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Schematic illustration of the process of obtaining Portobello mushroom skin-derived, hierarchically porous carbon nanoribbons used as free-standing, binder-free, current collector-free carbon anodes.: Lauro Zavala is credited for the contribution of this artwork.

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Research Items (89)
... A gradual increase in capacity was observed from the 1100th cycle to the 3500th cycle which can be attribute to the activation of HC@MoS 2 -II material, gradual but deep infiltration of electrolyte into electrode, and opening of new micropores and intercalation sites [69][70][71][72][73] with opening of new micropores and intercalation sites as a most obvious reason. This kind of gradual increase in capacity during charging/discharging has also been reported for porous carbon in LIBs [57,74]. Almost 100% coulombic efficiency was observed during this excessive cycling period, demonstrating the resilience of the regular 2D MoS 2 flowers to the volume expansion. ...
... Mushrooms specifically are high in vitamins, minerals, protein, oligosaccharides, and other prebiotic fibers to benefit the astronaut as well as their microbiome [95]. Additionally, growing mushrooms can regenerate soil [96], be used to make batteries [97], and recent research at NASA has even looked at the use of mushrooms to grow "myco-architecture" and other structures in extra-terrestrial environments [98]. ...
... A gradual increase in capacity was observed from the 1100th cycle to the 3500th cycle which can be attribute to the activation of HC@MoS 2 -II material, gradual but deep infiltration of electrolyte into electrode, and opening of new micropores and intercalation sites [69][70][71][72][73] with opening of new micropores and intercalation sites as a most obvious reason. This kind of gradual increase in capacity during charging/discharging has also been reported for porous carbon in LIBs [57,74]. Almost 100% coulombic efficiency was observed during this excessive cycling period, demonstrating the resilience of the regular 2D MoS 2 flowers to the volume expansion. ...
... The N-doped carbon was ascribed to enhanced the ion and electron diffusion, resulting in high electronic conductivity to promote the steady capacity retention and high capacities. 34 Campbell et al. 46 proposed the portobello mushroom skinderived hierarchically porous carbon nanoribbons used as freestanding, binder-free, current collector-free carbon anodes for Li-ion batteries. Boobalan et al. 47 synthesized the carbon dots from oyster mushrooms for toxic metal ion detection and as antibacterial and anticancer agents' applications. ...
... Most of this content turns into carbonaceous materials and hydrocarbon gasses under high temperatures and a protective atmosphere. The pyrolysis of various organic materials (biomass) to obtain high-value carbonaceous materials has been explored in numerous reports [3][4][5][6][7][8][9]. In addition, coffee contains several aromatic groups in its structure and the degree of aromaticity changes with its aroma. ...
... Interestingly, the sharp low-voltage peak observed in HC and PHC-2 was completely absent in PHC-1, rather a broad adsorption peak was observed, indicating the immediate effect of high porosity due to one-step sonochemical activation. The cycle overlap was enhanced after the 5th cycle, suggesting electrolyte exposure to more active sites during sodiation/desodiation, i.e., the opening of new nanopores because of the material's highly porous nature [55]. The disappearance of low-voltage peaks also validates more surface-controlled reactions (physio/chemical adsorption of Na + ions into nanopores/surface defects/functional groups, depicted in Fig. 6) in the PHC-1. ...
... For comparison, Table 2 shows several biomass-derived carbons that are reported in the literature, some of which have superior or similar cycling and rate performances, but often involve complex, wasteful or unsustainable procedures. These carbons were derived, for example, from the use of twostage carbonization and activation methods [23,69], the employment of high carbonization temperatures (>800 • C) [15,63,70], the use of a high ratio of porogen quantity in relation to the precursor [71][72][73][74], the employment of slow rates or long times for pyrolysis [16,18,75,76], or the use of strong acid treatments for carbon purification [77]. All of these studies entail a waste of energetic and material resources, in addition to being less green and eco-friendly, meaning that they are of less interest from economic and commercial viewpoints for LIB manufacturing. ...
... Thus, employing sustainable reserves is more reasonable with regard to securing a supply chain, price stability, and compliance with stringent environmental regulations [3][4][5]. Many different types of natural sources, such as starch [6][7][8], cellulose [9], lignin [10], corn products [11,12], palm spathe [13], bamboo chopsticks [14], coffee grounds [15], and mushrooms [16], have been employed so far to prepare carbon anode materials with distinctive performance, which makes biopolymer precursors promising resources for the preparation of carbon material with a view to apply them in lithium-ion batteries. Our previous research demonstrated that the use of starch is particularly interesting [17][18][19][20]. ...
... [31] Inspired by biological tissues, Campbell et al. pyrolyzed the skins of Portobello mushroom to obtain a porous LIB anode with macro, meso, and micropores (260 mAh g -1 after 700 cycles at C/5, Figure 2b). [32] As the natural presence of heteroatomrich compounds plays an analogous role to KOH-activation or carbon materials, the need for harmful solvents or chemical activation agents is avoided. Zhou et al. were inspired by red blood cells to synthesize electrodes with concave structures and obtain shortened Li + diffusion distances (Figure 2c), resulting in a stable conversion of polysulfides to reach a capacity of 720 mAh g -1 after 700 cycles at 2C (Li-S batteries). ...
... These chemical agents (KOH) lead to giving different activation effects to the raw material (bio-waste) precursor and revealed the use of the high microspores structures for activated carbon derived from bio-derived materials (Ferrera-Lorenzo et al., 2014;Un et al., 2015). The development of bio-derived carbons are employed with various applications for interesting fields of electrochemical devices like supercapacitor (Ma et al., 2020), batteries (Kim et al., 2015;Bakierska et al., 2019;Campbell et al., 2015), electrode fuel cell (Tian et al., 2018;Chen et al., 2018) water purification and treatment applications (SunJunfengWan et al., 2019;Ahmed and Liu, 2021). In recent years, several research are being centered on synthesis of different biomass precursors for chemical and pyrolysis process, the activated carbon was produced which results in different morphologies with a highly micro/mesoporous nature, which is in favor of promising applications for energy storage (Jiang et al., 2016(Jiang et al., , 2018. ...