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Schematic description of the Bourban trunk muscle strength test (a: the ventral trunk muscle chain test, b: the lateral trunk muscle chain test, c: the dorsal trunk muscle chain test).

Schematic description of the Bourban trunk muscle strength test (a: the ventral trunk muscle chain test, b: the lateral trunk muscle chain test, c: the dorsal trunk muscle chain test).

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Article
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Background: It has been demonstrated that core strength training is an effective means to enhance trunk muscle strength (TMS) and proxies of physical fitness in youth. Of note, cross-sectional studies revealed that the inclusion of unstable elements in core strengthening exercises produced increases in trunk muscle activity and thus provide potenti...

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Context 1
... permission was given by the ethics committee of the University of Potsdam (submission No. 26/2014) and all experiments were conducted accord- ing to the latest version of the declaration of Helsinki. Written informed consent was obtained from the participant for publication of Figure 2a-c. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor of this journal. ...
Context 2
... were applied in randomized order with a 10 min rest between the tests. During the ventral trunk muscle chain test, subjects were in prone bridge position on their elbows and toes (Figure 2a). Legs were extended, elbows shoulder-widths apart, and forearms lay flat on a fitness mat. ...
Context 3
... to recommendations regarding absolute reliability [18], the ventral test can be classified as reliable with a coefficient of variation of 14.1% [19]. During the lateral trunk muscle chain test, subjects were in a side bridge position with legs extended, the upper foot placed on top of the lower foot, and the supporting shoulder superior to the respective elbow ( Figure 2b). The supporting forearm was placed flat on the fitness mat and the uninvolved arm was held akimbo. ...
Context 4
... to recommendations regarding absolute reliability [18], the lateral test can be classified as reliable with a coefficient of variation (CoV) of 14.6% [19]. During the dorsal trunk muscle chain test, subjects lay prone on a wooden box while maintaining an unsupported trunk (from the upper border of the iliac crest) (Figure 2c). Participants held their arms across the chest, hands rested on the shoulders, legs were extended, and the feet were firmly fixed in wall bars. ...

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... A straight line from the lateral malleolus to the trochanter major, glenohumeral joint and the greater trochanter was mandatory. At the subject's lower back an adjustable alignment device was put into contact at the level of the iliac crest (26). This device consisted of a stable vertical pole and two vertically adjustable horizontal rods (27). ...
... The dorsal chain ( Figure 1B) was tested laying prone on a long box with the trunk not being supported (from the upper border of the iliac crest) (26). Arms had to be held across the chest with hands being rested on the shoulders. ...
... Arms had to be held across the chest with hands being rested on the shoulders. While the feet had to be firmly fixed within the wood bars behind the box at the wall, the legs had to be fully extended (26). A mechanical goniometer assured the horizontal positioning during the whole execution. ...
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Handball is an Olympic contact sport with high physical, tactical, and technical demands by the players. Out of the different techniques, throwing is the most important one to be able to score. The objective of the study was to investigate the relationships between core muscle strength endurance (Bourban test: ventral, dorsal and lateral chain) and shoulder mobility/stability (Upper Quarter Y Balance test [YBT-UQ]) as well as throwing velocity in adolescent male sub-elite handball players ( N = 32, age: 17.1 ± 0.7 years, height: 181.8 ± 6.3 cm, BMI: 24.6 ± 4.9 kg/m ² ). All participants were free of injuries at least two weeks prior to the study, experienced (training experience: 8.5 ± 3.3 years) handball players who were tested mid-season in the evening of one of their training sessions. Pearson correlations were calculated for core muscle strength endurance with (a) shoulder mobility/stability and (b) throwing velocity. The throwing arm reach displayed significant correlations (both p < 0.05) between the Bourban test (ventral chain) and the inferolateral reach direction (IL) of the YBT-UQ ( r = 0.41) as well as the composite score (CS) ( r = 0.34). For the dorsal chain, significant correlations (all p < 0.01) were found for the medial (MD) ( r = 0.42) and IL ( r = 0.61) reach direction as well as the CS ( r = 0.51). For the right but not the left side of the lateral chain, significant correlations (both p < 0.05) were detected for the IL reach direction ( r = 0.40) and the CS ( r = 0.35). For the non-throwing arm reach, significant correlations were found between the ventral chain and the MD reach direction ( r = 0.53, p < 0.01) as well as the CS ( r = 0.31, p < 0.05). For the dorsal chain, significant correlations (all p < 0.01) were found for the MD ( r = 0.47) and IL ( r = 0.44) reach direction as well as the CS ( r = 0.41). For the lateral chain, significant correlations were detected for the MD (left and right side: r = 0.49, p < 0.01) and IL (left and right side: r = 0.35, p < 0.05) reach direction as well as the CS (left and right side: r = 0.37, p < 0.05). The dorsal chain but not the ventral and lateral chain of the Bourban test showed a significant correlation with throwing velocity ( r = 0.33, p < 0.05). Our results indicate that better core muscle strength endurance is associated with better shoulder mobility/stability as well as partially higher throwing velocity of adolescent male sub-elite handball players. Therefore, practitioners should integrate core muscle strength endurance exercises into the training routines to improve upper-extremity performance of this target group.
... The present intervention focused on a floor-based core strengthening training. The program consisted of the "big 3" core exercises cross curl-ups, the side bridge (both sides), and the quadrupedal stance ("birddog exercise") as proposed by McGill (21) and Granacher et al. (22). Both the participants of the INT and the CON group performed their regular handball training routine (three times per week, 90 min per session) throughout the duration of the intervention. ...
... All training sessions took place midst the competition period. To assure progression, the training intensity was increased every week by the change from static to dynamic movements and an increase in time from 45 s over 60 s to 75 s every 2 weeks as proposed by Granacher et al. (22) and Kuhn et al. (14) (see Table 2). ...
... The feet were put on a fitness map while their knees remained in a flexed position. In the following, the subjects curled-up until the scapula left the fitness mat (22). The subjects rotated to the left and the right alternately at a 60 bpm speed being assured by a metronome during the dynamic execution. ...
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The objective was to investigate the effects of a 6-week core strengthening training within the regular handball training sessions compared to regular handball training only. Male sub-elite handball players were randomly assigned to an intervention (INT: n = 13; age: 16.9 ± 0.6 years) or a control (CON: n = 13; age: 17.2 ± 0.8 years) group. The INT group performed the “big 3” core exercises cross curls-up, side bridge (both sides), and the quadrupedal stance (“birddog exercise”) triweekly for 20–30 min while the CON group conducted regular handball training only. Pre- and post-training assessments included measures of muscular endurance (Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability Test [CKCUEST] and the Bourban test), shoulder mobility/stability (Upper Quarter Y Balance [YBT-UQ] test), and throwing velocity. The ANCOVA revealed significant differences between means in favour of the INT group for the dorsal chain ( p < 0.001, η p 2 = 0.46) and the lateral chain (left side: p = 0.015, η p 2 = 0.22; right side: p = 0.039, η p 2 = 0.17) of the Bourban test, the composite score ( p = 0.024, η p 2 = 0.20) of the throwing arm reach and the inferolateral reach direction ( p = 0.038, η p 2 = 0.17), and the composite score ( p = 0.027, η p 2 = 0.19) of the non-throwing arm reach of the YBT-UQ. However, performance in the CKCUEST and throwing velocity did not show any group-specific changes. Therefore, 6 weeks of core strengthening training were effective in improving some components of physical but no handball-specific athletic (i.e., throwing velocity) performance in adolescent male sub-elite handball players. Practitioners may still opt for this training regimen when stimulus variability is sought or when a low load/low movement approach (e.g., during rehabilitation) is favoured.
... Several studies have pointed out the benefits of training in unstable conditions for enhancing performance and daily activities, referring to its specificity, because the sport is not usually practised in static conditions [1,14,15]. The use of unstable training has been proposed to improve the specific effect of movement through increased activation of the stabilizing and core muscles and is more beneficial to sports performance and daily activities [16]. ...
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(I) Training in unstable conditions, with different elements, platforms, or situations, has been used because there is a significant increase in muscle activation, balance, proprioception, and even sports performance. However, it is not known how the devices used are classified according to performance variables, nor the differences according to instability experience. (II) This study aims to analyze the differences in power and speed in push-ups with different situations of instability in trained and untrained male subjects. Power and speed in push-up exercises were analyzed in26 untrained and 25 trained participants in 6 different situations (one stable and five unstable)(1) stable (PS), (2) monopodal (PM), (3) rings (PR), (4) TRX®(PT), (5) hands-on Bosu®(PH) (6) feet on Bosu®(PF). The variables were analyzed using a linear position transducer. (III) The best data were evidenced with PS, followed by PR, PM, PT, PH and PF. The trained subjects obtained better results in all the conditions analyzed in mean and maximum power and speed values (p< 0.001). The decrease in these variables was significantly greater in the untrained subjects than in the trained subjects in the PR situation (8% and 18% respectively). In PF there were differences between groups(p< 0.001), reaching between 32–46% in all variables. The difference between the two groups was notable, varying between 12–58%. (IV) The results showed a negative and progressive influence of instability on power and speed in push-ups. This suggests that instability should be adapted to the subject’s experience and is not advisable in untrained subjects who wish to improve power.
... Adolescents who participated in core strength training experienced significant improvements in physical fitness proxies [45]. Conducted on finding the relationship of PA with the physical fitness variables and motor skills, the results concluded that physical activity had a significant but low to moderate correlation with longer plank time (β � 0.182, p � 0.001, R 2 � 0.023) [46]. ...
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Background: The current study is the foremost study exploring the relationships between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and health-related physical fitness indicators among 12-16-year-old adolescents of the South Punjab region of Pakistan. Methods: The researcher adopted the cross-sectional research design for the study. A total of 2970 participants (1477 boys and 1493 girls) aged adolescents from South Punjab, Pakistan, completed health-related physical fitness indicators measuring strength, endurance, and aerobic capacity through a hand-grip strength test, modified pull-up test, plank test, and 20-m shuttle run test, and physical activity were subjectively assessed by International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-SF). Linear regression models were used to explore the between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with health-related physical fitness indicators. Results: Positive associations were observed between hand-grip strength (p < 0.001), modified pull-up (p < 0.001), plank exercise (p < 0.001), and 20-m shuttle run test (p < 0.001), with MVPA. The gender-specific comparison also indicated a significant (p < 0.001) and positive relationship. The results revealed that as MVPA increases, body composition, muscular strength, core muscular endurance, and aerobic capacity could improve in both genders. Conclusions: MVPA appears to be an effective and reliable predictor of health-related physical fitness among school adolescents.
... Participants were randomly assigned either to an active control group (CON) or to one of three experimental groups: DJ training group (JG), MRSA training group (RSG), and combined training group (COMB). The randomization process was conducted using randomly permuted blocks using Research Randomizer [20,21], a program published on a publicly accessible website (http:// www. rando mizer. ...
... org). Two independent researchers generated the random allocation sequence, enrolled participants, and assigned participants to the intervention groups [21]. ...
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Background Jumping and specific multidirectional repeated sprint ability are important in basketball. The objective of this study was to assess the contributions of 8-week combined versus single-mode training programs based on drop jump (DJ) and specific multidirectional repeated sprint (MRSA) on repeated sprint ability performances, body balance and lower limbs power in male professional basketball players. Methods This study followed a randomized parallel study design. Fifty-two professional male basketball players from the Tunisian first division participated in this study. The players were randomly assigned to 4 groups: DJ group (JG; n = 13), MRSA group (RSG; n = 13), combined group (COMB; n = 13) and an active control group (CON; n = 13). The JG, RSG and COMB groups completed the 8-week training programs with 2 sessions per week while the CON continues their regular basketball training. Training volume was similar between groups all over the experimental period. Before and after the intervention, the four groups were evaluated for the stork test, Y-balance test, the repeated sprint ability test (IRSA5COD), the squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) tests, the single leg drop jump test, the five time-jump test and T—change of direction (CoD) test. Results All measures displayed significant main effect, (medium/small) magnitude (effect size) improvements for time (post-test > pre-test) except the physiological parameters for IRSA5COD. Significant time × group interactions were revealed for body balance, T test, IRSA5COD (total time and best time) and jump tests (vertical/horizontal). Bonferroni corrected post-hoc tests revealed significant greater improvement in favor of RSG and COMB compared to JG for body balance, CoD and IRSA5COD. Moreover, greater improvement in CMJ, SJ and single leg DJ in favor of JG compared to the RSG. In addition, a greater CoD improvement was observed in favor of COMB when compared to the RSG. Conclusion Combined and single-mode training programs based on DJ and MRSA contributed to a significantly better performance in specific basketball physical fitness parameters with results favoring combined interventions.
... This is not only observed in the studies included in this SRMA, the Imai et al. (2014) study showed that DBS increased after a progressive and supervised trunk stabilisation exercise programme (29). Likewise, Granacher et al (2014) showed that both supervised core stable or unstable training increased Y-balance test performance (22), and Sandrey and Mitzel (2013) showed that dynamic balance improved significantly after 6 weeks of core stability training in high school track and field athletes. The training programme included three levels with six exercises three times per week, but the study did not include a control group (54). ...
... This is not only observed in the studies included in this SRMA, the Imai et al. (2014) study showed that DBS increased after a progressive and supervised trunk stabilisation exercise programme (29). Likewise, Granacher et al (2014) showed that both supervised core stable or unstable training increased Y-balance test performance (22), and Sandrey and Mitzel (2013) showed that dynamic balance improved significantly after 6 weeks of core stability training in high school track and field athletes. The training programme included three levels with six exercises three times per week, but the study did not include a control group (54). ...
Article
Abstract Core stability has a strong relationship with dynamic balance stability (DBS). The purpose of this review with meta-analysis was to analyse the effects of core training programmes from different studies on DBS. A literature search was performed using different databases. Subgroups analyses on duration, training frequency, total sessions, chronological age, training status, equipment and movements were performed. A random-effects model for meta-analyses was used. Thirteen studies were selected for the systematic review and 10 for the meta-analysis, comprising 226 participants. A moderate effect was noted for core training on DBS (p < 0.001; ES = 0.634). Greater DBS improvements were found in core training interventions with ≤6 weeks (ES = 0.714), after high volume (ES = 0.787) and more frequent interventions (ES = 0.787), as well as in younger participants (ES = 0.832). In addition, body weight exercises may be better than med ball, swiss ball or band resisted exercises. Core training improves DBS among athletes and a non-trained population, creating a more solid stable base that allows better lower extremity movements. Core training interventions should consider an appropriate duration (e.g., 6 weeks), >2 sessions per week, >17 total sessions, with body weight core programmes being effective, and particularly in youths.
... 19 It is accepted that core muscle strength improves performance in skill-related components such as balance, coordination, speed and health-related components such as strength and flexibility. 20 In the previous studies which investigated the effect of core training on balance, there is a consensus that balance performance has been increased after core training. It has been observed that core training (six weeks, two times/week) in healthy but untrained adolescents increased the performance of trunk muscle strength, sit-and-reach test, and Y balance test. ...
... It has been observed that core training (six weeks, two times/week) in healthy but untrained adolescents increased the performance of trunk muscle strength, sit-and-reach test, and Y balance test. 20 It has been determined that eight weeks of core training for male basketball players over the age of 18 increase dynamic balance efficiency. 7 In a study investigating the effects of core training in badminton on dynamic balance and agility, it has been determined that there was a significant increase in the balance performance of the subjects after six weeks of core training. ...
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Introduction Today, different types and volumes of strength training are used to increase the performance of athletes. However, the effect of this training on dynamic balance in young soccer players is a matter of curiosity. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of core and plyometric training on dynamic balance in young male soccer players. Materials and Methods Eighteen male soccer players between 17 and 18 years of age participated in the study voluntarily. Subjects were randomly separated into three groups: core training group (C, n=6), plyometric training group (P, n=6), and control group (Con, n=6). Group C and P subjects participated in the determined training programs, in addition to soccer training, two days a week for eight weeks. The Con group only continued their soccer training. The Y-balance test (before and after eight weeks) was applied to determine the balance performance of the subjects. Results After eight weeks of core training, significant differences in anterior (ANT) and posteromedial (PM) balance performance on the dominant side and in ANT, PM, and posterolateral (PL) balance performance on the non-dominant side were observed in group C subjects. The PL and PM balance performance of group P subjects after plyometric training was found to be significantly different on both sides. Conclusion As a result, it was determined that applying core and plyometric training in addition to soccer training increases dynamic balance. We recommend that trainers and coaches use core and plyometric exercises in their training, as these programs will provide a positive performance increase in balance and gains in muscle strength. Level of Evidence III; Prospective comparative study. Keywords: Soccer; Balance; Plyometric exercise; Core strength training
... Core strength is a hot issue in current academic research [34,35], and many domestic and international scholars have conducted theoretical studies on the concept including the regions of the core and its effects on movement and rehabilitation [36][37][38][39][40]. Sharma et al. [41] found a significant improvement in the force of continuous and obstacle jumps after 9 months of trunk strength training, and Granacher et al. [42] found a significant improvement in lateral jump tests after a core strength intervention. Prieske [43] also observed significant improvements in trunk strength, sprinting, and other abilities after trunk strength training. ...
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Article
This study aimed to analyze the impacts of a 12-week core strength training (CST) and goal-setting (GS) program on the core endurance, agility, sprinting, jumping, grip strength, and exercise attitude in a group of adolescents. This study followed a randomized parallel design in which 362 adolescents (age: 14.5 ± 1.07 years; body mass index: 19.82 ± 3.64) were allocated to a GS (n = 89), CST (n = 92), or GS + CST (n = 90) program or to a control group (n = 91). Participants were assessed two times (baseline and postintervention) for the following tests: (i) 50 m dash, (ii) grip strength, (iii) long jump, (iv) 1000 m running for boys and 800 m for girls, (v) core endurance, and (vi) exercise attitude. Significant differences (p < 0.05, η2p = 0.035-0.218) were found between the four groups of the six components of physical fitness and the three components of attitude toward exercise (target attitudes, behavioral habits, and sense of behavioral control). Between-group analysis revealed that the GS + CST had significant advantages (p < 0.05) over the CON in terms of the 50 m dash (Cohen's d = 0.06), grip strength (Cohen's d = 0.19_left, 0.31_right), 800/1000 m running (Cohen's d = 0.41), core endurance (Cohen's d = 0.95), and sense of behavioral control (Cohen's d = 0.35). Between-group analysis also revealed that the CST had significant advantages over the CON in terms of grip strength (Cohen's d = 0.27_left, 0.39_right), 50 m (Cohen's d = 0.04), long jump (Cohen's d = 0.21), 800/1000 m (Cohen's d = 0.09), and core stability (Cohen's d = 0.63), which were significantly different from CON (p < 0.05). GS differed from CON only on 50 m (Cohen's d = 0.02) and core stability (Cohen's d = 0.13) with a small effect (p < 0.05). We conclude that the combined intervention of GS and CST is more effective in promoting fitness in adolescents, i.e., GS + CST > CST and GS + CST > GS.
... In general, most studies have used resistance training regimen (with machines or free-weight) and found that USSE and traditional exercise prescription have almost similar effects on adaptations in strength and power of lower-body muscles (Cressey, West, Tiberio, Kraemer, & Maresh, 2007;Eckardt, 2016;Prieske et al., 2016). In fact, USSE may have some advantages in improving mobility (Pirauá et al., 2019) and trunk strength performance (Hoshikawa et al., 2013;Kibele & Behm, 2009;Granacher et al., 2014) in adolescents and seniors. In this regard, USSE has been particularly advocated for children and adolescents (Behm & Colado Sanchez, 2013;Behm et Kinesiologia Slovenica, 28, 1, 19-32 (2022), ISSN 1318-2269 Unstable surface exercise program in physical education 21 al., 2015), as strength gains in youth are almost exclusively due to neural adaptations (Lesinski et al., 2020), which could be particularly stimulated by unstable surface training (Radák, 2018). ...
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Although unstable strength training has gained popularity among athletes and the recreational population, there is scarce data regarding the applicability of this type of exercise program in school settings. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the implementation of an unstable surface strength exercise program in physical education would contribute to the improvement of physical fitness in 14-years students. A sample of 220 adolescents (112 girls) was randomly assigned to either the EXP (calisthenics exercise under unstable conditions) or the CON group (prescribed physical education strength exercise program). Before and after the 12- week period, upper-body isometric and repetitive strength were accessed using 4 motor tests. In addition, skinfold thickness (ST) was determined in subscapular, pectoral, and abdominal areas. Both groups improved strength performance (p < 0.01), with greater increase in EXP compared to CON for all motor tests (p < 0.01, ES = 0.21 – 0.45). Both groups decreased total, subscapular and abdominal ST (p < 0.05), with no significant effect of group. Unstable surface strength exercises are effective in improving physical abilities and should be included in the regular physical education curriculum.
... In addition, core stability training can improve coordination between upper and lower extremities, reduced risk of injury, and decrease muscle in coordination (Hassan, 2017). It seems that core stability training can have the potential to improve strength, flexibility, balance, coordination, speed, and fitness components (Granacher et al., 2014). Daneshmandi and colleagues (2021) investigated the balance adaptation for individuals who were blind and the effect of various training protocols such as water and physical training, treadmill, balance, Greek dance Pilates, core stability, whole body vibration, orientation and mobility, vestibular-stimulating, and Spark and Frenkel training on the static and dynamic balance. ...