Schematic diagram of a forming osteon or bone remodelling unit. Osteoclasts (bone resorbing cells) cut a longitudinal tunnel through existing cortical bone. The tunnel is subsequently infilled by osteoblasts (bone forming cells), which lay down new layers of bone arranged concentrically around a central space called a Haversian canal.  

Schematic diagram of a forming osteon or bone remodelling unit. Osteoclasts (bone resorbing cells) cut a longitudinal tunnel through existing cortical bone. The tunnel is subsequently infilled by osteoblasts (bone forming cells), which lay down new layers of bone arranged concentrically around a central space called a Haversian canal.  

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Pregnancy and lactation are periods of high calcium requirement due to the additional physiological demands imposed on the mother by the developing foetus or infant. Some of the required calcium is released from the maternal skeleton through an increase in bone remodelling. This study uses quantitative bone histomorphometry to seek microscopic evid...

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... intracortically through the development of secondary osteons. Secondary osteons are created by coordinated teams of cells which together form a bone remodelling unit (Parfitt 1994). Bone remodelling units tunnel through cortical bone, resorbing existing bone tissue and laying down new bone which is organised concentrically around Haversian canals (Fig. 1). The changes in structural organisation that result from bone remodelling are visible in microradiographs, scanning electron micrographs, confocal microscope images and in thin sections of bone viewed under plain or polarised transmitted light (Bell & Piper 2000;Schultz 2001). Intracortical remodelling has been implicated in ...

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... Osteon diameter was calculated using a geometrical method used in Chamberlain and Forbes [27] where the maximum and minimum width of the osteon is measured and averaged, which are then converted to numerical values, thus arriving at the value in μm. This is repeated for the largest and smallest osteon in several zones per locus and then averaged to give the average osteon size in that region. ...
... Various interactions between stress and bone histology have been documented in previous work. Chamberlain and Forbes [27] have connected lactation in mammals with bone remodeling, using cattle as a case study. According to this study, the bone cortex of lactating mothers undergoes intensive restructuring due to the loss of minerals through the milk, leading to the formation of secondary osteons. ...
... It was observed that the modern specimens fall into roughly two categoriessmaller bones with thick cortices and larger bones with thinner cortices. This is explained by the aforementioned model of bone loss due to both age and lactation, as given in Chamberlain and Forbes [27] or Horwitz and Smith [32], explaining the thinner cortical rings in older animals as compared to younger. This demarcation is also present in the archaeological samples from the transitional period, but to a lesser degree as generally all the archaeological specimens have a thinner cortex in general (Fig. 2a). ...
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Bone Histology, particularly the study of osteon morphology and morphometry is used extensively by palaeontologists to reconstruct pre-mortem conditions in large vertebrates. The skeletal system is dynamic and undergoes modification throughout an animal’s life cycle in response to various physical and environmental stimuli, most notably in the remodelling and reconfiguration of skeletal tissue at the microscopic level. The size, shape and distribution of osteons in the long bones of a vertebrate animal have often been proved to reflect various changes engineered by adverse environmental conditions. The present work assumes that the exploitation of domestic animals - especially when carried out intensively over a relatively short period - can engender similar changes in the osteon microstructures of these animals through activity such as herd migration, fattening, confinement and so on. Taking the Late Jorwe phase at the Deccan Chalcolithic site of Inamgaon as a case study, the present work carries out a histological examination of bone samples of Sheep (Ovis aries) and Goat (Capra hircus), which were intensively exploited at the site during this period. The shape, frequency and configuration of osteons (and other histological features) are recorded and correlated with the different phases of exploitation in order to determine their effect on the skeletal tissues.
... " While a fair amount is known about osteons, especially in taxa determination (e.g. Foote 1913; Mátyás 1927; Enlow and Brown 1956–58), ageing of Homo sapiens (Pfeiffer 1992; Robling and Stout 2000), a bit about aspects of domestication (Richardson et al. 1961; Lasota-Moskalewska and Moskalewski 1982; Gilbert 1989; Forbes 1994; Chamberlain and Forbes 2001, in press), and certain aspects of stress (Burger et al. 2001; Skedros 2001) and disease (Pfeiffer 2000); more focus needs to be put on the usual suspects – cows, pigs, goats, horses, dogs – as well as deer, birds, and other common game and commensal animals, especially in terms of ageing. Acknowledgments I would like to thank Deborah Ruscillo for care in organizing the ICAZ ageing and sexing session and her support and help throughout the session and editing this volume. ...
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Microscopic analysis of bones, teeth, and other animal hard tissue can yield considerable information. The most intensively studied of such structures are growth rings and osteons. “Growth rings” accrue to the periosteal surface of many bones as well as in teeth, reflecting annual and shorter periods. Where bone rebuilding has not destroyed them, they can often provide an accurate ageing device despite some problems with readability. The mandible is generally the best bone for this kind of ageing. Various vertebrates have been studied, with differing degrees of accuracy. “Osteons” refers to systems of conduits (and associated structures) for small blood vessels and nerves that grow and run lengthwise in much compact bone of many vertebrates. Osteons respond to the stress and strain of life, and this allows for their use in ageing bones. Various bones, e.g. femur, humerus, and rib, have been used with differing degrees of success and accuracy. Two general approaches are used: quantitative and qualitative. The latter, used in continental Europe, appears to be easier, more objective, and probably more accurate, but both consist of determining the relative frequency or area of various kinds of osteons, their parts and/or their fragments. Much less effective and concerted have been attempts to use osteons for sexing, though under certain conditions this can be done. The methods and techniques commonly used for studying osteons, including the preparation of thinsections with a microtome or taking of microradiographs, are not very difficult, but they do take some time to learn and to carry out. Advantages of using osteons include their being relatively resistant to fire and other abuses common to archaeological settings, their being able to be studied in small fragments of bones, and their presence in robust bones. Most but not all osteon work dealing with ageing and sexing has been done on human materials. A definite need exists for extending these efforts to more taxa, especially other long-lived ones and ones with marked sexual dimorphism.
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Art und Weise des Nahrungserwerbs war in der vorgeschichtlichen Zeit verschiedenen Veränderungen unterworfen, von denen der Übergang von der über-wiegend aneignenden Lebensweise des Paläolithikums zur überwiegend produzierenden des Neolithikums und späterer Epochen nur die bedeutendste markiert. Damit dürften auch Veränderungen in der relativen Zusam-mensetzung der Nährstoffe verbunden gewesen sein. Unter diesen kommen die Proteine am stärksten dem Aufbau von Körperstrukturen zugute, so daß der Ei-weißgehalt ein häufig herangezogenes Qualitätskriteri-um zur Beurteilung der Nahrungsversorgung darstellt. Nachweisbar ist die vorgeschichtliche Versorgung mit Eiweiß jedoch nur indirekt, weswegen in diesem Bei-trag zunächst verschiedene Nachweisansätze skizziert und einige zu vermutende Veränderungen in der Ver-sorgung thesenhaft aufgezeigt werden, bevor mit der menschlichen Körperhöhe ein weiterer Indikator vor-gestellt wird. Dieser bildet die Zielvariable in dem seit 2011 am Institut für Prähistorische Archäologie der FU Berlin laufenden und von der DFG geförderten Projekt "Lebensbedingungen und biologischer Lebensstan-dard in der Vorgeschichte Europas und Südwestasiens (LiVES)" 1 . Die archäozoologische Forschung kann mittels der Tierartenbestimmung, anhand von Schlachtspuren, über Knochengewichte und Mindestindividuenzahlen quantifizierende Aussagen über das Eiweißangebot in Form von Fleisch machen 2 . Die Archäobotanik hin-gegen kann für pflanzliche Eiweißquellen, zu denen insbesondere die Hülsenfrüchte zählen, hier oft nur begrenzt quantitative Angaben machen . Unter den tie-rischen Eiweißquellen ist die Milchnutzung besonders schwierig nachzuweisen, da sie osteologisch bisher kaum am Fundmaterial ablesbar ist . Die geschlechts-spezifische Zusammensetzung sowie Schlachtal-teranalysen erlauben zumindest theoretisch die Unterscheidung zwischen der Fleisch-und Sekundär-produktnutzung , doch letztere umfaßt auch die Nut-zung von Haaren und Wolle und die Arbeitsleistung. Artefakte, wie z. B. die seit der Linienbandkeramik 1 Details zum Projekt finden sich unterNachwuchsgruppe/index.html. Dieser Text entstand im Jubiläumsjahr 2009 im Vorfeld der Antragsstellung an die DFG und wurde 2010 eingereicht; für die Drucklegung wurde er 201 inhalt-lich gekürzt und insbesondere im Bereich der Statistik überarbeitet. Neu erschienene Literatur konnte nur in Ausnahmefällen berücksich-tigt werden. Ich danke