very low terraces on which large concentrations of Acheulean and Mousterian lithic industry can be found. El Sotillo, the only known stratigraphic site in the area, was excavated in 2017–2019 and consists of several levels with Mousterian and Acheulean industry. We present the technological characteristics of the main Acheulean assemblage recognised at this site, for which numerical dates have been obtained placing its chronology in the second half of the Middle Pleistocene. The location of these sites, in surficial position and El Sotillo, allows us to recognise a territorial space with specific geographic characteristics and a very significant human impact.
... Myr) (Casablanca-Morocco) (Raynal et al., 2001). Population hiatuses occurred following the first possible evidence of Acheulean in the Iberian Peninsula (Ollé et al., 2016), located in La Boella (960-781 ka) (Vallverdú et al., 2014). The widespread presence of Acheulean in the second half of the Middle Pleistocene is confirmed in sites such as Galería, Aroeira and the middle fluvial terraces of Atlantic rivers. ...
... According to Mishra et al. (2010), this morphological similarity of the LCTs is due to close relations between populations. Bearing in mind the demographic hiatuses in territories such as the Iberian Peninsula (Ollé et al., 2016), and the extensive time-space of the Acheulean, this uniformity of LCTs would indicate great technological conservatism (Andersson, 2011). ...
... Mosquera et al., 2015;Vallverdú et al., 2014). After La Boella, an occupational hiatus seems to have occurred in the Iberian Peninsula(Ollé et al., 2016). Although there are indications of an old Acheulean in the high fluvial terraces of the Tajo and Guadalquivir rivers (CaroGómez, 2006;Rodríguez del Tembleque et al., 2010), the Acheulean evidence is later than Galería-GIIa (503 ± 95 ka)(Berger et al., 2008;García-Medrano et al., 2014), extending to MIS 5 and without spheroids.The uniformity that the handaxes and cleavers bring to the Acheulean of the Iberian Peninsula masks the behavioural variability of these ...
Article
The Acheulean of the Iberian Peninsula is considered a homogeneous technocomplex within the Large Flake Acheulean (LFA) of northern African origin. In this work, we describe the lithic industry of Santa Ana Cave, interpret the territorial functions of the site and search for its technological parallels. Our results place the lithic industry of Santa Ana within the LFA. This assemblage is characterised by: 1) an association of spheroids and large cutting tools (LCTs), 2) the systematic shaping of handaxes on flakes, and 3) quartz knapping. The lithic industry of Santa Ana is unique in the Iberian Peninsula within a region of broad technological variability masked by the apparent homogeneity derived from the extensive presence of handaxes and cleavers. Outside Africa, the technological features observed in the Santa Ana assemblage have only been documented at a few sites in the eastern Mediterranean, China and India. These features illustrate the homeostasis of the Acheulean technocomplex and the expansion of African groups, including northern African groups, towards the Iberian Peninsula.
... The strikes vary depending on size, placement and chronology (Méndez Quintas, 2017;Stout et al., 2014;Terradillos Bernal, 2010). For this study, handaxes found in the Galería site at Sierra de Atapuerca were used as archaeological references (García-Medrano et al., 2017;Ollé et al., 2016), because the same raw material was utilized. According to Terradillos Bernal (2010), 70 successful strikes are needed to create a Galería handaxe and, therefore, to produce a lithic scatter. ...
Conference Paper
Humans evolved specializations to integrate tools into their cultural, perceptive and cognitive systems. Tools extend cognitive functions beyond the brain and directly improve the range of our cognitive skills. A characteristic of human beings is their hand-eye coordination, associated with a specialized visuospatial system. In fact, parietal lobes, larger and more complex in modern humans, are involved in the management of the relationships between brain, body and environment. Tools activate brain motor regions even during passive viewing. When a tool is touched, it is integrated into the body scheme, expanding the peripersonal space. Recently, different disciplines have adopted an embodied cognition perspective arguing that physical tools should be considered as a functional part of the cognitive network. Vision is the dominant source of sensory information in primates, channelling action and body-environment relationships. We applied eye-tracking technology to investigate visual perception during human interaction with Lower Paleolithic stone tools. We quantified visual attention during a free exploration of stone tools in peripersonal space and during tool physical manipulation. Our results suggest that choppers are usually more explored at the upper region and cortex, while handaxes receive more attention at the base and edges. We can consider whether choppers, displaying a simpler morphology, may require less attention associated with the grasping strategy, while handaxes, with a more complex profile and more grasping and use possibilities, may need a finer exploration of its base. That differences during visual exploration are the same whether or not the tools are physically manipulated, suggesting haptic exploration simply serves visual perception, without influencing the visual exploration scheme. The analysis of visual behaviour associated with these affordances can supply information on the early steps of this brain-body-tool interaction, evidencing common factors as well as type-specific perceptual differences
... The industrial assemblage of the whole site thus unified was then considered as fully representative of the Acheulean techno-complex, and integrated in a continuous sequence within the general framework of the European Acheulean known at the time (Mosquera et al. 1995: 507-524;Carbonell et al. 1999: 344-349). Subsequent studies, which already took into account the recorded materials from TZ in a global way Ollé et al. 2005Ollé et al. , 2013Ollé et al. , 2016García-Medrano et al. 2014, 2017Terradillos-Bernal 2013), have established more detailed conclusions, although always insisting on the evolutionary nature of the industrial sequence, and adopting the established stratigraphic units or subunits (GIIa, GIIb and GIII) as the subject of analysis, despite the fact that each one integrates a variable number of levels that show evident discontinuities . ...
... Tab. 1) and introduced important nuances. The first Acheulean industries of Atapuerca would be recognized in Galería, TD10 and Sima de los Huesos, and would be roughly contemporary, considering the initial reference (Ollé et al. 2016: 316) of the minimum age established for Sima de los Huesos, 427 ± 12 ka 1 . The chronological framework of GII and GIII provided by the latest dates (Tab. 1) placed the archaeological sequence of Galería between c. 363 and c. 220 ka, a time interval that refers to MIS 10-MIS 7, although it can perfectly reach as far as the MIS 11 (424/374 ka). ...
... The chronological framework of GII and GIII provided by the latest dates (Tab. 1) placed the archaeological sequence of Galería between c. 363 and c. 220 ka, a time interval that refers to MIS 10-MIS 7, although it can perfectly reach as far as the MIS 11 (424/374 ka). The most problematic aspect derived from the new chronology for Galería is that its archaeological sequence, considered fully Acheulean, would be more modern than TD10.1-the last dates locate TD10 in the 400/450 ka range (Moreno et al. 2015: 539)-, whose industry was considered as a transition between the Acheulean and the Middle Paleolithic (Ollé et al. 2016). Such interpretation has also been proposed for the industry of GIII, which is the highest stratigraphic unit at Galería (Terradillos-Bernal and Díez 2012). ...
Article
La industria lítica del yacimiento de Galería (complejo de Atapuerca, Burgos), datado en la segunda mitad del Pleistoceno Medio, ha sido interpretada como uno de los más notables conjuntos del tecnocomplejo achelense que se conocen en la península ibérica y en el sur de Europa. Se ha estimado que su prolongada secuencia estratigráfica permitiría observar la evolución del Achelense en la segunda mitad del Pleistoceno Medio. Esta propuesta ha sido objeto por nuestra parte de una revisión reciente, en la que se destaca el carácter discontinuo de la estratigrafía de Galería y se valora negativamente la posibilidad de establecer cualquier tipo de secuencia arqueológica basada en el limitado registro que contiene. A partir del análisis nivel por nivel de la representatividad de la industria lítica publicada, se discutía además en ese trabajo la atribución exclusiva al tecnocomplejo achelense de los conjuntos arqueológicos de Galería. Con objeto de valorar en profundidad la atribución achelense y de contrastar la consistencia de las tendencias evolutivas que han sido propuestas para este tecnocomplejo a través de la estratigrafía de Galería, presentamos aquí un estudio detallado de todos los artefactos interpretados en publicaciones precedentes como LCT (bifaces, hendedores y otros macro-útiles). Este trabajo, complementario de nuestra revisión anterior, se ha efectuado sobre las colecciones obtenidas en las campañas realizadas en Galería en 1982-1996, actualmente depositadas en el CENIEH y en el Museo de la Evolución Humana (Burgos). Las conclusiones alcanzadas corroboran la débil y discontinua presencia de elementos achelenses característicos en este yacimiento, descartando la posibilidad de llegar a reconocer cualquier tipo de secuencia evolutiva en estos materiales. Nuestra principal conclusión es que las interpretaciones que proponen ver en la industria de Galería una secuencia representativa del Achelense europeo con una evolución progresiva, carecen de fundamento.
... The strikes vary depending on size, placement and chronology (Méndez Quintas, 2017;Stout et al., 2014;Terradillos Bernal, 2010). For this study, handaxes found in the Galería site at Sierra de Atapuerca were used as archaeological references (García-Medrano et al., 2017;Ollé et al., 2016), because the same raw material was utilized. According to Terradillos Bernal (2010), 70 successful strikes are needed to create a Galería handaxe and, therefore, to produce a lithic scatter. ...
Article
In situ archaeological assemblages are scarce. Most artefacts are affected by post-depositional processes, which complicate the identification of human factors involved in the formation of lithic workshops, such as hand laterality, knapping positions, and knapping expertise. In this regard, experimental archaeology can reproduce past processes to test present hypotheses. In this study, experimental knapping processes were carried out to examine how techniques and methods learned by experience can affect waste flake assemblages. Our results show that, in addition to knapping position, experience affects both flake measurements and spatial distribution. The techniques applied, the knappers’ skill and the control of the application of force all affect spatial flake distribution. However, flakes do not exhibit any preferential orientation, contrary to those affected by some post-depositional factors. The experimental design and results could contribute to the ability to discern Palaeolithic in situ assemblages as well as some human factors that affect their formations.