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Industrial control systems control and supervise our most important and critical infrastructures, such as power utilities, clean water plants and nuclear plants, as well as the manufacturing industries at the base of our economy. These systems are currently undergoing a transformation driven by the Industry 4.0 evolution, characterized by increased...

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... attacker is to perform actions or read data from other devices in the system, without raising alarms related to failed access control requests. This quite closely describes the desired operations of an Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) [8]. A high-level network architecture with a target device and four different attack scenarios is depicted in Fig. 1. The device, denoted as A.D1, is the intended attack target in all scenarios. The network is segmented into two logical groups, A and B. The scenarios are based on different points from which the attacks are launched, and are denoted Scenario 1 -Scenario 4 (S1-S4). At the time of the attack there is a running workflow, described by a ...
Context 2
... a simplified model of the SFC is used, assuming that an SFC has a starting step; each step contains a set of zero or more operations, and a step has zero or more immediate successor steps. Each operation of an SFC step is directed at a target module. In relation to the defined attack scenarios, an SFC could be the workflow scheme depicted in Fig. ...

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... With the advancement of information and communication technology, efforts to actively establish a smart work environment in various domestic industries, such as the hospitality industry, have increased, and these systems contribute to energy conservation through various effective programs to achieve optimal system performance and aid in the process of operation and maintenance (Leander et al., 2021;Abdel-Karim, 2021). ...
... Access control and control systems such as fingerprint systems, eye retardation, and face pattern are used to determine entry to the building and internal spaces (Abdelmoaty & Soliman, 2020). It also provides flexibility and ease of management of the spaces via the access control points (Leander et al., 2021). Identity verification systems, such as passwords or magnetic cards, are used to determine whether a person has access to a location, and it also allows for video recording (Abdelmoaty & Soliman, 2020). ...
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Smart technology has become very important in the hospitality industry. The interest in the role of digitization in the management of hotels is a turning point for the importance of smart technology applications. Moreover, smart services improve employees’ performance by providing insight into processes and tasks or by providing new flexibility. The current study aims to explore the impact of smart services on the effectiveness and efficiency of employees' performance in hotels. This study used the descriptive approach with a questionnaire for a cluster sample of hotel employees in three, four, and five-star hotels in the cities of Hurghada, Elgouna, and Safaga during the period (November 2021 to February 2022). A total of 380 questionnaire forms were distributed to hotel employees. The results reveal that actual practices of smart services affect the effectiveness of employees’ performance by 81.1%. Moreover, it affects the efficiency of employees’ performance by 76.5%. According to the current study, hotel management should hire trained and qualified employees, invest in comprehensive infrastructure improvements, and keep up to date on technological advances in the field of artificial intelligence.
... With the advancement of information and communication technology, efforts to actively establish a smart work environment in various domestic industries, such as the hospitality industry, have increased, and these systems contribute to energy conservation through various effective programs to achieve optimal system performance and aid in the process of operation and maintenance (Leander et al., 2021;Abdel-Karim, 2021). ...
... Access control and control systems such as fingerprint systems, eye retardation, and face pattern are used to determine entry to the building and internal spaces (Abdelmoaty & Soliman, 2020). It also provides flexibility and ease of management of the spaces via the access control points (Leander et al., 2021). Identity verification systems, such as passwords or magnetic cards, are used to determine whether a person has access to a location, and it also allows for video recording (Abdelmoaty & Soliman, 2020). ...
... • Research -The simulation of a realistic system can be used to conduct research in different research areas, including cybersecurity for manufacturing systems, such as the development and evaluation of access control mechanisms [19] and AI-based anomaly detection. For example, in the system described in Section III, anomalies can be injected into different layers, and different cyberattacks can be simulated to assess the impact on the physical process and to evaluate the effectiveness of the implemented mechanisms. ...
Conference Paper
When developing products or performing experimental research studies, the simulation of physical or logical systems is of great importance for evaluation and verification purposes. For research-, and development-related distributed control systems, there is a need to simulate common physical environments with separate interconnected modules independently controlled, and orchestrated using standardized network communication protocols. The simulation environment presented in this paper is a bespoke solution precisely for these conditions, based on the Modular Automation design strategy. It allows easy configuration and combination of simple modules into complex production processes , with support for individual low-level control of modules, as well as recipe-orchestration for high-level coordination. The use of the environment is exemplified in a configuration of a modular ice-cream factory, used for cybersecurity-related research.
... The necessity of cybersecurity continues to expand as the number of people, devices and programs in the modern company grow, along with the rising deluge of data, most of which is sensitive or confidential. The problem is exacerbated by the increasing number and sophistication of cyber attackers and attack strategies (Buldakova, 2020;Leander et al., 2021). The necessity of cybersecurity continues to expand as the number of people, devices and programs in the modern company grow, along with the rising deluge of data, most of which is sensitive or confidential. ...
Article
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... Therefore, in an industrial network, IIoT distinguishes manufacturing devices from consumer devices, describing M2M communication. This feature provides high-quality connectivity and messaging, and inter-operable interactions between machines, where access control has paramount significance [108,109]. Some benefits of Industry 4.0 and IIoT are complex task sharing, decision making based on collected data, and remote access to machinery. ...
Article
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