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3: Schematic of a diesel power plant [39] 

3: Schematic of a diesel power plant [39] 

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99 % of the electricity supply on Caribbean islands is currently provided by fossil fuel based power plants which is very expensive and polluting. The use of renewable energy technologies can be a cost-effective and sustainable solution to these problems. Implementing renewable energies has been rather slow despite sufficient natural resources. Thi...

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... For instance, Blechinger et al. (2016) define small islands as islands with a population between 1000 and 100,000 and Lynge Jensen (2000) considers islands with an area equal or smaller than the area of Hawaii as small islands. In addition to these criteria, characteristics of the energy supply and infrastructures like the absence of base generation power plants and high voltage transmission grids are used for classification (Blechinger, 2015;Sigrist et al., 2016) or the annual electricity demand and peak (Bizuayehu et al., 2014;Kaldellis & Zafirakis, 2007). As an example, Erdinc et al. (2015) categorize islands according to peak demand (MW) and annual consumption (GWh) in very small islands (<1 MW and <2 GWh), small islands (1-5 MW and 2-15 GWh), medium islands (5-35 MW and 15-100 GWh), and big islands (>35 MW and >100 GWh). ...
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Globally, more than 740 million people live on islands which are often seen as ideal environments for the development of renewable energy systems. Hereby, they play the role to demonstrate technical solutions as well as political transition pathways of energy systems to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The growing number of articles on 100% renewable energy systems on islands is analyzed with a focus on technical solutions for transition pathways. Since the first “100% renewable energy systems on islands”-article in a scientific journal in 2004, 97 articles handling 100% renewable energy systems on small islands were published and are reviewed in this article. In addition, a review on 100% renewable energy systems on bigger island states is added. Results underline that solar PV as well as wind are the main technologies regarding 100% RES on islands. Not only for the use of biomass but for all RES area limitation on islands needs to be taken more seriously, based on full energy system studies and respective area demand. Furthermore, it is shown that there is still not the same common sense in the design approach including and starting at the energy needs as well as on multi-sectoral approach. The consideration of maritime transport, aviation, cooling demands, and water systems beyond seawater desalination is only poorly considered in existing studies. Future research should also focus on developing pathways to transform the existing conventional infrastructure stepwise into a fully renewable system regarding also the interconnections with the mainland and neighboring islands. This article is categorized under: Policy and Economics > Green Economics and Financing Energy Systems Economics > Economics and Policy Energy Systems Analysis > Economics and Policy Energy Systems Analysis > Systems and Infrastructure. © 2022 The Authors. WIREs Energy and Environment published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.
... The main barriers for developing a sustainable energy system in the island country, especially driven by RE deployment, are high initial investment mainly related to the small scale of the project and lack of access to the low cost of capital, small market size, and fossil fuel subsidies that make RE can't compete [59]. Some small and remote islands have an abundant international fund to finance the renewable energy project but most project fails due to limited allocation in capacity building and technical assistance to ensure the operation and maintenance of the project. ...
... Political challenges are the most important barrier to address in implementing renewable energy policy. Blechinger [59] analyzes the Caribbean islands' sociopolitical condition to implement renewable energy and concludes that lack of regulatory framework and legislation for private investors are seen as the most important factor that threatens the implementation of renewable energy. Bertheau et al. [61] and Dutu [62] also agree with the previous research, that political challenges are among the most important factors to address. ...
Chapter
Archipelagic countries possess unique challenges compared to the continental ones. This chapter aims to review the current status of sustainable energy system analysis in archipelagic countries and to identify the key challenges and opportunities for developing sustainable energy systems. It is found that the framework of energy system analysis can be categorized into centralized, decentralized, and hybrid energy systems. Renewable energy penetration has better performance assessed by the sustainability index, especially on the economy, job creation, energy access, and reduce a country's CO2 emission. Furthermore, the main barriers of energy system modeling and design are technical, socioeconomic, and political aspects, while its abundant renewable energy sources, declining cost of renewable energy and storage, and the archipelago’s characteristics are key opportunities for further development. Finally, policy analysis for sustainable energy system deployment is discussed in the latter part of this chapter.
... For the flywheel model, the behaviour is derived from the Amber Kinetics Model 32 (Amber Kinetics, 2018). The following equation is used for modelling flywheel operation for microgrid applications (Blechinger, 2015), which is an idealized energy storage equation: ...
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... In the past, island grids without connection to transmission networks were mostly powered by diesel generation. In recent years, extensive investigation on the integration of renewable generation has been carried out [62][63][64] and several islands already started to integrate renewable generation in order to reduce their dependence on expensive fuel imports and CO2 emissions [65,66]. In such systems, batteries are used to smooth the renewable generation output and to reduce the ramping of the diesel generators. ...
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... The scientific community agrees that access to electricity is a key prerequisite for enabling economic and social development [14]. The impact of electricity access for development is confirmed by several scientific and applied case studies which revealed significant positive impacts, for example on household income, expenditure, health care, and educational outcomes [15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]. In particular for grid [26], SHS [27] and mini-grid [28] electrification the beneficial impacts on households with regard to illumination and access to information have been underlined while a direct economic impact remains uncertain for grid [26] and SHS [27] based approaches. ...
... The two studies Energies 2017, 10, 1899 3 of 20 stress the complexity of the available options, which require sophisticated decision support tools to identify the optimal electrification solution. Furthermore, it is crucial to understand the socio-technical transformation that is enabled by electrification processes and renewable energies [16,31]. Therefore, decision support systems are needed for practitioners [32], especially since new stakeholders such as private investors are looking for innovative business models that match the novel opportunities in developing countries [33,34]. ...
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Some 630 million people representing two-thirds of all Africans have no access to electricity, which is identified as a key barrier towards further development. Three main electrification options are considered within our work: grid extensions, mini-grids and solar home systems (SHS). A methodology is applied to all sub-Saharan African countries to identify in high geospatial resolution which electrification option is appropriate taking into account datasets for night light imagery, population distribution and grid infrastructure. Four different scenarios are considered reflecting grid development and electrification constraints due to low population density. The results clearly indicate a dominating role of SHS for achieving a fast electrification of the not supplied people. The share of supplied people by mini-grids is found to be rather low while grid extension serves a large share of the population. The decisive factors for these distinctions are population density and distance to grid. We applied several scenarios and sensitivities to understand the influence of these key parameters. The highest trade-off happens between SHS and grid extension depending on the selected thresholds. Mini-grid deployments remain in the range of 8 to 21%.
... Some disadvantages of renewable energy use in islands are the intermittency of energy sources, such as wind and solar, current storage technologies that are sometimes not suitable to accommodate a largescale solution and the systems costs, which are very site specific due to the uneven distribution of resources (Chen et al., 2007;Raturi et al., 2016). Technical barriers to renewable energy implementation include natural conditions (such as natural disasters or impact on landscape), technological constraints (such as lack of trained personnel or availability of technology) and infrastructure (transport or transmission limitations) (Blechinger, 2015(Blechinger, , 2016. Sustainable energy solutions in small islands are often inhibited by institutional, organizational or habitual problems, and islanders are sometimes reluctant because of the high implementations costs and there is sometimes lack of information regarding renewable energy solutions (for instance about hybrid solutions) (Blechinger, 2015(Blechinger, , 2016Möller et al., 2012). ...
... Technical barriers to renewable energy implementation include natural conditions (such as natural disasters or impact on landscape), technological constraints (such as lack of trained personnel or availability of technology) and infrastructure (transport or transmission limitations) (Blechinger, 2015(Blechinger, , 2016. Sustainable energy solutions in small islands are often inhibited by institutional, organizational or habitual problems, and islanders are sometimes reluctant because of the high implementations costs and there is sometimes lack of information regarding renewable energy solutions (for instance about hybrid solutions) (Blechinger, 2015(Blechinger, , 2016Möller et al., 2012). ...
... In the Caribbean island states, energy supply systems mainly rely on fossil fuels, with costs that range from 0.215 to 0.471 USD/kWh (average 0.35 USD/kWh), with the exception of Trinidad y Tobago with a 0.075 USD/kWh price, due to own natural gas resources. The share of renewable energy capacity is null for most of the islands, such as Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Grenada and many others; below 5% in some others, such as Jamaica, the Caribbean Netherlands, Curacao, Martinique or Montserrat; from 10 to 20% in Aruba, Haiti, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Dominican Republic; and a maximum 28% share in Dominica (Blechinger, 2015;Shirley and Kammen, 2013). Renewable energy technologies in the Caribbean island states include some PV examples, such as in Mustique Island, wind generators in Nevis, Curacao, Aruba and Jamaica, small hydropower in Saint Vincent, a geothermal power plant in Guadeloupe, solar water heating in Barbados (Blechinger, 2015;Shirley and Kammen, 2013). ...
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Energy supply is one of the most critical problems that affect small and remote islands economic and social development. Alternative energy solutions are promising and favorable for small island purposes as they can be used in small-scale applications. In Colombia, most of the island territories lack energy access, and specific solutions need to be implemented for electricity supply. The Corales del Rosario Archipelago (Colombian Caribe) is a National Park of ecological importance due to its biodiversity and coral reef formation. It consists of 27 islands, from which Isla Grande is the larger one, and concentrates the human settlements (such as the Orika village, with about 500 inhabitants) and touristic activities. In this paper, we explore the energy situation and renewable energy potential in small non-interconnected islands around the world, to later focus on Colombian non-interconnected islands. As a case study, we evaluate the energetic situation in Isla Grande, and propose how renewable energy solutions could be implemented in the island. Primary and secondary information were collected from surveys with the local community, and supported by bibliography, and include information regarding energy demand and supply, hydrology (wave, tidal and sediment transport regimes) and meteorology conditions that could influence renewable energy resources (wind and solar radiation). Land coverage maps were constructed from satellite images, and used to delimitate shadow and no-shadow regions. A typical local house was selected for the energy demand calculations (8.05kWh/day) and to propose renewable energy solutions. The hydrology analysis confirms no potential for wave and tidal energy solutions, while wind speed regimes are also not favorable for wind power implementation. Solar photovoltaic energy is, however, a promising solution for this island, where some individuals already have solar systems for self-consumption, while others use diesel generators. Individual home solutions should require about 11.6m² photovoltaic panels, while a system that could provide electricity to the whole community should require about 1590m².
... [10,[12][13][14][15][16]. The global perspective often does not allow to apply site-visits or stakeholder interviews [17]. One exception, focusing cases study, that is observed in Boyle's paper [18], where case studies at ten different sites are compared to derive the barriers to alternative energy. ...
... In many countries, the transaction costs of alternative energy per installed kilowatt capacity are greater than conventional systems. this raise the cost level of alternative energy technologies as well as the lack of experience in assessing and operating alternative energy projects [8,9,12,17,26,33]. ...
... The diseconomy of the scale represents the third barrier which is based on cost and price. Low energy demand and capacity of the power plants in some countries don't allow the installation of large scale of alternative 5 | P a g e energy plants as well as the deployment of alternative energy [9,17,26,30,31]. But in such cases the deployment of alternative energy is driven by environmental issues and limited sources of fossil fuel. ...
... These barriers present risks to project success that need to be appreciated and appropriately managed in order for the technology to succeed. Barriers are both regional and global, across a broad spectrum of political, regulatory, legal, financial and market issues (see for instantance Painuly 2001;Reddy & Painuly 2004;Beck & Martinot 2004;Urmee et al. 2009;Blechinger 2015). The next section in this chapter will identify the role for RE mini-grids, and specifically PVHMS, in providing energy access; and the following section will discuss specific barriers and lessons learnt from the implementation of the technology, before making the case for a better understanding and management of risk to improve the implementation of PVHMS. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Photovoltaic Hybrid Mini-grid Systems (PVHMS) are expected to play a key role in the United Nations’ goal to achieve universal energy access by the year 2030. Mini-grids require much larger investments than solar home systems, but are not large enough to access conventional public finance due to transaction costs and diseconomies of scale in assessing such projects. Rural electrification and renewable energy are both considered high risk propositions. Perceived risk is further increased because, despite a number of pilot PVHMS, the technology has achieved only limited deployment success and there remains a lack of data and published experience from operating projects. The aim of this thesis is to improve the understanding and management of the benefits and risks associated with PVHMS, based on experiences in the Asia-Pacific region. The thesis proposes first a preliminary risk management framework that considers intersecting spheres of Performance risk, Commercial risk and Programmatic risk. The framework is applied to two case studies of PVHMS deployment, including low penetration PV retrofits into existing diesel mini-grids in Northern Territory, Australia, as well as the high penetration PVHMS providing new energy access in Sabah, Malaysia. The research demonstrates that while energy services are being effectively delivered, there are deficiencies in monitoring and asset management capabilities that hamper the ability to effectively operate the systems and realise the intended operating cost reductions. Commercially, dependence on contractors that have minimal stake in ongoing performance presents significant exposure for operators and end users, but this could be addressed using alternative ownership structures. Programmatically, a lack of regulation and standardisation to effectively govern and control the deployment of these systems is problematic, while tariff settings make it impossible to recover costs, such that ongoing support is subject to political will. Better metrics to predict and assess the performance of PVHMS, and improvements in and verification of software modelling techniques present practical opportunities to reduce risk, and are explored in detail in the thesis. The recommendations could help optimise and improve the deployment of PVHMS, a serious alternative to traditional diesel mini-grids and central grid extension in the NT, Borneo and beyond.
... For this step a global population raster data set (Dobson et al., 2012) was applied comprised of detailed population data. Due to the pixel size of one by one km of the population data set, the vectorized island shapes are extended with a buffer of 707 m (half diameter of the pixel) to include all pixel centers for the population counting (Blechinger, 2015). This methodology is illustrated in Fig. 3. ...
... As calculated the integration of renewable energies would represent the techno-economic optimized way of electricity supply for the respective islands. Such positive interaction of increasing share of RE, reducing costs and reducing GHG emissions were also proven by other studies (Breyer et al., 2015;Blechinger, 2015). Nevertheless, these obvious economic and ecological benefits of renewable energy technologies remain untapped on most of these islands yet. ...
... Despite this proven renewable energy potential on the analyzed islands the beneficial implementation of the calculated renewable capacities for electricity supply is rather slow resulting from different barriers of implementation. In general, four main categories of barriers can be typically identified: technological, economic, political, and social barriers (Painuly, 2001;Blechinger, 2015). Thus, it is most likely that a combination of barriers from these categories is blocking the further deployment of renewable energies on small islands and SIDS. ...
Article
Globally, small islands below 100,000 inhabitants represent a large number of diesel based mini-grids. With volatile fossil fuel costs which are most likely to increase in the long-run and competitive renewable energy technologies the introduction of such sustainable power generation system seems a viable and environmental friendly option. Nevertheless the implementation of renewable energies on small islands is quite low based on high transaction costs and missing knowledge according to the market potential.
... The main obstacles are: The regulatory and political framework, the cost and funding opportunities and the market power of conventional energy suppliers [Blechinger, 2015;Ince, 2013]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Caribbean islands are known for their abundance of natural resources that can be used for sustainable energy. This includes both high solar irradiation levels for photovoltaic (PV) power generation, as well as high and constant wind speeds for the operation of wind turbines. In addition, many mountainous and volcanic islands allow the operation of water and geothermal power plants (IRENA, 2012). However, despite this resource wealth, the development of renewable energy power plants takes place relatively slow. Therefore, nowadays about 97% of electricity production in the Caribbean island States is based on the incineration of imported fossil fuels, which not only causes high electricity costs of around 30 US cents/kWh, but also massive climate-damaging emissions (MacIntyre et al, 2016). The paradox is that studies show that the implementation of renewable energy sources would clearly reduce both fossil fuel consumption and electricity generation costs on Caribbean islands (Blechinger et al, 2016; Shirley & Kammen, 2013; Wright, 2011). What is in the way of developing a sustainable energy supply? In this policy paper we will highlight the main barriers against renewable energy expansion and identify possible solutions to overcome them. The main obstacles are: The regulatory and political framework, the cost and funding opportunities and the market power of conventional energy suppliers (Blechinger, 2015; Ince, 2013).