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Schematic diagram of the SARS coronavirus structure (reproduced from ref. 20).The viral surface proteins (spike, envelope and membrane) are embedded in a lipid bilayer envelope derived from the host cell. Unlike group 2 coronaviruses, SARS-CoV does not possess a hemagglutinin esterase glycoprotein. The single-stranded positive-sense viral RNA is associated with the nucleocapsid protein.

Schematic diagram of the SARS coronavirus structure (reproduced from ref. 20).The viral surface proteins (spike, envelope and membrane) are embedded in a lipid bilayer envelope derived from the host cell. Unlike group 2 coronaviruses, SARS-CoV does not possess a hemagglutinin esterase glycoprotein. The single-stranded positive-sense viral RNA is associated with the nucleocapsid protein.

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Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was caused by a previously unrecognized animal coronavirus that exploited opportunities provided by 'wet markets' in southern China to adapt to become a virus readily transmissible between humans. Hospitals and international travel proved to be 'amplifiers' that permitted a local outbreak to achieve global d...

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... these deletions, however, is not clear. Similarly, SARS-CoV in individuals before February 2003 was genetically more diverse than the later isolates 26,34,35 . The spike protein (the viral surface glyco- protein which mediates viral attachment and entry into the cell; Fig. 3) of early isolates contained higher rates of nonsynonymous mutations, probably reflecting the ongoing adaptation to the new host. The relative genetic homogeneity of SARS-CoV isolates from later in the outbreak 34-37 may reflect a virus better adapted to the new host. The fact that much of the global spread arose from one index case in ...
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... using pseudotyped lentiviruses, carrying the spike, membrane and envelope surface glycoproteins of SARS-CoV (Fig. 3) separately and in combination demonstrated that the spike protein is both neces- sary and sufficient for virus attachment on susceptible cells [74][75][76][77] . The SARS-CoV spike protein uses a mechanism similar to that of class 1 fusion proteins in mediating membrane fusion 78,79 . There is no con- sensus as to whether the virus ...

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... E merging coronaviruses (CoVs) of wildlife origin have significantly disrupted global health security and economies during the last two decades 1,2 . Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) CoVs caused significant human morbidity and mortality in 2002 and 2012 respectively 3,4 . Swine Acute Diarrheal Syndrome CoV caused substantial mortality in pigs in southern China during 2016 and 2019 5,6 . ...
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... In 2002, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) emerged in Guangdong Province, China, and caused a disease with the same name. 3,31 The virus rapidly spread to more than 27 countries, resulting in more than 8000 human infections and 774 deaths between 2002 and 2004, with a lethality rate of approximately 10%. 4,32 In 2012, a novel betacoronavirus called Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first identified in a Saudi Arabian patient suffering from a severe respiratory disease that was later named Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). ...
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... The first epidemic was recorded in 2002-2003 with SARS-CoV-1. It started in in the southeast of China before reaching a total of 29 countries (WHO, 2002) and infecting 8,000 people (Peiris et al., 2004). The mortality rate was approximately 10%, reaching up to 50% in the elderly (SARS, 2003). ...
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... Coronaviruses predominantly circulate among non-human hosts, with rare crossspecies transmission to humans through handling of infected wild and domestic animals [23][24][25]. Until 2003, and prior to the identification of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) [26,27] as the causative agent of the SARS pandemic of 2002-2003 [28], only 229E and OC43, isolated nearly 60 years ago [29][30][31], were known to infect humans. Not long after the identification of SARS-CoV-1, NL63 and HKU1 were identified in 2004 and 2005, respectively [32,33]. ...
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... All available evidence for COVID-19 suggests that SARS-CoV-2 has a zoonotic source. The clinical signs and symptoms and the genetic similarity of the pathogen to the SARS-CoV virus resulted in the taxonomic characterization of a new coronavirus identified as SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) (Peiris, Guan & Yuen, 2004, Cui, Li & Shi, 2019, Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, 2020, Lai, Shih, Ko, Tang & Hsueh, 2020, World Health Organization, 2020a. In January 2020, the outbreak of COVID-19 was declared by WHO as a Public Health Emergency of International Importance, and on March 11 the pandemic of COVID-19 in the world was declared (World Health Organization, 2020b). ...
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... Among the several CoVs, most of the patients were associated with minor clinical symptoms and a good prognosis [9]. In November 2002, Guangdong, southern China, was affected by a novel beta coronavirus and resulted in more than 8000 human infections [10]. Furthermore, approximately 800 deaths in 37 countries were reported between 2002 and 2003 [11]. ...
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Globally, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has badly affected the medical system and economy. Sometimes, the deadly COVID-19 has the same symptoms as other chest diseases such as pneumonia and lungs cancer and can mislead the doctors in diagnosing coronavirus. Frontline doctors and researchers are working assiduously in finding the rapid and automatic process for the detection of COVID-19 at the initial stage, to save human lives. However, the clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 is highly subjective and variable. The objective of this study is to implement a multi-classification algorithm based on deep learning (DL) model for identifying the COVID-19, pneumonia, and lung cancer diseases from chest radiographs. In the present study, we have proposed a model with the combination of Vgg-19 and convolutional neural networks (CNN) named BDCNet and applied it on different publically available benchmark databases to diagnose the COVID-19 and other chest tract diseases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to diagnose the three chest diseases in a single deep learning model. We also computed and compared the classification accuracy of our proposed model with four well-known pre-trained models such as ResNet-50, Vgg-16, Vgg-19, and inception v3. Our proposed model achieved an AUC of 0.9833 (with an accuracy of 99.10%, a recall of 98.31%, a precision of 99.9%, and an f1-score of 99.09%) in classifying the different chest diseases. Moreover, CNN-based pre-trained models VGG-16, VGG-19, ResNet-50, and Inception-v3 achieved an accuracy of classifying multi-diseases are 97.35%, 97.14%, 97.15%, and 95.10%, respectively. The results revealed that our proposed model produced a remarkable performance as compared to its competitor approaches, thus providing significant assistance to diagnostic radiographers and health experts.
... [1] It is a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) that began in southern China during 2002, Guangdong, which caused human infections to death in more than 8000 and 775, respectively expended in 37 countries. [2,3] After a decade in Saudi Arabia in, 2012 an additional epidemic was witnessed in the form of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). [4] In addition, more than 2500 confirmed laboratory cases of infections and approximately 170 deaths while <80% of cases were reported from Saudi Arabia. ...
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Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by a novel coronavirus-2 (CoV-2), also known as COVID-19, has spread rapidly worldwide since it is recognized as a public health emergency and has now been declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020, by the World Health Organization. The genome of SARS-CoV-2 comprises a single-stranded positive-sense RNA approximately 27 to 30 kb in size. The virus is transmitted through droplets from humans to humans. Infection with the SARS virus varies from asymptomatic to lethal, such as fever, cough, sore throat, and headache, but in severe cases, pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Recently, no specific and effective treatment has been recommended for patients infected with the SARS virus. However, several options can be investigated to control SARS-CoV-2 infection, including monoclonal antibodies, interferons, therapeutic vaccines, and molecular-based targeted drugs. In the current review, we focus on tyrosine kinase inhibitor management and their protective role in SARS-CoV-2 patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia.
... However, their extension to humans as hosts is a recent phenomenon wherein it mostly causes mild respiratory and gastrointestinal problems (6). Some of the earlier known exceptions to this include severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus in 2002 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus in 2012 (7,8). A novel human infecting Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 was identified from Wuhan, China in December 2019 (9). ...
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Background: Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are 1 - 6 bp repeat motif sequences present across both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes with various clinical implications besides being tools for conservation and evolutionary studies. Objectives: Analysis of 33 Coronavirus genomes, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), for incidence, distribution, and complexity of SSRs patterns to understand their role in host divergence and evolution. Methods: Full-length genome sequences were extracted from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Extraction of microsatellites was done using imperfect microsatellite extractor (IMEx) in “Advanced Mode”. Sequences were aligned with MAFFT v6.861b and the maximum likelihood tree was inferred using RAxML v8.1.20 of the GTR + GAMMA+I model with default specifications. Results: A total of 3,442 SSRs and 136 complex sequence repeats (cSSRs) were extracted from the studied 33 genomes. SSR incidence ranged from 82 (CV09) to 144 (CV60). cSSR incidence ranged from 1 (CV42, CV43, CV53) to 11 (CV32). CV61 (SARS-CoV-2) had 107 SSRs and 6 SSRs. Di-nucleotide motifs were the most prevalent followed by tri- and mono-nucleotide motifs. TG/GT was the most represented di-nucleotide motif, followed by CA/AC. In tri-nucleotide SSRs, ACA/TGT was the most represented motif followed by CAA/GTT, whereas in mono-nucleotide SSRs, T was the most observed nucleotide, followed by A. About 94% of SSRs were localized to the coding region. Twenty species, including CV61 (SARS-CoV-2), exhibit mono-nucleotide repeats exclusively in the A/T region, which were clustered in phylogenetic analysis. The sequence similarity of the genomes was assessed through heat map analysis and revealed similar sequences are expectedly placed in proximity on the phylogenetic tree. Conclusions: Mono-nucleotide exclusivity to A/T region and SSR genome signature can be a possible basis for predicting the evolution of viruses in terms of host range.