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Schematic illustration of a clarifier, as usually employed after a typical aerated biological system

Schematic illustration of a clarifier, as usually employed after a typical aerated biological system

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The pulp and paper (P&P) industry worldwide has achieved substantial progress in treating both process water and wastewater, thus limiting the discharge of pollutants to receiving waters. This review covers a variety of wastewater treatment methods, which provide P&P companies with cost-effective ways to limit the release of biological or chemical...

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... most common system to remove organic material from wastewater, with 100 years of tradition, involves aeration and the recirculation of a portion of the sludge back to the intake of the system, i.e. an activated sludge system ( Liver et al. 1993;Pere et al. 1993;Scott and Ollis 1995;Nakamura et al. 1997;Novak et al. 1998;Sarlin et al. 1999;Thompson et al. 2001;Diez et al. 2002;Kostamo and Kukkonen 2003;Mahmood and Elliott 2006;Agridiotis et al. 2007;Chakrabari et al. 2008;Elliott and Mahmood 2012;Kaluža et al. 2014). Figure 9 provides a schematic illustration of a clarifier unit that would follow such treatment. When further efficiency is needed or there is not sufficient space for a gravity-based clarifier, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) or other type of bioreactor with a mixed or moving bed can be used. ...

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... Among them, the removal of rhodamine B from aqueous solution using MOF/CNM composites has been widely investigated because of their wide applicability in textile, food, microfluidics, and biological industries. Though conventional wastewater treatment can effectively remove most of the solids and biological oxygen demand from wastewater, industrial dyes present in the water are inherently difficult to treat [172]. The use of cellulose-based adsorbent materials to remove such dyes from water has been reviewed [173]. ...
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... However, not all of these enzymes may be beneficial to the pulp refining process. For example, production of glucose by β-glucosidases is not desired from an industrial point of view due to increases in the chemical oxygen demand requiring extensive wastewater treatment (Hubbe et al., 2016;Mlaik et al., 2020;Singhania et al., 2013;L. Zhang et al., 2017). ...
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... Therefore, many pulp and paper plants are required to minimize the pollutants amount and use reclaimed water to fulfill production demand. However, the presence of organic and inorganic pollutants and emerging contaminants in pulp and paper wastewater (PPWW) is a major concern for water reuse (Andersson and Harvey 2006;Miranda et al. 2009;Balabanič et al. 2017), which necessitates the development and implementation of cost-effective technologies for PPWW treatment (Hubbe et al. 2016). ...
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... chlorinated resin acids, chlorinated phenols, guaiacols, catechols, benzaldehydes, vanillins, syringovanillins, and chloropropioguaiacols, as well as products of lignin degradation, notably chlorolignins (Hubbe et al., 2016), many of which can be detrimental to biological processes through toxicity (Chen et al., 2014;Yin et al., 2001). As mentioned, most nutrients in pulp and paper wastewaters tend to be low. ...
... These compounds include resin acids, fatty acids, sterols, diterpene alcohols, and tannins. They are among the main contributors to pulp mill effluent toxicity but are also resistant to chemical degradation (Hubbe et al., 2016). ...
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Throughout history, the first and foremost role of urban water management has been the protection of human health and the local aquatic environment. To this end, the practice of (waste-)water treatment has maintained a central focus on the removal of pollutants through dissipative pathways. Approaches like – in the case of wastewater treatment – the activated sludge process, which makes ‘hazardous things’ disappear, have benefitted our society tremendously by safeguarding human and environmental health. While conventional (waste-)water treatment is regarded as one of the greatest engineering achievements of the 20th century, these dissipative approaches will not suffice in the 21st century as we enter the era of the circular economy. A key challenge for the future of urban water management is the need to re-envision the role of water infrastructure, still holding paramount the safeguard of human and environmental health while also becoming a more proactive force for sustainable development through the recovery of resources embedded in urban water. This book aims (i) to explain the basic principles governing resource recovery from water (how much is there, really); (ii) to provide a comprehensive overview and critical assessment of the established and emerging technologies for resource recovery from water; and (iii) to put resource recovery from water in a legal, economic (including the economy of scale of recovered products), social (consumer's point of view), and environmental sustainability framework. This book serves as a powerful teaching tool at the graduate entry master level with an aim to help develop the next generation of engineers and experts and is also highly relevant for seasoned water professionals and practicing engineers. ISBN: 9781789060317 (Paperback) ISBN: 9781780409566 (eBook)
... The CCRI-NEERI ETP unit is basically an anaerobic-cum-aerobic digestion method and it takes about a month time for treating the coffee effluent (Shanmukhappa et al., 1998). Several reports have been published for the treatment of coffee effluent following physio-chemical (Aguilera et al., 1998;Bhaskar et al., 2008;Tokumura et al., 2008;Asha et al., 2015;Panchangam et al., 2015;Hermosilla, 2016;Tomizawa et al., 2016;Sahana et al., 2018 andVeymar et al., 2019), chemicals (Teresa et al., 2007;Zayas Péerez et al., 2007;Novita et al., 2012 andWorkineh et al., 2020), biological (Selvamurugan et al., 2010, Yans Guardia Puebla et al., 2013, Chagas et al., 2015Padmapriya et al., 2015;Hubbe et al., 2016;Torres et al,. 2016;Cruz-Salomón et. ...
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The issues of wastewater containing different contaminants are insurmountable, as they cause major threats to aquatic ecosystems. The stages of treatment technologies may consist of or a combination of chemical, biological, or physical processes, depending on the wastewater characteristics, the climate, and the resources available. Among all, due to its simple operation in high volume with high performance, easy to functional sorbent preparation and reuse, the removal of contaminants by adsorption gains more interest. Biochar, a durable, low-cost carbon-rich material, is a promising agent for evacuating various organic and inorganic pollutants in wastewater due to its high adsorption properties. Functionally modified surface biochar is currently being developed to improve its ability to remove contaminants in wastewater and other bioremediation applications. This chapter offers clear information about the wastewater treatment process using biochar and knowledge gaps in biochar-based remediation of wastewater.
... Industries require large quantities of water. For instance, in the paper industry, it causes production and release of industrial wastewaters that contain a large amount of organic chemical contamination (Biological Oxygen Demand 5 and Chemical Oxygen Demand), hazardous substances such as sulfites, phenols and tannins, and lignin that significantly contaminate the environment (Hubbe et al. 2016;Kour et al. 2021;Kumar et al. 2021). Adequate measures are essential to purify the released water before it reaches the environment (Stanisavljevic et al. 2018). ...
Chapter
Cellulose is one of the most copious natural glucose biopolymers (linked by β-1,4-glycosidic linkages) that are derived from living organisms on the earth. Plants are the largest contributors of cellulose in the cellulose pool of the biosphere as plant cell walls contain cellulose in the lignocellulosic form. Cellulose is water-insoluble and therefore requires enzymatic actions for its degradation. However, the hydrolysis of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars, sugar acids, and phenolics is the reason why it is successfully exploited as substrates in industries. Microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, and actinomycetes contribute largely to these lignocellulolytic activities by producing cellulases and other lignocellulolytic enzymes and therefore have been used extensively in cellulose-based industries ranging from food to biofuel production. Fungi have been a preferred source over the other microbes to produce lignocellulolytic enzymes owing to their ability to secrete extracellular cellulases in high quantities and are easily accessible. The chapter highlights the importance of fungal cellulases and related enzymes, their various industrial applications and emphasizes the importance of these hydrolytic enzymes to secure an eco-friendly environment, boost economics, and improve the livelihood of humans.
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