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Security levels of IoT architecture

Security levels of IoT architecture

Source publication
Conference Paper
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High/ultra-high speed data connections are currently being developed, and by the year 2020, it is expected that the 5th generation networking (5GN) should be much smarter. It would provide great quality of service (QoS) due to low latency, less implementation cost and high efficiency in data processing. These networks could be either a point-to-poi...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... key features of an IoT prototype are the sensors which collect data, the edge which offers an entry point to the core network, the fog which is a supportive construction to process edge data, and lastly, the cloud which manages data distribution and storage. A comprehensive diagram for IoT security levels is shown in Fig. 1. The whole architecture operates integrated with different technologies and network protocols, i.e., near field communication (NFC), low energy Bluetooth, ZigBee, wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) direct, etc. There are tremendous advantages of using IoT sensors in a smart city environment, but security and privacy concerns are enormously ...
Context 2
... Security assurance of the whole four-layer IoT architecture, shown in Fig. ...
Context 3
... key features of an IoT prototype are the sensors which collect data, the edge which offers an entry point to the core network, the fog which is a supportive construction to process edge data, and lastly, the cloud which manages data distribution and storage. A comprehensive diagram for IoT security levels is shown in Fig. 1. The whole architecture operates integrated with different technologies and network protocols, i.e., near field communication (NFC), low energy Bluetooth, ZigBee, wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) direct, etc. There are tremendous advantages of using IoT sensors in a smart city environment, but security and privacy concerns are enor- mously ...
Context 4
... Security assurance of the whole four-layer IoT architec- ture, shown in Fig. ...

Citations

... Gunathilake et al. [25] described state-of-the-art Lightweight Cryptography (LWC) and how it can improve the security and privacy of IoT devices with low processing, battery, and memory resources. First, it classifies LWC in terms of lightweight block ciphers, lightweight stream ciphers, lightweight hashes, high performance systems, and low-resource devices (similar to the primitives in Singh's paper [23]). ...
... • Within the LoRa physical layer specification, LoRaWAN uses different ISM bands depending on the geographic region. In North America, LoRa uses 72 uplink channels and eight downlink channels in the 902-928 MHz ISM band [25]. The channels are modulated using Chirp-Spread Spectrum (CSS) with multiple Spreading Factors (SF). ...
Article
Full-text available
The Internet of Things (IoT) allows users to collect sensor data, control devices, and analyze collected data over the Internet. IoT devices are located in diverse environments and support many applications. To protect IoT systems from cyber threats, Confidentiality, Integrity, and Authentication—the CIA triad—must be supported. However, IoT devices have limited energy and computational resources. Lightweight encryption algorithms have been proposed for IoT, and have been reviewed by previous studies. Some cover communication protocols, while others cover lightweight security or review the challenges in implementing a secure IoT system. The aim of this literature review is to combine the first two topics: communication protocols and lightweight security. They will be approached from a practitioner’s standpoint. Several applications are provided that help readers with a minor background in security to understand these technologies and which elements of the CIA triad have more priority. This paper describes wide-area IoT networks, such as LoRAWAN, Sigfox, and NB-IoT, and their security. It also describes applications throughout the world, and how to enhance their security by implementing emerging lightweight security—specifically, approaches to make well-known ciphers such as Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) more lightweight.
... After studying these researches, we categorized them into two groups. The first group, including [40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52], reviewed LWC and defined its essential requirements. The second group discusses AES versions that are proposed to be compatible with LWC requirements [53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65]. Figure 3.1 presents the flow of literature review. ...
... Gunathilake et al. [46] discussed the future applications of LWC, how to implement it, and the challenges it faces. The study also touched on the existing LWC algorithms previously mentioned in our research and confirmed the effectiveness of the modified AES algorithm in this field. ...
... To carry off this attack successfully, the rogue node or attacker must operate from a variety of distinct places. The analytics 3 indicates that legitimate or authentic systems are unable to communicate in the network due to multidirectional congestion or blockage [14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Communication between machines has become commonplace in recent years, and the Internet of Things (IoT) is gaining notoriety. Congestion control is a prevalent issue in the transportation system, and GPS devices, which drivers and traffic authorities alike utilise, are well-suited to the job. Traffic density is expanding at an alarming rate, making it impossible for drivers to see and handle all of the possible scenarios in a traffic area they are ready to enter. It's also becoming increasingly difficult to maintain security and integrity due to a growing number of assaults by hackers that send harmful code or bogus packets. There are a few new technologies that have yet to be put into practise under the Internet of Things umbrella, including ubiquitous computing (IoT).
... This paper leads to propose a new 32-bit LWC that empowers the IoT environment for data security. Gunathilake et al. [2019] reported the application and challenges in implementing the nextgeneration Light-Weight Cipher (LWC) towards IoT devices. This research presented the overview of security standards on Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) concerning confidentiality, integrity, and authentication. ...
Article
Full-text available
Internet-of-Things (IoT) offers a novel intelligent ecosystem that consists of various physical objects interconnected via the internet, which draws the attention of researchers, academicians, and industrialists. Various physical objects are embedded systems that perform dedicated operations that include sensing, monitoring, and controls. Such connectivity of embedded system devices over the internet creates an intelligent mesh worldwide and makes city, industry, and human life entirely automated and intelligent. However, the existing embedded system with radio modules is battery operated, referred to as a low-resourced device. Further, it is expected that the device should consume less operational power. Tiny size devices are offering less memory which creates a resource-constrained environment. An efficient hardware implementation of security algorithms is challenging in a constrained environment that satisfies all performance metrics. Standard internet connectivity of all devices with new wireless paradigms (e.g. ZigBee, LoRa, Wi-Fi, SigFox, etc.) essentially needs to be scrutinized for secured data communication and other security flaws. The universal connection allows an adversary to access secured technology via vulnerable systems. Many researchers are analyzing IoT technologies in every possible aspect to provide an economically secured solution. Importing software-tested encryption standards on hardware with efficient results can produce reliable IoT nodes. In this paper, we present the overview of IoT infrastructure with supporting data communication protocols. Also, we discussed essential cryptographic design rationale to minimize overall structure with the importance of metrics. Environmental and implementation based challenges, trade-off, and importance of cryptography towards the development of secured IoT node with Light-Weight Cipher (LWC) ANU and PRESENT proof-of-concept for generic application is provided in this research.
... The interaction of human-to-human or human-to-computer is not a necessity. The transmission covers four levels: device, edge, fog and cloud, as shown in Fig.1 [7]. The device layer contains sensor nodes. ...
... Blockchain and lightweight cryptography [6,7] are the major mechanisms in IoT security. The following formula is used to measure cybersecurity risk [17]; ...
Book
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Through the technical advancements over five generations, today’s digital communication has become much smarter, more intelligent and punctual. This causes a massive amount of continuous data collection in real-time whose analytics are later used to make useful insights, i.e. prevention of road accidents using vehicular communication applications, fault detection in industrial machineries, etc.. The means of information reception is usually via sensors. This inter-connectivity of communicating things is basically known as Internet of Things (IoT) which will become a wide-spread infrastructure of next-generation networking. The devices used in the IoT are physically small and resource-constrained, i.e. low-end processors, small internal capacities, etc. Also, those are operated in small data rates, usually in kbps. Thus, it is unable to adopt conventional security mechanisms which require high-end computational processing. Meanwhile, the low-energy consumption of these networks conducive for green networking requirements offeres the planet a sustainable atmosphere. Due to the wide ranging nature of the subject, existing literature studies often focus on a narrowed-down area. This survey identifies up-to-date information on all IoT-related topics, i.e. technologies, standardisation, liability, regulations, security, etc. This will provide a useful reference for beginners in the field for quick overall comprehension.
... First, the CPU in IoT devices is minimal and cannot compute complex algorithms [11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. Second, the power consumption of the security algorithm should be low since most IoT devices are battery-powered [12,[14][15][16][18][19][20][21][22]. Third, simple sensors are connected to cover a large physical network [18,20]. ...
... Most of these algorithms consume more energy while operating. For example, AES uses 2.9 kB of flash and 1.2 kB of RAM [21]. Researchers have compared several WSN sensor motes and found that resourceconstrained devices have as low as 2 kilobytes (kB) and 1 kB of Random Access Memory (RAM) and Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM), respectively [21]. ...
... For example, AES uses 2.9 kB of flash and 1.2 kB of RAM [21]. Researchers have compared several WSN sensor motes and found that resourceconstrained devices have as low as 2 kilobytes (kB) and 1 kB of Random Access Memory (RAM) and Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM), respectively [21]. Such sensors cannot use the resource-consuming conventional security approaches [26,27]. ...
Article
With the advent of advanced technology, the IoT has made possible the connection of numerous devices that can collect vast volumes of data. Hence, the demands of IoT security is paramount. Cryptography is being used to secure the authentication, confidentiality, data integrity and access control of networks. However, due to the many constraints of IoT devices, traditional cryptographic protocols are no longer suited to all IoT environments, such as the smart city. As a result, researchers have been proposing various lightweight cryptographic algorithms and protocols to secure data on IoT networks. This paper discusses state-of-the-art lightweight cryptographic protocols for IoT networks and presents a comparative analysis of popular contemporary ciphers. In doing so, it has classified the most current algorithms into two parts: symmetric and asymmetric lightweight cryptography. Additionally, we evaluate several recently developed block cipher and stream cipher algorithms in terms of their security. In the final section of this paper, we address the changes that need to be made and suggest future research topics.
... The latter one is more preferred. Lightweight computations [40] can rely on symmetric and asymmetric key cryptography; however, binary calculations through XOR are the lightest operation that can be put into use. But standalone XOR does not ensure the accomplishment of all the security properties like key management, digital signatures, etc. ...
Thesis
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• Research Area: The Internet of Things (IoT) technology has emerged as the leader in simplifying lives. The IoT is rapidly adopted by the various industries for faster data accessibility and control of machines remotely by managers. Likewise, smart cities use IoT to optimize operations across the city such as waste and traffic management, water supply management, and pollution monitoring, etc. • Research Problem: Although IoT is beneficial but dangerous as the nodes communicate over the unsecured public networks. These public networks opened enormous ways for the illegitimate nodes to access the information and take control over the IoT networks despite being physically away. Moreover, in several applications, as there is no infrastructure available, an attacker can counterfeit devices to control the IoT network, and/or to collect the individuals’ data over the public network. In addition, collecting individual’s data can pose a serious privacy threat for the users. These threats can be thwarted by verifying the authenticity of the nodes before establishing a session, and secret key negotiation. But the challenge lies in designing a mutual authentication and secret key exchange protocol with less computation and communication complexities for resource-constrained IoT networks while ensuring security and privacy in all aspects. • Research Approach: The research carried out intends to protect the wireless networks from adversarial threats. We have proposed 3 robust and lightweight mutual authentication and key agreement protocols for diverse applications of IoT. The protocols used Elliptic Curve Qu-Vanstone (ECQV) based implicit certificates, commit/open pair, Diffie Hellman key exchange algorithm, and lightweight cryptography primitives such as hash, XOR, etc. • Research Findings: The messages exchanged in all the 3 proposed protocols are secured to prevent unauthorized access to information. Further, the protocols are resistant to forgery, modification, impersonation, and man-in-the-middle attacks, etc. The accomplishment of the security goals (i.e., secrecy, authentication, and message freshness) of the proposed protocols have been proven through formal (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA), Burrows–Abadi–Needham logic) and informal analysis. We have demonstrated through the performance evaluation that proposed protocols have less computation complexities due to the utilization of light weight cryptography operations. • Research Implications: The investigation revealed the superiority of proposed protocols over conventional protocols in terms of efficiency and robustness. Consequently, the recommended protocols are the most suitable alternatives to the existing protocols to secure the resource-constrained applications of IoT.
... As mentioned before, traditional encryption methods can be energy intensive. Hence, Lightweight Cryptography (LWC) with smaller keys sizes and energyawareness must be used in UAV swarm environments [33]. This feature is related to secure routing since the packet must be signed to fulfill the non-repudiation requirement. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
UAVs are increasingly appearing in swarms or formations to leverage cooperative behavior, forming flying ad hoc networks. These UAV-enabled networks can meet several complex mission requirements and are seen as a potential enabler for many of the emerging use-cases in future communication networks. Such networks, however, are characterized by a highly dynamic and mobile environment with no guarantee of a central network infrastructure which can cause both connectivity and security issues. While wireless mesh networks are envisioned as a solution for such scenarios, these networks come with their own challenges and security vulnerabilities. In this paper, we analyze the key security and resilience issues resulting from the application of wireless mesh networks within UAV swarms. Specifically, we highlight the main challenges of applying current mesh technologies within the domain of UAV swarms and expose existing vulnerabilities across the communication stack. Based on this analysis, we present a security-focused architecture for UAV mesh communications. Finally, from the identification of these vulnerabilities, we discuss research opportunities posed by the unique challenges of UAV swarm connectivity.
... As mentioned before, traditional encryption methods can be energy intensive. Hence, Lightweight Cryptography (LWC) with smaller keys sizes and energyawareness must be used in UAV swarm environments [33]. This feature is related to secure routing since the packet must be signed to fulfill the non-repudiation requirement. ...
... However, conventional cryptographic systems are complex and use high computational power, making them not suitable for resource-constraint devices within the IoT environment (18). Due to the limitations in the IoT resource-constraint devices, there is a need for lightweight cryptography (LWC) to address the issue (19). Generally, cryptography is a study of data encoding and decoding using logical and mathematical principles to protect the secrecy of information (20,21). ...
... One hundred and seventeen authors authored the forty-one review studies with 111 unique authors. Authors like Biryukov, Beheshti, Manifavas, Hatzivasilis, Fysarakis and Asif had their names on two documents (19,27,32,35,40,45,49). Further, this study analyzed the country of the first author of the selected review studies. ...
Article
Full-text available
The efforts in designing and developing lightweight cryptography (LWC) started a decade ago. Many scholarly studies in literature report the enhancement of conventional cryptographic algorithms and the development of new algorithms. This significant number of studies resulted in the rise of many review studies on LWC in IoT. Due to the vast number of review studies on LWC in IoT, it is not known what the studies cover and how extensive the review studies are. Therefore, this article aimed to bridge the gap in the review studies by conducting a systematic scoping study. It analyzed the existing review articles on LWC in IoT to discover the extensiveness of the reviews and the topics covered. The results of the study suggested that many review studies are classified as overview-types of review focusing on generic LWC. Further, the topics of the reviews mainly focused on symmetric block cryptography, while limited reviews were found on asymmetric-key and hash in LWC. The outcomes of this study revealed that the reviews in LWC in IoT are still in their premature stage and researchers are encouraged to explore by conducting review studies in the less-attended areas. An extensive review of studies that cover these two topics is deemed necessary to establish a balance of scholarly works in LWC for IoT and encourage more empirical research in the area.