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Scheme of development of the Ponto-Caspian basins during the Late Pleistocene under global climate change: A e Interglacial epoch (MIS 5, Mikulino interglacial on the East-European Plain): the Karangat transgression of the Pont (with ingression in the Manych valley) and the Late Khazar transgressive stage of the Caspian (isolated basin). B e Transitional epoch from interglacial (MIS 5) to glacial (MIS 4) epochs: beginning of the Karangat regression of the Pont and Girkan transgressive stage of the Caspian; Girkan passage of the Manych. C e Early stage of the glacial epoch (MIS 4, Early Valdai glaciations on the East-European Plain), glacial maximum: Post-Karangat regression of the Pont and Atel regression of the Caspian Sea. D e Interstadial warming (MIS 3, Bryansk interstadial on the East-European Plain), glacial degradation: Surozh basin of the Pont and beginning of the Early Khvalynian transgression of the Caspian Sea. E À Late stage of the glacial epoch (MIS 2, Late Valdai glaciations on the East-European Plain), glacial maximum: the New Euxinian regression of the Pont and regressive stage (Elton?) of the Early Khvalynian basin. F e Degradation of glaciations (MIS 2): the New Euxinian transgression of the Pont and maximal stage of the Early Khvalynian transgression of the Caspian Sea. G e Glacial degradation (MIS 2) e beginning of post-glacial epoch (MIS 1): the New Euxinian transgression of the Pont and Late Khvalynian transgression of the Caspian Sea. H e Beginning of the Interglacial epoch of the Holocene (MIS 1): beginning of the Black Sea transgression of the Pont and the Mangyshlak regression of the Caspian Sea. 

Scheme of development of the Ponto-Caspian basins during the Late Pleistocene under global climate change: A e Interglacial epoch (MIS 5, Mikulino interglacial on the East-European Plain): the Karangat transgression of the Pont (with ingression in the Manych valley) and the Late Khazar transgressive stage of the Caspian (isolated basin). B e Transitional epoch from interglacial (MIS 5) to glacial (MIS 4) epochs: beginning of the Karangat regression of the Pont and Girkan transgressive stage of the Caspian; Girkan passage of the Manych. C e Early stage of the glacial epoch (MIS 4, Early Valdai glaciations on the East-European Plain), glacial maximum: Post-Karangat regression of the Pont and Atel regression of the Caspian Sea. D e Interstadial warming (MIS 3, Bryansk interstadial on the East-European Plain), glacial degradation: Surozh basin of the Pont and beginning of the Early Khvalynian transgression of the Caspian Sea. E À Late stage of the glacial epoch (MIS 2, Late Valdai glaciations on the East-European Plain), glacial maximum: the New Euxinian regression of the Pont and regressive stage (Elton?) of the Early Khvalynian basin. F e Degradation of glaciations (MIS 2): the New Euxinian transgression of the Pont and maximal stage of the Early Khvalynian transgression of the Caspian Sea. G e Glacial degradation (MIS 2) e beginning of post-glacial epoch (MIS 1): the New Euxinian transgression of the Pont and Late Khvalynian transgression of the Caspian Sea. H e Beginning of the Interglacial epoch of the Holocene (MIS 1): beginning of the Black Sea transgression of the Pont and the Mangyshlak regression of the Caspian Sea. 

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Evolution of the Caspian and Black Sea (Pont) Basins environments was analyzed in comparison, and both general and specific features of their development under multi-scale and multi-directional changes of climate during the Late Pleistocene were identified. The cold extensive transgressions of the Caspian Sea and the transgressions of the Caspian t...

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... transgressions salinities were notably high. Salinity maxima in the Pontian were much higher as a result of the marine ingressions during the Karangat, and the basin experienced marine, semi-marine, as well as enclosed brackish conditions. Late Pleistocene salinity fl uctuations were possibly as high as 30 & . The successive Caspian lake stages were inhabited by species and genera of the Caspian autochthonous brackish complex. Didacna species in the Caspian basin underwent very rapid speciation and high turnover rates. Species diversity increased with a diversi fi cation of habitat types in the Caspian subbasins. Different faunal types (Mediterranean as well impoverished Pontocaspian faunas) inhabited the Pontian Basin in successive stages. Faunal turnover was as profound as in the Caspian Sea, but the diversity and turnover in the Pontocaspian fauna of the Pontian basin was less dramatic owing to the more uniform character of the entire basin, that did not stimulate speciation. The biodiversity of Caspian faunas was de fi ned by variability of conditions in the basin. The shallow nature of the Northern Caspian and variation of Volga input created dynamic and very variable habitats. Biodiversity in the Pontian basin depended on either in- vasions of Caspian taxa or of Mediterranean marine taxa. The highest species richness occurred during the Karangat stage. Within the Caspian Basin, transgressions occurred in cold climate conditions (such as the extensive Early Khvalynian transgression) and in warm climate conditions (such as the relatively small Late Khazar transgression). In their late stages, climate of the cold transgressions became warmer and that of warm transgression became colder. Transgressions in warm episodes correspond to high salinities, whereas transgression in colder episodes produced lowered salinities. The marine transgressions in the Pontian Basin (Karangat in the Late Pleistocene and Black Sea in the Holocene) occurred in warm interglacial times. Caspian type of lake-seas in the Pontian Basin developed during cold climate intervals. The most severe regressions occurred during the coldest episodes. The episodic Manych Passage between the Caspian and Pontian basins is a unique passageway in fl uencing the paleogeography of the region. The elevation of this passageway set the upper boundary of transgressions in the Caspian Basin, especially in cold intervals. Intermittent over fl ow must have deprived the Caspian Sea of salt and depressed salinities and at the same time contrib- uted to the salt balance in the Pontian lakes. The Manych area acted as a threshold for marine ingressions from the Pontian Basin during interglacial periods. The intake of the Caspian waters increased water volume in the Pontian Basin, modifying hydrological, hydrochemical, and ecological conditions. The paleogeographical conditions of the Caspian and Pontian basins were in many respects de fi ned by the degree of their isolation. The in fl uence of global climate change on their development is very different in both basins. The global climatic events of the Late Pleistocene, caused by cyclic changes of the Earth orbital elements, in turn caused variations of insolation resulting in the warm interglacial epoch (MIS 5 or MIS 5e, according to representations of different researchers) and the complex cold glacial epoch (MIS 4-2 or MIS 5d-2). In different latitudes and regions, glacial and interglacial intervals were expressed differently. In the Ponto-Caspian region, they were re fl ected by an alternation of the transgressions and regressions. On the East-European plains and in adjacent mountain areas, they were expressed in the advance and retreat of glaciers that also impacted the evolution of the Ponto-Caspian basins. The beginning of the Late Pleistocene was characterized by the warm epoch (MIS 5: Eemian or Mikulino interglacial in Eastern Europe). Debate exists about the age limits and duration of interglacial conditions. The age of the Mikulino interglacial is estimated at 100 e 70 ka (Zarrina and Krasnov, 1983), 128 e 116 ka (Spiridonova, 1991; Arslanov, 1992), 140 e 100 ka (Paleoclimates, 2009); and 140 e 70 ka (Bolikhovskaya and Molodkov, 1999). For the territory of Belarus it is 130 e 90 ka (Yelovicheva and Sanko, 1999), for Ukraine 130 e 107 ka (Gerasimenko, 2001). According to some researchers (Mangerud et al., 2004; Svendsen et al., 2004; Brauer et al., 2007; Brewer et al., 2008; Orombelli et al., 2010) truly interglacial conditions existed only brie fl y during isotope substage 5e with the warmest period about 125 ka. The Mikulino interglacial consists of three thermal maxima. The oldest corresponds to isotope substage 5 f (Bolikhovskaya and Molodkov, 1999, 2008; Molodkov and Bolikhovskaya, 2009). The younger two correspond to substages MIS 5c and MIS 5a. The warm episodes were intervened by two cold periods (endothermals). Reconstructions of the paleogeographical events in the Ponto- Caspian region (Fig. 3) shows that during the warm interglacial epoch at the beginning of the Late Pleistocene (cf MIS 5e) the Caspian Sea experienced regressive conditions. During the early endothermal (cf MIS 5d) the early stage of the Late Khazar transgression developed when climate conditions became somewhat colder and humid. The Late Khazar lake was relatively warm and lake levels reached À 10 m. In the Pontian Basin, MIS 5e corresponds to Karangat transgression when full marine conditions developed and sea levels were highest as a result of connection with the Mediterranean and world oceans. The transgression reached the Manych threshold. Regression of the Early Late Khazar lake developed under warm and dry conditions that possibly correspond to MIS 5c. During the second endothermal and climate cold interval (cf MIS 5b), the second Late Khazar transgressive stage (Girkan) developed. During that time the Girkan lake penetrated deeply into the Manych area from the east, forming an extensive estuary in the Pre-Manych area. In the Pontian Basin, the Karangat transgression continued its development. The succession of Late Pleistocene deposits of the Manych depression with alternating deposits containing Karangat and Late Khazar mollusc faunas indicates the synchronous existence but asynchronous development of both systems. The warm- water Late Khazar lake-sea and Karangat sea co-existed in the Ponto-Caspian region during the entire MIS 5 interglacial, showing that the Mikulino interglacial was a relatively long epoch with a complex structure. At the beginning of MIS 4, the Karangat sea level dropped, coinciding with the global ocean level drops. The Caspian waters of the Girkan transgression ingressed in the Manych valley and at the same time Karangat waters withdrew into the Pontian basin. The regressive trend of the Karangat Sea was complicated by over fl ow of Girkan waters through the Tarkhankut basin. The nature, extent, and regional variability of the cold Weich- selian or Valdai epoch (MIS 4-2 or MIS 5d-2) on the East European plains are debated. The epoch was predominantly characterized by cold continental climate and complex succession of climate conditions and regional variability. The number of glaciations and their extents are still not completely understood (Velichko, 1991; Velichko et al., 1999; Mangerud et al., 2004; Svendsen et al., 2004; Sudakova, 2005; Paleoclimates, 2009; Shik, 2010; Rychagov et al., 2012). Palynological data indicate the presence of two early Valdai and three middle Valdai interstadial intervals and fi ve cold stadial intervals (Bolikhovskaya and Molodkov, 2008). During the cold maximum of the interval MIS 4 when regional climate was cold and arid, a regression developed in lake Girkan in the Caspian Basin, the Akhtuba-Atel regression. The development of periglacial continental conditions is shown by deep ice wedges in the basis of the Akhtuba sediments and periglacial spores and pollen in these deposits. A succession of colder and warmer periods (a stadial-interstadial alternation) is shown by successive podzol horizons in the Atel deposits. Synchronously with the Akhtuba-Atel deposits in the Caspian Basin, thick lake deposits developed in the freshwater lake Burtass in the Manych depression. These lake deposits contain pollen of cold plant taxa, and four paleosol horizons are found. At the same time in the Pontian Basin, the very deep Post-Karangat regression developed and connection with the Mediterranean was completely lost. The slightly warmer conditions of MIS 3 resulted in increasing precipitation and river activity in the East-European plain and simultaneous reduction of evaporation over the lake basins. The water balance became positive, resulting in transgressions in the Caspian Basin (the fi rst phase of the Early Khvalynian transgression), and in the Pontian Basin (the Surozh moderately warm- water basin). The upper part of the terrestrial Atel deposits also corresponds to this time interval. During the ultimate glacial interval (MIS 2), the Late Valdai glaciation developed. During the Late Glacial Maximum (LGM), the deep New Euxinian regression developed. An almost freshwater lake occupied the Black Sea Basin. In the isolated Caspian Basin under cold conditions, the Early Khvalynian transgression further developed. The general transgressive trend was interrupted though during the LGM. Permafrost existed around the northern Caspian coasts. Average annual temperatures decreased to À 10 to -5 p S in the southern areas of Europe (Paleoclimates, 2009). The climate conditions resulted into a negative water balance of the Khvalynian Lake-Sea, causing sea level drop. Climate modeling shows similar negative water balance at the time (Kislov and Toropov, 2006, 2007; Kislov, 2010). The Early Khvalynian transgression resumed during deglacia- tion after the LGM. Transgression of the Caspian type began in the New Euxinian basin: however, its levels remained low because of dumping ...

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... The increase in the rate of loess accumulation at certain stages could also be associated with regressions of the Caspian Sea level, when huge massifs of loose sandy-clay substrate, easily accessible for deflation, were released. One of the indirect indicators of the inf luence of the Caspian Sea transgressiveregressive cycles (Yanina, 2014) on the balance of loess accumulation in Ciscaucasia can be the high variability of sand fraction content in OT-20 core. It is probably caused by the fluctuation of the Caspian Sea, but this statement needs more evidence. ...
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The problem of the source of mineral dust, which makes up the loess-paleosol sequence of Ciscaucasia, remains relevant. One of the main approaches to solving the problem is the spatial analysis of the structure and composition of the loess. Based on the core analysis of three boreholes, a sublatitudinal cross-section of the loess-paleosol sequence of the Upper Pleistocene and Holocene was constructed. A gradual decrease in the thickness of loess-paleosol sequence and grain size from east to west was found out. The total thickness of the Upper Pleistocene and Holocene deposits in the OT-20 section (eastern part) is 22.6 m, SB-1 (central part) – 9.7 m, YS-1 (western part) – 5.3 m. The average content of the sand fraction decreases in the same direction: OT-20 – 17.1%, SB-1 – 6.1%, YS-1 – 1.9%. The results indicate that the main direction of the aeolian transport during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene was from east to west. Sand deserts of the Caspian lowland are probably the main source of the material. Secondary sources of mineral dust are local sandy massifs spread on the terraces of large rivers like Don and Kuban. Compositional variations of loess in depth show that the intensity of eolian processes was higher during cold periods and lower during warm ones. The loess sequences in the east of Ciscaucasia have higher temporal resolution and more responsive paleoclimatic indicators than the western ones.
... Fluctuations in the Black Sea level also probably affected the source areas. Thus, the high sand fraction content in the Lower Kuban loess (UL) at MIS 4 and MIS 2 may be partly due to a series of deep Black Sea regressions, post-Karangatian and Neoeuxinian [39]. As a result, a vast alluvial plain in the lower reaches of the Kuban River might have been drained and young terraces formed, which sharply increased the local source areas of mineral dust. ...
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The origin of the loess deposits of the Cis-Caucasus Region, which form an almost continuous cover on the plains from the Sea of Azov to the Peri-Caspian Depression, is one of the controversial issues of paleogeography of the southern part of European Russia. The remarkably high thickness (up to 140 m) and extended coastal outcrops in the west and in the east of the region studied is of special interest to geologists and geographers who consider the loess strata as a unique record of climate conditions of the Quaternary period. The data on the structure, texture, and geochronology of the Upper Pleistocene and Holocene loess deposits, obtained from the study of 25 borehole logs and outcrop sections, distributed through the territory of the Cis-Caucasus region were received. The average sedimentation rates and the average sand fraction content were estimated for the stratigraphic units correlated with the global climatostratigraphic units (marine isotope stages (MIS)). It has been established that the source of the loess (wind erosion areas), are the valleys and estuary alluvial plains of large rivers: the Terek, Kuma, Volga, Kuban, and Don. The Peri-Caspian Depression was the dominant source of mineral dust throughout Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Large massifs of weakly fixed sands and sandy loams of the western Caspian region in combination with a high level of climate aridity and strong east winds created the prerequisites for the transport of huge volumes of mineral dust westward as far as the Sea of Azov.
... Колебания уровня Черноморского бассейна также, вероятно, сказались на площади источников. Так, высо-кое содержание песка в лёссах Нижнего Прикубанья (точка UL) в МИС 4 и МИС 2 может быть связано с чередой глубоких регрессий Чёрного моря -посткарангатской и новоэвксинской [39]. В результате регрессии моря в низовьях Кубани была осушена обширная аллювиальная равнина и сформированы молодые террасы, что резко увеличило площадь локальных источников минеральной пыли. ...
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Происхождение лёссовых отложений Предкавказья, образующих практически сплошной покров на равнинах от Азовского моря до Прикаспийской низменности, остаётся одним из дискуссионных вопросов палеогеографии юга Европейской России. Феноменально высокая мощность лёссовопалеопочвенных серий (ЛПС) на востоке региона (до 140 м) и протяжённые береговые обнажения на западе вызывают особый интерес геологов и географов, рассматривающих эти толщи как своеобразную летопись природных условий четвертичного периода. В статье анализируются данные по строению, механическому составу и возрасту ЛПС верхнего плейстоцена и голоцена, полученные на основе изучения 25 скважин и разрезов, распределённых по территории Предкавказья. Рассчитаны средние темпы осадконакопления и средние содержания песчаной фракции для стратиграфических единиц, соотносимых с глобальными климатостратиграфическими подразделениями – морскими изотопными стадиями (МИС). Установлено, что источниками (областями дефляции) минеральной пыли, которая и формирует лёссовый покров, являются долины и приустьевые аллювиальные равнины крупных рек – Терека, Кумы, Волги, Кубани и Дона. Доминирующим на протяжении всего позднего плейстоцена и голоцена источником является Прикаспийская низменность. Крупные массивы слабозакреплённых песков и супесей западного Прикаспия в сочетании с высокой засушливостью климата и сильными восточными ветрами создали предпосылки для переноса огромных масс минеральной пыли на запад вплоть до Азовского моря.
... Such species were not found at Azokh, indicating that the Caucasus, Zagros and Taurus Mountains probably acted as a barrier for small mammals coming from Africa. Moreover, most of the species found at Azokh display an Asiatic origin, suggesting the possible importance of the Black and Caspian seas as barriers to small mammals coming from Europe, as was previously indicated by Yanina (2014). ...
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Located at the crossroads between Africa, Europe and Asia, the Southern Caucasus is a prime location to study occupations by H. heidelbergensis, H. neanderthalensis and anatomically modern humans. Azokh Cave is an important site for the understanding of human evolution in its archaeological, palaeontological, environmental and ecological context. The main objective of this work is to use rodents to infer the climatic and environmental conditions that prevailed during the formation of the site. The small-mammal remains come from the archaeological excavation campaigns carried out in Azokh 1 in 2003, 2005, 2014, 2015 and 2018; they are from Unit V, Units III–IV and Unit II. The small-mammal assemblage is composed of at least 13 taxa: seven arvicoline, two cricetine, two gerbilline, one dipodid and one murine species. Units III–IV do not yield enough material to draw palaeoclimatic inferences. The palaeoclimatic conditions for Units V and II, ascertained by means of the bioclimatic model, suggest temperatures and precipitation similar to nowadays; the climate seems to be relatively warm-temperate in both units. The palaeoenvironmental reconstruction by means of habitat weighting points to an environment mainly composed of desert and steppe habitats, as well as portions of grassland and forest. This interpretation differs from that inferred from the large-mammal and archaeobotanical data, which indicate a woodland environment. These differences could be explained by the origin of the accumulation. There was no evidence of a major palaeoenvironmental or palaeoclimatic change between the Middle and Late Pleistocene layers, indicating favourable conditions throughout the study period.
... (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the Web version of this article.) Svitoch, 2010;Varuschenko et al., 1987;Yanina, 2014) (Fig. 1). Several prolonged Caspian Sea highstand phases (e.g. ...
... Understanding the relative contributions of the different drivers of Caspian Sea level change requires a multi-disciplinary approach (e.g., hydroclimate modelling as well as geological and geomorphological analysis). A considerable number of studies have explored various aspects of Caspian Sea changes (e.g., Arpe et al., 2014;Arslanov et al., 2016;Kislov and Toropov, 2007;Kislov et al., 2014;Rychagov, 1997a;Tudryn et al., 2013;Yanina, 2014). However, there are conflicting ideas concerning the relative importance of different factors driving past Caspian Sea level variability (discussed in Section 2), as well as the mechanisms by which they impacted basin connectivity and Caspian Sea level variation. ...
... As previously indicated, Caspian Sea level has varied during the Quaternary due to both geophysical processes (that have opened and closed gateways) and hydroclimate change induced by glacialinterglacial cycles (Badertscher et al., 2011;Kroonenberg et al., 2005;Richards et al., 2017;Rodionov, 1994;Yanina et al., 2018;Yanina, 2014). The gateway that controls the connection between the Ponto-Caspian seas is the Manych-Kerch (Fig. 2). ...
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Quaternary Caspian Sea level variations depended on geophysical processes (affecting the opening and closing of gateways and basin size/shape) and hydro-climatological processes (affecting water balance). Disentangling the drivers of past Caspian Sea level variation, as well as the mechanisms by which they impacted the Caspian Sea level variation, is much debated. In this study we examine the relative impacts of hydroclimatic change, ice-sheet accumulation and melt, and isostatic adjustment on Caspian Sea level change. We performed model analysis of ice-sheet and hydroclimate impacts on Caspian Sea level and compared these with newly collated published palaeo-Caspian sea level data for the last glacial cycle. We used palaeoclimate model simulations from a global coupled ocean-atmosphere-vegetation climate model, HadCM3, and ice-sheet data from the ICE-6G_C glacial isostatic adjustment model. Our results show that ice-sheet meltwater during the last glacial cycle played a vital role in Caspian Sea level variations, which is in agreement with hypotheses based on palaeo-Caspian Sea level information. The effect was directly linked to the reorganization and expansion of the Caspian Sea palaeo-drainage system resulting from topographic change. The combined contributions from meltwater and runoff from the expanded basin area were primary factors in the Caspian Sea transgression during the deglaciation period between 20 and 15 kyr BP. Their impact on the evolution of Caspian Sea level lasted until around 13 kyr BP. Millennial scale events (Heinrich events and the Younger Dryas) negatively impacted the surface water budget of the Caspian Sea but their influence on Caspian Sea level variation was short-lived and was outweighed by the massive combined meltwater and runoff contribution over the expanded basin.
... On the surface of the Khvalyn Sea plains (i.e. the largest Neopleistocene basin in the Caspian Sea) (Yanina, 2014), there are drainless depressions of the "steppe saucer" type with rounded edges and a flat bottom, which are usually occupied by salt marshes and meadows. However, the water-retaining influence of large rivers is significantly affected in the southern lowland. ...
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(I will be glad to send the article to all interested researchers! )___ The current study presents new palaeoecological records from arid areas in the western sector of the Caspian Lowland, covering the second half of the Holocene. Environmental alterations, driven by global climatic factors and regional features initiated by the Caspian Sea, were identified based on palynological and sedimentological changes in two mires. The study revealed that the wetlands in the south and northwest of the Caspian Lowland have different origins and sources of water supply because they are associated with the priority influence of the Caspian Sea (i.e. Arkida mire) or the dynamics of winter-cyclonic precipitation (i.e. Zelmen mire). Therefore, the humidification episodes in the peatlands under consideration were rarely synchronous. In the south of the Caspian Lowland adjacent to the Caucasus, the climate was milder, steppe vegetation predominated, and the most favourable intervals were at about 4.1–3.8, 3.4–2.8, 2.3–2.9 and after 1.5 cal ka BP. Apparently, the moisturising influence of the Caspian Sea was decisive there, even during the strengthening of the high-pressure zone in Siberia, resulting in a decreased role of westerlies and dryness in other regions. The northeast of the Caspian Lowland was distinguished by longer arid episodes and a more significant contribution of semi-desert vegetation. An increase in moisture and steppe predominance detected there at intervals of 6.7, 3.8, 2.8–2.4, and several shorter ones after 1.4 cal ka BP is associated with warm and humid winters that coincided with a weak Siberian High and North Atlantic warming combined with Caspian transgression. Wetlands in arid areas were vulnerable to intensive human activity over thousands of years and were involved in year-round grazing cycles, even during dry periods. Peculiarities of paleoecological records reflect the burning and forced grazing on the mire under aridification, evident signs of overgrazing, and the use of swamp herbs for building purposes.
... Karpychev, 1993;Rychagov, 1997;Badertscher et al., 2011). As a result of these large sea level fluctuations, vast areas of dry continental shelf are today covered by marine terraces, particularly in the flat Northern Caspian lowland (Yanina, 2014). ...
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Constraining the controls on the distribution of sediment at a continental scale is a critical step in understanding long-term landscape and climate evolution. In particular, understanding of the role of rivers in wider sediment routing and impacts on aeolian loess formation on a continental scale remains limited. Extensive Quaternary loess deposits are present on the East European Plain and in the Black Sea - Caspian Sea region and are associated with major rivers draining numerous surrounding cratonic and orogenic hinterland areas. Coupled with this, complex changes in local and global sea level have affected the extent and drainage of the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea, and Quaternary glaciations have impinged on the northern margin of the East European Plain. This suggests that sediment routing and loess formation may show complex patterns and controls. Here, we apply UPb dating of detrital zircons from fluvial, marine and aeolian (dominantly loess) sedimentary records on the East European Plain and in the Black Sea - Caspian Sea region. This shows a strong control of large rivers on the distribution of sediments at a continental scale in the region, through long-distance transport of several 1000 km, sourced from continental and mountain glacier areas prior to marine or atmospheric reworking and transportation. Strong spatial variability in zircon UPb data from loess deposits on the East European Plain reveals multiple diverse sources to the different individual loess sections, whereas no significant temporal variability in loess source is detected during the Late Pleistocene of the Lower Volga loess in South Russia. While the sediment supply from glacial areas via rivers plays an important role for the provenance of East European Plain loess deposits, our data indicate that the stark spatial diversity in loess provenance on the East European Plain is often driven by the input of multiple local sources. Similar to the loess, marine sediments from different basins of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea also show significant spatial variability. This variability is controlled by the bathymetry of the seas, leading to sedimentary intermixing by sea currents within, but not between different separated sea basins. A direct comparison of marine and aeolian sediments at the same depositional site suggests that although loess and marine sediments are both dominantly sourced from river sediments containing far travelled sedimentary material, local sources play a more important role in many loess deposits.
... The correlation between the Sakarya fluvial cycles and the global and Black Sea level changes (after Erturac et al., 2019): (a) depositional and erosional periods with reported OSL ages and errors for Sakarya River during the Late Pleistocene T4 and T3, Holocene terraces T2, T1 and T0 (Erturac et al., 2019). (b) Main paleo-geographical events of the Black Sea according toPanin and Popescu (2007) andYanina (2014). (c) Late Pleistocene connections of the Black Sea inferred from isotope studies(Badertscher et al., 2011) ...
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The present paper synthesizes the evolution of fluvial systems tributary to the Black Sea (within 25-8 ka BP time frame) by reviewing the existing paleoclimate, hydro-geomorphology, sedimentology, and Late Quaternary chronology. These studies are unevenly distributed throughout the Black Sea (BS) drainage basin and were used to decipher the river response to climatic, eustatic, tectonically induced or vegetation cover changes. The river response was sensitive overall and is visible particularly in terms of the channel planform. The alternation of cold and warm climate phases has controlled to a significant degree the water and sediment inputs along the drainage networks, such that river channels planforms shifted from the braided type to the anastomosed type (with various transitional phases, either wandering or anastomosed), and from macro-meanders to small scale meanders. The climatic model of fluvial evolution was altered by the other controlling factors specific to the large BS drainage basin, including tectonics (in the Pannonian Plain, Western Plain of Romania, Lower Siret Plain), the proximity to coarse-grained sediment sources (typical for medium-sized Carpathian tributaries), the obstruction exerted by glacial sediments generated by the ice cap retreat (as illustrated on the Upper Dnieper), eustatic oscillations (detected on the Danube or Sakarya River). The sea-level drop by more than 100 m during the Last Glacial Maximum resulted in the conversion of ca. 30% of the present sea surface to dry land (mostly on the NW continental shelf); several sinuous-anastomosed paleo-channels pertaining to major rivers (Danube, Dniester, Dnieper) with depths ranging between 30 and 90 m were reconstructed on the surface of this emerged land. Black Sea became connected to the Planetary Ocean during the Early Holocene (ca. 9.4 ka BP). The sea waters flooded extensive areas at the NW and advanced upstream along tributary river valleys. The effects of base-level rise were reflected in the anastomosed style of river channels and the accumulation of deltaic formations.
... Upper Pleistocene stage (126.0-11.7 ky) is characterized by Riss-Würm/Eemian interglacial and Würm/Weichselian glacial episodes. Global to regional climatic and hydrological changes initiated in the surrounding Mediterranean and Ponto-Caspian basins during the glacial and interglacial periods constitute the Quaternary palaeoceanographic evolution of the Marmara Sea (e.g., Stanley and Blanpied, 1980;Aksu et al., 2002;Badertscher et al., 2011;Sorokin, 2011;Yanina, 2014). İzmit Gulf constitutes the most eastern part of the Marmara Sea ( Fig. 1) which is a small intercontinental basin connected to the Mediterranean and the Black Sea and the western part of active North Anatolian Fault Zone (Ketin, 1948Vardar et al., 2014). ...
... Later, Çağatay et al. (2009) denote that the Marmara Sea isolated from the Mediterranean Sea from early MIS-4 to early MIS-1. In the Black Sea, MIS-3 corresponds to a highstand (The Surozh transgression), with water level 25 m lower than today (Yanina, 2014). In this study, the faunal and floral contents (ostracods, foraminifera, molluscs and diatoms) and the numerical (radiocarbon and OSL) age ( Fig. 2) data of drilling samples collected from the İzmit Gulf have been studied in detail in order to understand the water connections among the Black Sea -Marmara Sea -Mediterranean and their palaeoenvironmental changes. ...
... Dreissena sp. (Chappell and Shackleton, 1986) and the data from the Ponto-Caspian basins (e.g., Sorokin, 2011;Yanina, 2014), there was a Mediterranean inflow into the Black Sea during MIS-5. The Çanakkale Strait was subaerially exposed at the peak of glacial oxygen isotopic stage 6 (Pleistocene), causing the Marmara Sea to become a lake. ...
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... Вероятно, во время среднехвалынской трансгрессии Понто-Каспийского бассейна около 13-11 тыс. лет назад [15], когда территория Русской равнины была сильно обводнена в результате потепления, водяные буйволы смогли проникнуть в ее центр, двигаясь на север по долинам Дона, Волги и Окско-Донской низменности. ...
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