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Schematic illustration of relative finger lengths and possible association with typical physical features. Physical char- acteristics that develop in distinctly masculine and feminine ways are mostly caused by sex hormones . High prenatal testos- terone exposure leads to masculine 2D/4D digit ratio (lower than 1). Female undergo less androgenisation that results in 2D/4D digit ratio higher than 1. Finger lengths are associated with some cognitive abilities and also with risk for disease development. 

Schematic illustration of relative finger lengths and possible association with typical physical features. Physical char- acteristics that develop in distinctly masculine and feminine ways are mostly caused by sex hormones . High prenatal testos- terone exposure leads to masculine 2D/4D digit ratio (lower than 1). Female undergo less androgenisation that results in 2D/4D digit ratio higher than 1. Finger lengths are associated with some cognitive abilities and also with risk for disease development. 

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Testosterone is a steroid sex hormone with an important role in the physiology in both sexes. It is involved in the development of morphological and functional parameters of the body via multiple molecular mechanisms. Intensive research focused on testosterone reveals associations with cognitive abilities and behavior and its causative role in sex...

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... androgen exposure caused significantly lower 2D/4D when compared to healthy controls (Brown et al. 2002). Animal studies on bird eggs confirmed the prenatal androgen effect on 2D/4D (Romano et al. 2005). The 2D/4D digit ratio was found to be associated with many physiological, behavioral and cognitive parameters that are sexually dimorphic and influenced by hormonal activity, even the sexual orientation ( Fig. 6). Homosexuals of both sexes have a lower 2D/4D ratio when compared to heterosexuals suggesting higher androgen levels prenatally (van Goozen et al. 2002, Rahman and Wilson 2003). Finger ratio was measured in association with reproductive success in healthy men and women. For men, there is a negative association between low 2D/4D and higher number of children or sperm counts. Women display positive relationship between higher 2D/4D and fertility (Manning and Fink 2008). Very high feminine 2D/4D can be a risk factor for breast cancer (Belcher et al. 2009, Devine et al. 2010). On the other hand, atypically low digit ratio is believed to be associated with autism spectrum disor- ders (Bloom et al. 2010, Krajmer et al. 2011). It is sug- gested that prenatal testosterone levels promote devel- opment and maintenance of traits useful in male fight- ing sports related to aggressiveness. Digit ratio 2D/4D is negatively associated with sport success in men (Manning and Taylor 2001). Low 2D/4D is also related to higher sport abilities in females (Paul et al. 2006). In studies focused on digit ratio in relation to spatial orientation, many contradictions were found. Women exposed to higher prenatal androgen levels have lower 2D/4D (man-like) and perform better in spatial test and numerical tasks than women with a higher digit ratio (woman-like) (Kempel et al. 2005). In contrast, in males improvement in spatial ability occurred after a decrease in circulating testosterone levels. In the nor- mal range of testosterone levels, feminine 2D/4D in males is linked with best results in visual spatial tasks (Sanders et al. 2002). A recent study investigating implications for the relationship between prenatal tes- tosterone and academia shows social scientists of both sexes have a ratio consistent with the male norm (0.98) whilst scientists have a digit ratio consistent with the female norm (1.00). Both of these findings propose that the relationship between the 2D:4D ratio and visuo- spatial ability may reveal a U-shaped curve or other non-linear relationship (Brosnan 2006). They provoke also some speculations that 2D/4D can be related to spatial preferences rather than ability per se (Valla and Ceci 2011). Despite the 2D/4D is consider to be a rele- vant indicator of prenatal hormonal profile, recent studies brought inconsistent or controversial results that are difficult to interpret (Forstmeier et al. 2010, Medland et al. 2010, Valla and Ceci 2011). In some studies low 2D/4D on the right hand and high 2D/4D on the left hand are used as predictors of higher prena- tal androgen levels. Data from the right hand ...

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... It is expected that the hormones, progesterone and testosterone might interact with nCoV. [12][13][14][15] Progesterone causes the endometrium transition from prolifera-tive phase to the secretory phase for maintain the blastocyst and maintain the pregnancy. It also plays an important role for maintaining the several types of tissues that are not belonged to the reproductive systems like mammary glands for breastfeeding, cardiovascular system bones. ...
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SARS-CoV-2 is drastically spread across the globe in a short period of time and affects the lives of billions. There is a need to find the promising drugs like candidates against the inhibition of novel corona virus or SARS-CoV-2. Herein, the interaction on sex hormones (testosterone and progesterone) with Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 was investigated with the help of molecular docking. The binding energy for the formation complex between the progesterone and testosterone with main protease of SARS-CoV-2 are -86.05 and -91.84 kcal/mol, respectively. From this, it can be understood that testosterone showed better binding affinity with Mpro of nCoV and thus, more inhibition of the main protease. Then, the binding was further studied using molecular dynamics simulations at different temperatures (300, 310 and 325) K. It has been observed that the formations of complex between the Mpro of nCoV with testosterone/ progesterone is better at 300 K than 310 and 325 K. Further, it is found that the more effective binding of testosterone with Mpro of nCoV is observed than the progesterone based on the RMSD, RMSF and H-bond trajectories. Results indicate the promising nature of testosterone towards the inhibition of Mpro of nCoV.
... Testosterone regulates genomic expression through its metabolites, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which binds to the androgen receptor, and estradiol, which binds to the estrogen receptor (Durdiakova et al., 2011). Little is known about the role of the androgen receptor in the mediation of PTSD symptomatology. ...
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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a devastating illness with treatment that is effective in only approximately half of the population. This limited rate of response highlights the necessity for research into underlying individual biological mechanisms that mediate development and progression of this disease, allowing for identification of patient-specific treatments. PTSD has clear sex differences in both risk and symptom patterns. Thus, one approach is to characterize trauma-related changes between men and women who exhibit differences in treatment efficacy and response to trauma. Recent technological advances in sequencing have identified several genomic loci and transcriptional changes that are associated with post-trauma symptomatology. However, although the diagnosis of PTSD is more prevalent in women, the genetic factors underlying sex differences remain poorly understood. Here, we review recent work that highlights current understanding and limitations in the field of sex differences in PTSD and related symptomatology.
... Cholesterol via desmolase activity will produce pregnenolone, converted to 17-alpha-hydroxyprognelonone, to dehydroepiandrosterone, to 4-androstene-3,17-dione, and finally to testosterone. Alternative pathway to produce testosterone is via conversion of cholesterol to progesterone, to 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, to 10 4-androstene-3,17-dione, to testosterone ( Figure 2). This hormone generally plays a role in the formation of masculine characteristics of the body. ...
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Obesity can be defined as the excess of body fat. The prevalence of obesity worldwide increases in the last decades andcauses a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases. Male subjects tend to develop visceral (abdominal) obesity, which producespro-inflammatory adipokines. Obesity in males is associated with low testosterone levels. Several mechanisms have beenproposed to explain the link between male obesity and hypotestosterone, including increased aromatization oftestosterone to form estradiol, suppressing the Hypothalamus-Pituitary (HPT) axis due to pro-inflammatory adipokines, anddecrease of Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) production. Because hypotestosterone in males with obesity is afunctional but reversible condition, it is essential to screen testosterone levels in obese males for early intervention andtreatment.
... However, the average serum testosterone levels are between 10-and 20-fold lower in females overall. Due to this difference in concentration between the genders, testosterone is usually recognized as a male sex hormone, but a commonly overlooked fact is that women are more sensitive to fluctuations in testosterone levels [8]. ...
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Testosterone’s role in female depression is not well understood, with studies reporting conflicting results. Here, we use meta-analytical and Mendelian randomization techniques to determine whether serum testosterone levels differ between depressed and healthy women and whether such a relationship is casual. Our meta-analysis shows a significant association between absolute serum testosterone levels and female depression, which remains true for the premenopausal group while achieving borderline significance in the postmenopausal group. The results from our Mendelian randomization analysis failed to show any causal relationship between testosterone and depression. Our results show that women with depression do indeed display significantly different serum levels of testosterone. However, the directions of the effect of this relationship are conflicting and may be due to menopausal status. Since our Mendelian randomization analysis was insignificant, the difference in testosterone levels between healthy and depressed women is most likely a manifestation of the disease itself. Further studies could be carried out to leverage this newfound insight into better diagnostic capabilities culminating in early intervention in female depression.
... Organizational effects during puberty play the important role in brain maturation and connections between brain areas. Progesterone and testosterone have diverging effects on the communication between amygdala and prefrontal cortex (van Wingen et al, 2010) [12]. Prefrontal cortex plays a crucial role in neuroendocrine stress responses and emotion regulation and it is characterized by high expression of genes associated with gonadal and HPA axes [7]. ...
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The excessive aggression is an actual problem of modern society but the mechanisms of aggressiveness development have not been sufficiently investigated. Women aggression is considered to differ from men one and results obtained on males cannot be extrapolated on females. Sex hormones have a crucial role in the generation of sexually dimorphic aggression circuits during development and their maintenance during adulthood. Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and sympathoadrenal system are major neuroendocrine systems that respond to stress. Stress hormones are involved into behavioral reactions of organism. Gonadal, hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axes, and sympathoadrenal system are tightly interrelated and every of them can influence another one. The purpose of the study was to estimate correlation differences between sex and stress hormones in men and women. Material and methods. Forty healthy young people aged 18 to 22 years with a body mass index of 19-24 (21 women and 19 men) were enrolled in the study. Hormone levels in blood serum were determined by Testosterone, Estradiol, Cortisol ELISA kits (Italy), Epinephrine/Norepinephrine (EPI) ELISA kit (China). Results and discussion. In all phases of the menstrual cycle, the level of cortisol in women was lower than in men, but in the luteal phase these differences were not statistically significant. In all phases of the menstrual cycle, the blood serum norepinephrine content in women was lower than in men, but in the follicular phase these differences were not statistically significant. The level of epinephrine in women during ovulation and luteal phase did not differ from the level of epinephrine in men, but in follicular phase it was significantly lower. Calculations of correlations between individual hormones revealed a significant difference between them in men and women. Positive correlations between testosterone and estradiol and between cortisol and epinephrine; a strong negative correlation between epinephrine and testosterone/norepinephrine ratio were found in men. Positive correlation between testosterone and cortisol and negative correlation between estradiol and cortisol/testosterone ratio were revealed in women. Conclusion. In women, strong correlations were found between cortisol and sex hormones; in men, strong interrelationship was revealed between cortisol and epinephrine. Both in men and in women (in all phases of the menstrual cycle), high positive correlations between testosterone/norepinephrine and cortisol/norepinephrine ratios were observed
... Androgens are key regulators of male sexual differentiation and development of a normal male phenotype. The main human androgen testosterone plays a dominant role in sexual dimorphism (Durdiakova et al. 2011). Genetic and environmental effects modulating gene expression of enzymes for steroid metabolism in the steroidogenic cascade in concordance with the modulation of expression of respective receptors imply complex and sophisticated mechanisms of androgen effects. ...
... Our research group confirmed higher testosterone concentrations in prepubertal boys with ASD in comparison to their peers from general healthy population (Ostatnikova et al. 2016). As aggression is generally more prevalent in males, testosterone was studied in relation to aggressive behavior (Constantino et al. 1993, Durdiakova et al. 2011. In ASD boys a positive correlation was described between explosive aggression and androgenic activity (Tordjman et al. 1997, Pivovarciova et al. 2014, Pivovarciova et al. 2015. ...
... From the evolutionary perspective testosterone is a precursor of estradiol, dihydrotestoterone and other metabolites rather than a hormone per se (Callard et al. 2011, Durdiakova et al. 2011. Studying its effects is, thus, complicated, biased and potentially misleading, since the activation of androgen and estrogen receptors in the particular tissues should be the true modulation factors, not the testosterone concentration in blood plasma (Hodosy et al. 2012b, Hodosy et al. 2012c. ...
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Sex and gender matter in all aspects of life. Humans exhibit sexual dimorphism in anatomy, physiology, but also pathology. Many of the differences are due to sex chromosomes and, thus, genetics, other due to endocrine factors such as sex hormones, some are of social origin. Over the past decades, huge number of scientific studies have revealed striking sex differences of the human brain with remarkable behavioral and cognitive consequences. Prenatal and postnatal testosterone influence brain structures and functions, respectively. Cognitive sex differences include especially certain spatial and language tasks, but they also affect many other aspects of the neurotypical brain. Sex differences of the brain are also relevant for the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorders, which are much more prevalent in the male population. Structural dimorphism in the human brain was well-described, but recent controversies now question its importance. On the other hand, solid evidence exists regarding gender differences in several brain functions. This review tries to summarize the current understanding of the complexity of the effects of testosterone on brain with special focus on their role in the known sex differences in healthy individuals and people in the autism spectrum.
... Testosterone is an agonist of the androgen receptor (AR) and a pro-hormone capable of being converted to the more potent androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or estradiol by 5a-reductase and aromatase, respectively. DHT cannot be aromatized to estradiol as testosterone can and exerts its biological effects through AR; estradiol does so through estrogen receptors (ERs) and GPR30 [10,11]. Androgens and estrogens are thought to mediate anti-obesogenic processes. ...
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Objective Low testosterone in men (hypogonadism) is associated with obesity and type II diabetes. Testosterone replacement therapy has been shown to reverse these effects. However, the mechanisms by which testosterone regulates total fat mass, fat distribution and metabolic health are unclear. In this study, we clarify the impact of hypogonadism on these parameters, as well as parse the role of testosterone from its downstream metabolites, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol, in the regulation of depot-specific adipose tissue mass. Methods To do this, we utilized mouse models of male hypogonadism coupled with hormone replacement therapy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), glucose tolerance tests (GTTs), flow cytometry and immunohistochemical techniques. Results We find that castrated mice develop increased fat mass, reduced muscle mass and impaired glucose metabolism compared to gonadally intact males. Interestingly, obesity is further accelerated in castrated mice fed a high fat diet, suggesting hypogonadism increases susceptibility to obesogenesis when dietary consumption of fat is elevated. By performing hormone replacement therapy in castrated mice, we show that testosterone impedes visceral and subcutaneous fat mass expansion. Whereas testosterone-derived estradiol selectively blocks visceral fat growth and DHT selectively blocks the growth of subcutaneous fat. These effects are mediated by depot-specific alterations in adipocyte size. In addition, we show that high fat diet induced adipogenesis is elevated in castrated mice and that this can be rescued by androgen treatment. Obesogenic adipogenesis is also elevated in mice where androgen receptor activity is inhibited. Conclusion These data indicate hypogonadism impairs glucose metabolism and increases obesogenic fat mass expansion through adipocyte hypertrophy and adipogenesis. In addition, our findings highlight distinct roles for testosterone, DHT and estradiol in the regulation of total fat mass and fat distribution and reveal that androgen signaling blocks obesogenic adipogenesis in vivo.
... Since steroidal hormones are synthesised from cholesterol and lysosomes play a crucial role in steroidogenesis [33], we suspected that disruptions in lysosomal hydrolases could impair hormone production. Testosterone, 17β-estradiol and progesterone act on hypothalamic structures to control sexual appetite and behaviour [34][35][36][37]. However, in the evaluated time point of MPS I progression, levels of plasma testosterone in males and progesterone and 17βestradiol in females did not differ from their control counterparts, which could explain the normal pattern of copulatory behaviour observed in these mice. ...
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Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I (MPS I) is a rare genetic lysosomal storage disease caused by a mutation of IDUA gene. IDUA codes for α-L-iduronidase (IDUA), a lysosomal hydrolase that degrades glycosaminoglycans (GAGs): heparan sulphate and dermatan sulphate. GAGs are structural and signalling molecules that have a crucial role in controlling a variety of cell functions and their interaction with the extracellular matrix. Because of GAG's widespread action in cellular metabolism, MPS I is a progressive and disabling multisystemic disorder. Nowadays, the therapies available allowed patients to reach the adult life and the consequences of the disease in their reproductive system are mostly unknown. We aimed to investigate whether IDUA disruption influences sexual behaviour and sexual steroid production in male and female MPS I mice. We used 3 and 6-month-old male and 3-month-old female Idua+/_ and Idua-/- mice to evaluate typical rodent copulatory behaviours. In males we observed the frequency and latency of mounts, intromissions and ejaculations. In females, we evaluated the lordosis quotient. We also analysed the locomotor capacity of mice in the open field test, since mobility is essential for copulatory behaviour. We also quantified steroidal hormonal levels in plasmatic samples. We detected an increase in the latencies of intromissions in Idua-/- males when compared to Idua+/_. However, the number of intromissions was not statistically different between groups. No parameter of female sexual behaviour was statistically different between control and knockout females. In both sexes, we detected diminished mobility in Idua-/- mice. Plasma hormone levels did not differ between Idua+/_ and Idua-/- mice, both in males and females. Although the motor disability predicted to MPS I animals, we concluded that in the considered time point of MPS I progression studied, mice are able to perform sexual behaviour.
... Testosterone related to the sex hormones that react with androgen receptors. In males, testosterone is naturally produced from the cholesterol through multiple enzymatic mechanisms, mostly in the Leydig cells of the testes and the adrenal glands [6]. In addtion, Increased biosynthesis of testosterone and high plasma levels depend on the regulation of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and the catalyzing Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc). ...
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Exposure to high doses of radiation negatively impacts on human organs. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale ) L. has been used as a traditional folk. This study was to investigate the effect of dandelion root extract (DRE) on radiation -induced hepatic and testicular tissues injury. Animals were exposed to 8.5 Gy of gamma radiation applied as a shot dose and DRE (200 mg/kg/day), was orally supplemented to rats 14 days before and after irradiation. The results showed that DRE administration attenuated oxidative stress in the liver and testis denoted by a significant reduction in the level of MDA and PCO with a marked elevation in GSH and the activity of SOD, CAT and Gpx. Moreover, DRE administration showed positive modulation in the activity of PNPase, GLDH and GSH-Ts. Additionally, these alterations were associated with a significant decrease in the activity of ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH with a marked increase of AL level. Further, elevated levels of testosterone, LH and inhibin B, as well as StAR and P450scc gene expression and Zn level with a decrease of FSH level were noticed. Also, DRE reduced the level of IL-1β, TNF-α, and caspase-3. Also administration of DRE significance diminished the histopathological changes in the hepatic and testicular tissues, denoted by a reduction in the necrotic and degenerative changes of hepatocytes or fibrinoid necrosis of congested central vein and improving the seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissue between the tubules of the testis. In conclusion, treatment with DRE pre-irradiation is effective on both liver and testicular tissues of rats. Meanwhile, in the case of post-radiation administration, DRE was more effective on testicular tissue than liver. So we suggest that it is better to use the dandelion before exposure to radiation rather than after it.
... As for hormones, testosterone is reported to have a crucial influence on the course of anxiety disorders (4). Testosterone, often referred as a male hormone, is also present in women, although in about 10 times lower concentrations (5). It is hypothesized that its higher concentrations in males might be one of the reasons for the sex differences in prevalence of anxiety (4). ...
... Females were proved to have more sensitive receptor binding testosterone despite about 10 times lower levels of testosterone than have males (2,5). This can be seen also in our study-premenopausal women with anxiety symptomatology had higher total testosterone levels, but the mean levels were still within the reference range. ...
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Background: Several studies have shown a positive association between anxiety and obesity, particularly in women. We aimed to study whether sex hormone alterations related to obesity might play a role in this association. Patients and methods: Data for this study were obtained from a population-based cohort study (the LIFE-Adult-Study). A total of 3,124 adult women (970 premenopausal and 2,154 postmenopausal) were included into the analyses. The anxiety symptomatology was assessed using the GAD-7 questionnaire (cut-off ≥ 10 points). Sex hormones were measured from fasting serum samples. Results: We did not find significant differences in anxiety prevalence in premenopausal obese women compared with normal-weight controls (4.8% vs. 5.5%). Both obesity and anxiety symptomatology were separately associated with the same sex hormone alteration in premenopausal women: higher total testosterone level (0.97 ± 0.50 in obese vs. 0.86 ± 0.49 nmol/L in normal-weight women, p = 0.026 and 1.04 ± 0.59 in women with vs. 0.88 ± 0.49 nmol/L in women without anxiety symptomatology, p = 0.023). However, women with anxiety symptomatology had non-significantly higher estradiol levels than women without anxiety symptomatology (548.0 ± 507.6 vs. 426.2 ± 474.0 pmol/L), whereas obesity was associated with lower estradiol levels compared with those in normal-weight group (332.7 ± 386.5 vs. 470.8 ± 616.0 pmol/L). Women with anxiety symptomatology had also significantly higher testosterone and estradiol composition (p = 0.006). No associations of sex hormone levels and BMI with anxiety symptomatology in postmenopausal women were found. Conclusions: Although both obesity and anxiety symptomatology were separately associated with higher testosterone level, there was an opposite impact of anxiety and obesity on estradiol levels in premenopausal women. We did not find an evidence that the sex hormone alterations related to obesity are playing a significant role in anxiety symptomatology in premenopausal women. This could be the explanation why we did not find an association between obesity and anxiety. In postmenopausal women, other mechanisms seem to work than in the premenopausal group.