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Schematic representation of kilning showing a typical temperature-moisture profile. From Ganssmann and Vorwerck, 1995. With kind permission of Springer Science and Business Media. 

Schematic representation of kilning showing a typical temperature-moisture profile. From Ganssmann and Vorwerck, 1995. With kind permission of Springer Science and Business Media. 

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Article
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This thesis reports on investigations into the influence of heat treatment on the manufacturing of oat flakes. Sources of variation in the oat flake quality are reviewed, including the whole chain from the farm to the consumer. The most important quality parameters of oat flakes are the absence of lipid hydrolysing enzymes, specific weight, thickne...

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Context 1
... hydrothermal treatment, known as kilning, is often used because the high lipid content and active enzyme system of oats (Galliard, 1983) makes them susceptible to rancidity. The process involves the direct addition of steam followed by treatment in a radiator kiln, as shown in Figure 5. The primary aim of the kilning process is to inactivate lipid hydrolysing enzymes. ...

Citations

... This decrease is mainly due to the minerals leached from the chickpea seeds and faba bean into the water during soaking treatments. Similar finding was observed [23][24][25][26][27][28]. ...
Article
Abstract In the present paper, an evaluation has been made for preparing the flakes of legumes (chickpea and faba bean) at deferent processes of cooking, where the analysis indicate that the physical properties and chemical compositions (Moisture, Ash, Fat, Protein and total carbohydrates) of the flakes of soaked chickpea (Cps) and soaked faba bean (Fbs) are proximate to flakes of chickpea flour (Cpf) and flakes of faba bean (Fbf) at significant differences (P<0.05); were observed between the two type of cooking flakes. Major minerals contents (K, Ca, Na and Mg) and minor elements (Fe) were detected in flakes chickpea flour and flakes faba bean flour at elevated levels than that observed in flakes of soaked legumes. The investigation of the organoleptic evaluation of sensory characteristics for samples of the flakes from the soaked chickpea Cps and soaked faba bean Fbs, the flakes from the flours of chickpea Cpf and flours of faba bean Fbf represent no considerable difference between control, replacement levels regarding appearance, color, taste. Keywords: Chickpea; Faba bean; Processes of food preparation; Flakes; Physicochemical compositions
... The dietary fiber content of the flakes ranged between 9.47 and 13.86%, comparable to values commonly found in breakfast cereals such as corn flakes, rice, quinoa, millet, and amaranth flakes [56]. The proportion of RR affected the dietary fiber of flakes. ...
Article
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Orange sweet potato (OSP) and red rice (RR) are rich sources of health benefit-associated substances and can be conventionally cooked or developed into food products. This research approach was to closely monitor the changes of bioactive compounds and their ability as antioxidants from the native form to the food products which are ready to be consumed. Moreover, this research explored the individual carotenoids and tocopherols of raw and cooked OSP and RR and their developed flake products, and also investigated their antioxidant activity, physicochemical properties, and sensory properties. Simultaneous identification using the liquid chromatographic method showed that OSP, RR, and their flake products have significant amounts (µg/g) of β-carotene (278.58–48.83), α-carotene (19.57–15.66), β-cryptoxanthin (4.83–2.97), α-tocopherol (57.65–18.31), and also γ-tocopherol (40.11–12.15). Different responses were observed on the bioactive compound and antioxidant activity affected by heating process. Meanwhile, OSP and RR can be combined to form promising flake products, as shown from the physicochemical analysis such as moisture (5.71–4.25%) and dietary fiber (13.86–9.47%) contents, water absorption index (1.69–1.06), fracturability (8.48–2.27), crispness (3.9–1.5), and color. Those quality parameters were affected by the proportions of OSP and RR in the flake products. Moreover, the preference scores (n = 120 panelists) for the flakes ranged from slightly liked to indifferent. It can be concluded that OSP and RR are potential sources of bioactive compounds which could act as antioxidants and could be developed into flake products that meet the dietary and sensory needs of consumers.
... Основна функція пропарювання полягає у зменшенні зламу та одержанні більш міцних пластівців [11]. Додавання тепла і вологи пом'якшує крупу, роблячи її більш пластичною і менш схильною до крихкого перелому. ...
... Однак розмір частинок збільшується, тому краї пластівців ламаються. Цей ефект проявляється тим більше, чим більший розмір частинок (дрібні або розрізані крупи розширюватимуться менше і, отже, матимуть менше зламаних країв) і менший робочий зазор, що має особливе значення для обладнання з меншим діаметром вальців [11]. ...
... Оптимальним тиском пари прийнято 0,20 МПа, подальше його підвищення було обмежено конструкцією лабораторного пропарювача, тому здійснено третю серію дослідів (досліди [10][11][12][13][14], де при встановлених раніше режимах (вологості крупи та тиску пари) змінювали тривалість пропарювання. Варто зазначити, що тривалість пропарювання порівняно з іншими факторами менше вплинула на кількісні результати процесу пластифікації. ...
... Scenario 7b: Human exposure to pathogens from minimally-processed grains (oats) grown in soil amended with green/food compost Two heat treatments are commonly used in the processing of combinable crops such as oats (Gates, 2007). The first, kilning, is to stabilise the oat. ...
... Kilning and tempering typically involves temperatures of >80°C for at least 30 min (Gates et al., 2008). After steaming, the oats are tempered in an oven at 80 -110°C for 30 -90 minutes (Gates, 2007). Avery et al. (2009) report that treatment at 60°C for 10 min effectively eradicated E. coli O157 in abattoir wastes, and 50°C for 10 min gave 2 -4 log reductions. ...
Technical Report
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This report summarises the findings of three separate projects commissioned by WRAP to investigate the safety of composts meeting the PAS 100 quality specification, when used in agriculture and field horticulture. A wide range of hazards were considered – including microbiological, chemical and physical – and risks from compost use were considered to be low or negligible in all scenarios examined.
... Oat (Avena sativa L.) is a cereal that belongs to the gramineae family, widely used worldwide for human consumption, animal food and cosmetic products (Gates, 2007). Compared with other cereals, oat is considered a source of proteins, carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and minerals (Gates, 2007). ...
... Oat (Avena sativa L.) is a cereal that belongs to the gramineae family, widely used worldwide for human consumption, animal food and cosmetic products (Gates, 2007). Compared with other cereals, oat is considered a source of proteins, carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and minerals (Gates, 2007). It has components of minor proportion, such as unsaturated fat and β-glucans, which contribute to the health and well-being of human beings (Peterson, 2004). ...
... Oat flakes are an important raw material in the food industry (Gates, 2007). One of the most important aspects concerning oat quality is its moisture content, since many of its physical properties depend on this property (Prieto et al., 2006). ...
Article
Moisture sorption isotherms of oat flakes were determined at temperatures of 5, 25 and 37ºC, using a gravimetric technique in an aw range of between 0.107 and 0.855. These curves were modeled using six equations commonly applied in food. The quality of the fit was assessed with the regression coefficient (r2) and the mean relative percentage error (MRPE). The best fit were obtained with the Caurie model with r2 of 0.996, 0.901 and 0.870, and MRPE of 7.190, 17.878 and 16.206, at 5, 25 and 37ºC, respectively. The equilibrium moisture presented a dependence on temperature in the studied aw range, as did the security moisture (XS). These results suggest that the recommended storage conditions of oat flakes include: a relative air humidity of 50% between 5 and 251ºC and of 38% up to 37ºC.
... Zhou et al. (2000) and Lapveteläinen et al. (2001) found significant variation in viscosity between cultivars, and therefore the potential to make improvements in this area should be investigated. In addition to viscosity, water absorption is also affected by cultivar (Doehlert and McMullen, 2000;Zhou et al., 2000;Doehlert et al., 2001), milling procedures (Gates, 2007) and the ability of the groat aleurone layer to conduct liquids. An oat aleurone layer typically comprises protein (13-16 per cent), fat (6-7 per cent), starch (54-64 per cent), ash (2 per cent) and fibre (11-13 per cent) of which soluble fibre (3 -5 per cent) (Welch, 1995). ...
Article
Full-text available
The challenge for agricultural production in the 21st century is to produce sufficient high-quality food whilst minimizing impact. Life cycle assessment (LCA) can help by identifying the parts of a supply chain with the greatest environmental impact, and to determine which technologies – for example plant breeding – may be most appropriately employed to minimize negative impacts. A ‘plough-to-plate’ LCA of a porridge oat production chain was undertaken using data that corresponds to the inputs and outputs of an indicative supply chain. The greatest environmental impact of the porridge oats life cycle occurs in crop production and cooking. There are traits for oats that are available for manipulation by plant breeders, which can influence these areas; these include yield, nitrogen use efficiency and beta-glucan content. Therefore plant breeding may be a useful strategy for improving the sustainability of the crop. However LCA cannot be a definitive tool to guide plant breeding and therefore this approach needs to compliment others. Nevertheless this study highlights that porridge oat supply chain sustainability would benefit from an integrated effort stretching from the geneticist to consumer; a finding that is likely to be relevant to other food supply chains.
Article
Pulses provide economic and health benefits to people in many countries around the world; however, their adoption in western diets, particularly in processed and formulated foods, is limited. One strategy to increase the level of pulses in western diets is to improve pulse accessibility to the ready‐to‐eat (RTE) food market sector. Pulses have compositional and structural differences when compared to cereals and behave differently during processing. While there have been numerous studies on pulses processed using traditional processing methods, there are limited studies describing processing of pulses as a major ingredient in RTE forms such as flakes. To understand the full processing potential of pulses, systematic studies are required using commercial‐scale RTE pilot processing equipment coupled with fundamental property determination techniques to evaluate the effects of processing and pulse material on pulse flake attributes. In‐depth studies of pulse properties and their processability are likely to result in the production of high‐quality pulse‐based foods with superior health benefits. This review explores the current and potential opportunities for processing pulses with a focus on flake products. The roles of pulse type and major structure‐forming components such as fiber, carbohydrates, and proteins on end‐product quality of processed pulses are discussed.
Article
This article studied the volatile composition and content in 12 oat groats and flakes. Half of them were naked ones, and the other half were covered ones. Volatile compounds were compared between (i) naked and covered oat groats, (ii) naked and covered oat flakes, and (iii) oat groats and flakes to find out the changes in both composition and content with application of HS/SPME‐GC/MS and multivariate analysis including principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Most oat flakes have higher sensory ranks compared to their oat groats, corresponding with the fact that processing improves the sensory properties of oat groats. The cluster analysis based on volatile contents showed no significant difference between covered oat samples and naked oat samples. Practical applications Oat flakes vary in flavor due to variety and distinct processing in each factory. However, few researches on volatile compounds in oats have been conducted. This article investigated the volatile compounds in Chinese naked and covered oat groats and flakes to find out if there were correlations between volatile composition and the oat varieties, geographic provenance, or processing of the samples. The research adds to the study of volatile compounds in Chinese oats.