| Schematic representation of the methodology used in the present study.

| Schematic representation of the methodology used in the present study.

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Through time, both natural and cultural heritage have unfortunately been under threat due to multiple environmental and human-induced factors, which are likely to trigger various hazards such as soil erosion, landslides, or land collapse. The analysis of old cartographic material, aerial imagery, and satellite imagery has been used in multiple stud...

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Context 1
... on these studies, a potential range between 4/5 and 10 km (equivalent to a 1-hour or 2-hour walk) is considered. Our methodology can be divided into several phases ( Figure 3). The first phase of the research consisted of accessing, studying, and processing eight cartographic series and other related materials: six sheets of the Specht map, seven sheets of the Szathmári map, 23 sheets of Artillery Firing Plans, 34 sheets of the topographic map of Romania, and ten CORONA satellite imagery. ...
Context 2
... that now belong to the water area are shown in Figure 8 (2018) and correspond in fact to the former riverbed, islands, or marsh area of the Mostiștea basin, and some of them have been completely flooded by water. The best-known cases are the settlements at Vlădiceasca I and II (Supplementary Figure S3), Lunca-Grădinile, Vlădiceasca-Ostrovul Mare, followed by the cemeteries at Curăteşti and Sultana-Școala Veche. In addition, there are other sites whose surface has been largely eroded but are still visible in the field (Sultana-Malu Roșu or Șeinoiu) Supplementary Figures S4, S5). ...

Citations

... In archaeology, the technique is used for various applications, such as feature The target area was not chosen randomly, as it has been the most investigated region in Romania since the beginning of the 20th century. Romanian archaeologists carried out intensive excavations in the Chalcolithic and Middle/Late Neolithic sites of Călărași County, which formed the basis for the definition of two emblematic prehistoric cultures in the Northern Balkans, the Boian and the Gumelnița [14,15]. Moreover, these investigations contributed to determining the relative chronology of archaeological cultures in Romania. ...
... The target area was not chosen randomly, as it has been the most investigated region in Romania since the beginning of the 20th century. Romanian archaeologists carried out intensive excavations in the Chalcolithic and Middle/Late Neolithic sites of Călăras , i County, which formed the basis for the definition of two emblematic prehistoric cultures in the Northern Balkans, the Boian and the Gumelnit , a [14,15]. Moreover, these investigations contributed to determining the relative chronology of archaeological cultures in Romania. ...
... The hillshade map and the false colour composite cover the plane east of the settlement and reveal some old river channels presented in the area before systematic cultivation in the last century. Thus, these data are used to put the archaeological site in a larger spatial and historical context, which will be helpful for future research (e.g., extending the results presented by Covataru et al. [15]). ...
Article
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Spatial data play a crucial role in archaeological research, and orthophotos, digital elevation models, and 3D models are frequently used for the mapping, documentation, and monitoring of archaeological sites. Thanks to the availability of compact and low-cost uncrewed airborne vehicles, the use of UAV-based photogrammetry matured in this field over the past two decades. More recently, compact airborne systems are also available that allow the recording of thermal data, multispectral data, and airborne laser scanning. In this article, various platforms and sensors are applied at the Chalcolithic archaeological sites in the Mostiștea Basin and Danube Valley (Southern Romania). By analysing the performance of the systems and the resulting data, insight is given into the selection of the appropriate system for the right application. This analysis requires thorough knowledge of data acquisition and data processing, as well. As both laser scanning and photogrammetry typically result in very large amounts of data, a special focus is also required on the storage and publication of the data. Hence, the objective of this article is to provide a full overview of various aspects of 3D data acquisition for UAV-based mapping. Based on the conclusions drawn in this article, it is stated that photogrammetry and laser scanning can result in data with similar geometrical properties when acquisition parameters are appropriately set. On the one hand, the used ALS-based system outperforms the photogrammetric platforms in terms of operational time and the area covered. On the other hand, conventional photogrammetry provides flexibility that might be required for very low-altitude flights, or emergency mapping. Furthermore, as the used ALS sensor only provides a geometrical representation of the topography, photogrammetric sensors are still required to obtain true colour or false colour composites of the surface. Lastly, the variety of data, such as pre- and post-rendered raster data, 3D models, and point clouds, requires the implementation of multiple methods for the online publication of data. Various client-side and server-side solutions are presented to make the data available for other researchers.