Schematic representation of the steps in the extraction process from M. pyrifera

Schematic representation of the steps in the extraction process from M. pyrifera

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In recent decades products of marine origin have been the subject of intense investigation; new substances with pharmacological and nutraceutical properties have been discovered. On the other hand, processes more economical and friendly to the environment to produce biocompounds are needed. One alternative is biorefinery for the production of diver...

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... Together with Laminaria hyperborea and Ascophyllum nodosum, Macrocystis pyrifera is used for alginate commercial production in USA, Japan, China, France, and Norway ( Gomez et al., 2009 ). Driven by the search for sustainable biotechnologies and biomass valorization, research has been carried out on the use of M. pyrifera biomass for the production of bioactive compounds ( Leyton et al., 2020 ), functional food ( Díaz et al., 2017 ), biogas ( Fan et al., 2015 ;Vergara-Fernandez et al., 2008 ), bioethanol ( Camus et al., 2016 ), hydrogen and volatile fatty acids ( Zhao et al., 2017 ), among other products. ...
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In this work we propose a model for the optimal design of macroalgae-based integrated biorefineries for the production of chemicals and biofuels, through superstructure generation including the simultaneous heat exchanger network (HEN). We formulate MINLP problems with sustainability (RePSIM) and economic (NPV) objective functions, respectively. As novelty, simultaneous design of the process and its HEN is carried out in a large-scale problem, with more than 50000 continuous and 10000 binary variables. Experimental data was obtained in our laboratory for brown algae conversion into sorbitol. Heat integration provides a reduction of 70.7% in utility costs with respect to the non-integrated case in NPV maximization. When RePSIM is the objective function, heat integration provides 2.3% increase, with 79.0% utility savings. Simultaneous Process and HEN design has proven to be efficient and robust, as well as a valid approach for energy savings in the optimal design of large-scale sustainable processes.
... In order to improve the sustainability in the exploitation of M. pyrifera, successful cultivation at pilot scales has been achieved in Chile [19][20][21]. M. pyrifera has been used as a chemical platform for the production of varied biocompounds via conversion of the carbohydrate fraction through microbial fermentation [22][23][24][25] or directly used in pharmaceuticals and food applications [26]. An example is the phlorotannin extraction processes from M. pyrifera that produce a liquid fraction residual (LFR), which was used as a microbial nutrient source to produce a carotenoid compound [18,27]. ...
... The samples harvested were dried at 40 • C and ground to an average size lower than 1.4 mm. The LWR was obtained from the phlorotannins extraction process, according to Leyton et al. [25], as is described in Figure 5. The phlorotannins extraction was made with NaOH 0.5 mol/L, using a seaweed mass-to-liquid ratio of 1/20 weight/volume, w/v, (180 min, 100 • C). ...
... The samples harvested were dried at 40 °C and ground to an average size lower than 1.4 mm. The LWR was obtained from the phlorotannins extraction process, according to Leyton et al. [25], as is described in Figure 5. The phlorotannins extraction was made with NaOH 0.5 mol/L, using a seaweed mass-to-liquid ratio of 1/20 weight/volume, w/v, (180 min, 100 °C ). ...
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Seaweed processing generates liquid fraction residual that could be used as a low-cost nutrient source for microbial production of metabolites. The Rhodotorula strain is able to produce antimicrobial compounds known as sophorolipids. Our aim was to evaluate sophorolipid production, with antibacterial activity, by marine Rhodotorula rubra using liquid fraction residual (LFR) from the brown seaweed Macrocystis pyrifera as the nutrient source. LFR having a composition of 32% w/w carbohydrate, 1% w/w lipids, 15% w/w protein and 52% w/w ash. The best culture condition for sophorolipid production was LFR 40% v/v, without yeast extract, artificial seawater 80% v/v at 15 °C by 3 growth days, with the antibacterial activity of 24.4 ± 3.1 % on Escherichia coli and 21.1 ± 3.8 % on Staphylococcus aureus. It was possible to identify mono-acetylated acidic and methyl ester acidic sophorolipid. These compounds possess potential as pathogen controllers for application in the food industry.
... Extraction yields of carbohydrates and phlorotannins were 81.02 ± 8.9% and 1.62 ± 0.13% w/w, respectively. The phlorotannin fraction activity was concluded to be useful as a natural antioxidant and an antibacterial compound [175]. ...
... In addition, the digestibility achieved was 92.1% [225]. A recent investigation has claimed that phlorotannins, carbohydrate, and fertiliser fractions can be provided by using the biorefinery process on M. pyrifera [175]. This emerging method effectively works on disrupting the cellulose structure in the seaweed cell wall using hydroxyl radicals and without producing fermentation inhibitors, such as hydroxymethyl furfural or furfural. ...
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Seaweeds have a long history of use as food, as flavouring agents, and find use in traditional folk medicine. Seaweed products range from food, feed, and dietary supplements to pharmaceuticals, and from bioenergy intermediates to materials. At present, 98% of the seaweed required by the seaweed industry is provided by five genera and only ten species. The two brown kelp seaweeds Laminaria digitata, a native Irish species, and Macrocystis pyrifera, a native New Zealand species, are not included in these eleven species, although they have been used as dietary supplements and as animal and fish feed. The properties associated with the polysaccharides and proteins from these two species have resulted in increased interest in them, enabling their use as functional foods. Improvements and optimisations in aquaculture methods and bioproduct extractions are essential to realise the commercial potential of these seaweeds. Recent advances in optimising these processes are outlined in this review, as well as potential future applications of L. digitata and, to a greater extent, M. pyrifera which, to date, has been predominately only wild-harvested. These include bio-refinery processing to produce ingredients for nutricosmetics, functional foods, cosmeceuticals, and bioplastics. Areas that currently limit the commercial potential of these two species are highlighted.