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Schematic Diagram showing placement of five sampling points at the festive ground 

Schematic Diagram showing placement of five sampling points at the festive ground 

Context in source publication

Context 1
... five sampling sites were situated in a continuous water stream, which drains the major portion of waste generated. The extreme points were situated at sea beach ( Figure 1). ...

Citations

... An estimated 67,500 man-days of jobs are created in the informal sector during the occasion of GSM (Basak 2004). The local people get themselves involved directly or indirectly with the GSM through various types of business such as transport, marketing, food and lodging, etc., which helps to boost up their economy (Hajra, Mitra, and Ghosh 2012). The tourist flow throughout the year is very negligible, while a huge number of pilgrims (tourists) use to visit at a particular time, undoubtedly overshoot the carrying capacity of this island. ...
... The tourist flow throughout the year is very negligible, while a huge number of pilgrims (tourists) use to visit at a particular time, undoubtedly overshoot the carrying capacity of this island. Tremendous impact of huge number of pilgrims is negatively affecting this coast, which leads to necessity of sustainable tourism to protect the environment from degradation (Hajra, Mitra, and Ghosh 2012). This paper is aimed to assess the scope of tourism as alternative source of income, which can contribute to develop a sustainable economy of this region. ...
... The unique coastal ecosystem of the Sagar Island is characterized by resource combination at the interface of land and sea offering beaches, scenic beauty, rich terrestrial and marine biodiversity, diversified cultural and historic heritage, etc. . Gangasagar has its heritage value to the religious minded people all over India and already established as famous pilgrimage spot (Kundu 2012;Hajra, Mitra, and Ghosh 2012;Dasgupta, Mondal, and Basu 2006). Sagar Island has great aesthetic and traditional heritage value which has potential to attract the tourists for leisure and holiday-trips. ...
Chapter
There is a lack of studies on whether the use of open source mid-resolution image and traditional classification techniques can produce a high-quality output with sufficient level of accuracy required to map mangrove forest trees at species level. To bridge this gap, we employed maximum likelihood algorithm to identify and map out mangrove species composition using open source mid-resolution Landsat data, taking Bangladesh Sundarbans as a case study. Our results showed that such mid-resolution image can yield acceptable accuracy levels to be used in the image analysis at species level. We achieved an overall accuracy of 89.10% and kappa coefficient of 0.87 for the five-identified species, viz. Heritiera fomes, Ceriops decandra, Excoecaria agallocha, Sonneratia apetala, and Xylocarpus mekongensis, which is higher than the required minimum overall accuracy of 85% deemed suitable to use in most of the natural resource mapping applications. With this accuracy level, the spatial coverage of the investigated species for a single year was calculated. We concluded that mid-resolution images, such as Landsat, and the traditional classification algorithm can be applied with confidence for the identification and classification of mangrove forest resources at species level as an alternative to the high resolution satellite images.
... An estimated 67,500 man-days of jobs are created in the informal sector during the occasion of GSM (Basak 2004). The local people get themselves involved directly or indirectly with the GSM through various types of business such as transport, marketing, food and lodging, etc., which helps to boost up their economy (Hajra, Mitra, and Ghosh 2012). The tourist flow throughout the year is very negligible, while a huge number of pilgrims (tourists) use to visit at a particular time, undoubtedly overshoot the carrying capacity of this island. ...
... The tourist flow throughout the year is very negligible, while a huge number of pilgrims (tourists) use to visit at a particular time, undoubtedly overshoot the carrying capacity of this island. Tremendous impact of huge number of pilgrims is negatively affecting this coast, which leads to necessity of sustainable tourism to protect the environment from degradation (Hajra, Mitra, and Ghosh 2012). This paper is aimed to assess the scope of tourism as alternative source of income, which can contribute to develop a sustainable economy of this region. ...
... The unique coastal ecosystem of the Sagar Island is characterized by resource combination at the interface of land and sea offering beaches, scenic beauty, rich terrestrial and marine biodiversity, diversified cultural and historic heritage, etc. . Gangasagar has its heritage value to the religious minded people all over India and already established as famous pilgrimage spot (Kundu 2012;Hajra, Mitra, and Ghosh 2012;Dasgupta, Mondal, and Basu 2006). Sagar Island has great aesthetic and traditional heritage value which has potential to attract the tourists for leisure and holiday-trips. ...
... An estimated 67,500 man-days of jobs are created in the informal sector during the occasion of GSM (Basak 2004). The local people get themselves involved directly or indirectly with the GSM through various types of business such as transport, marketing, food and lodging, etc., which helps to boost up their economy (Hajra, Mitra, and Ghosh 2012). The tourist flow throughout the year is very negligible, while a huge number of pilgrims (tourists) use to visit at a particular time, undoubtedly overshoot the carrying capacity of this island. ...
... The tourist flow throughout the year is very negligible, while a huge number of pilgrims (tourists) use to visit at a particular time, undoubtedly overshoot the carrying capacity of this island. Tremendous impact of huge number of pilgrims is negatively affecting this coast, which leads to necessity of sustainable tourism to protect the environment from degradation (Hajra, Mitra, and Ghosh 2012). This paper is aimed to assess the scope of tourism as alternative source of income, which can contribute to develop a sustainable economy of this region. ...
... The unique coastal ecosystem of the Sagar Island is characterized by resource combination at the interface of land and sea offering beaches, scenic beauty, rich terrestrial and marine biodiversity, diversified cultural and historic heritage, etc. . Gangasagar has its heritage value to the religious minded people all over India and already established as famous pilgrimage spot (Kundu 2012;Hajra, Mitra, and Ghosh 2012;Dasgupta, Mondal, and Basu 2006). Sagar Island has great aesthetic and traditional heritage value which has potential to attract the tourists for leisure and holiday-trips. ...
... An estimated 67,500 man-days of jobs are created in the informal sector during the occasion of GSM (Basak 2004). The local people get themselves involved directly or indirectly with the GSM through various types of business such as transport, marketing, food and lodging, etc., which helps to boost up their economy (Hajra, Mitra, and Ghosh 2012). The tourist flow throughout the year is very negligible, while a huge number of pilgrims (tourists) use to visit at a particular time, undoubtedly overshoot the carrying capacity of this island. ...
... The tourist flow throughout the year is very negligible, while a huge number of pilgrims (tourists) use to visit at a particular time, undoubtedly overshoot the carrying capacity of this island. Tremendous impact of huge number of pilgrims is negatively affecting this coast, which leads to necessity of sustainable tourism to protect the environment from degradation (Hajra, Mitra, and Ghosh 2012). This paper is aimed to assess the scope of tourism as alternative source of income, which can contribute to develop a sustainable economy of this region. ...
... The unique coastal ecosystem of the Sagar Island is characterized by resource combination at the interface of land and sea offering beaches, scenic beauty, rich terrestrial and marine biodiversity, diversified cultural and historic heritage, etc. . Gangasagar has its heritage value to the religious minded people all over India and already established as famous pilgrimage spot (Kundu 2012;Hajra, Mitra, and Ghosh 2012;Dasgupta, Mondal, and Basu 2006). Sagar Island has great aesthetic and traditional heritage value which has potential to attract the tourists for leisure and holiday-trips. ...
... _(commu nity_devel opmen t_block )). During Ganga Sagar Mela, more than 20 lakh people visit the island from all over India to take holy dip at the confluence of the River Ganges at Bay of Bengal near Kapil Muni Ashram on the day of Makar Sankranti (Rakshit et al. 2015;Hajra et al. 2012). There has been an exponential rise in the number of pilgrims attending GSM, from around 2 lakh in 1990 to 20 lakh in 2018. ...
... Environmental pollution often increases through the interaction of populations (Bettencourt et al. 2007;Arbon 2007) during mass gathering. The waste generated by millions of pilgrims cause high environmental degradation of the Sagar Island (Hajra et al. 2012). Moreover, such massive participation imposes substantial difficulties for the accommodation and flow of people. ...
... GSM represents a periodic recreational use of water with religious paradigm, involving bathing in small specified sites that might drastically alter the biogeochemical balance of the coastal ecosystem. Several studies have been done to emphasize on water quality at Sagar Island in the recent past (Rakshit et al. 2015;Sharma et al. 2014;Hajra et al. 2012). As the number of visitors and pilgrims are increasing day by day, continuous monitoring of the environmental status of the present study area is very important. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sagar Island is the largest island of Indian Sundarban, which hosts Ganga Sagar Mela (GSM). GSM is the second largest gathering (mass bathing) in India after Kumbha Mela. The total population of Sagar Island is more than 2.12 lakh. During GSM, another 20 lakh visit the island to take holy dip at the confluence of the River Ganges at Bay of Bengal. Physicochemical and bacteriological analysis of water and soil was carried out to estimate the pollution caused by this mass gathering. This is the first report addressing the relationship between the soil qualities and nearby canal water qualities during Post-GSM period regarding pollution. Study illustrates a massive change in water quality characteristics in Post-GSM period compared to the Pre-GSM condition. Results of different parameters like dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), nitrate, phosphate, fecal coliform and total coliform indicate extreme level of water quality degradation on the beach and canal water caused by untreated sewage, organic waste materials and fecal matters. Different parameters and water quality index indicated that pollution of beach water caused mainly due to direct discharge of enormous volume of canal water into the sea during the Post-GSM and worst water quality noticed at Sagar Canal just beside the Kapil Muni Ashram. DO, BOD and total coliform values suggest that beach water is not suitable for outdoor bathing in Post-GSM. Also, health survey indicates an increase in bacteriological diseases immediately after Post-GSM period in the nearby villagers. A real concern with sustainable management strategies can only address this issue to protect the people and the ecosystem.
... Consequently, waste in the AGF ground pollutes the adjacent streams, rivers, and coastal sea. Annual religious festivals such as AGF are as responsible as other sources of water pollution (Hajra et al., 2012). The waste from millions of pilgrims causes undesirable changes in the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the environment, posing a threat to the sustenance of mankind in the long run (Hajra et al., 2012). ...
... Annual religious festivals such as AGF are as responsible as other sources of water pollution (Hajra et al., 2012). The waste from millions of pilgrims causes undesirable changes in the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the environment, posing a threat to the sustenance of mankind in the long run (Hajra et al., 2012). This study investigates in depth the negative impact of the AGF held at the southern point of Sagar Island, the largest delta of the Indian Sundarban mangrove wetland, on water quality and plankton community structure over 3 successive years (2012)(2013)(2014) in three phases. ...
... It is worth mentioning that, although they were significantly reduced from the time of AGF, the surface water continued to be abundant in coliforms. This trend is mainly due to annual pilgrimage activities resulting in coastal pollution, especially of human origin (Hajra et al., 2012). A range of physicochemical and biological processes are involved, which can induce the co-flocculation of microorganisms and organic matter. ...
... Collection was conducted covering three different time phases of the bloom: (i) before the occurrence of bloom event (14th December, 2012-3rd January, 2013); (ii) during the bloom (4t-10th January, 2013); and (iii) after the bloom (25th January, 2013). It is worthwhile to mention that the bloom phase also coincided with the Gangasagar Annual Festival (GAF), held during 14-20th January, 2013 when $6 lakh people converged at this point to take their holy bath, which directly affected the water quality characteristics (Hazra et al., 2012). ...
... The local people get themselves involved directly or indirectly with the GSM through various types of business such as transport, marketing, food & lodging etc. of huge pilgrims gathered from all over India. Thus, during this GSM the economy of Sagar Island boosts up (Hajra et al., 2012). Gangasagar Mela is already an attraction for pilgrims (tourists) but this is only for a certain time of the year. ...
... During Ganga Sagar Mela waste of millions of pilgrims and other causes an undesirable change in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the air, water and land. Bacterial count increases in water, which harmfully affects the health of local inhabitants (Hajra et al., 2012). To achieve sustainable tourism, system has to be developed to protect the impact of tourism activities over sensitive environment, promote energy consumption and reduce fossil fuel consumption, adopt strategies for water quality management and waste reduction (GSTC, 2012). ...
... The local people get themselves involved directly or indirectly with the GSM through various types of business such as transport, marketing, food & lodging etc. of huge pilgrims gathered from all over India. Thus, during this GSM the economy of Sagar Island boosts up (Hajra et al., 2012). Gangasagar Mela is already an attraction for pilgrims (tourists) but this is only for a certain time of the year. ...
... During Ganga Sagar Mela waste of millions of pilgrims and other causes an undesirable change in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the air, water and land. Bacterial count increases in water, which harmfully affects the health of local inhabitants (Hajra et al., 2012). To achieve sustainable tourism, system has to be developed to protect the impact of tourism activities over sensitive environment, promote energy consumption and reduce fossil fuel consumption, adopt strategies for water quality management and waste reduction (GSTC, 2012). ...
Book
Full-text available
Field Traverse on Sundarban Delta System, approved by 36th IGC Society, has been planned to be taken up during February 25-March 01, 2020. The trip will encompass visit to geo-tourism sites of the Ramsar wetland. Processes of delta building, erosional and accretional landforms, endangered flora and fauna including variety of mangroves, archaeological relics of ancient habitation (500 to 1500AD) etc. would be showcased at Sagar Island, Bakkhali, Henry Island, Jharkhali, Dobankee, Sudhanyakhali, Sajnekhali etc. Effects of fluvio-tidal regime on habitated Satjelia island, colonial Heritage, interaction with the residents to get acquainted with their livelihood, Rangabelia women self help group and cyclone shelter are included in the traverse plan. Evidences of neotectonic activities during Holocene, imparting control on the temporal and spatial variation of lithofacies, their thickness and composition in the Sundarban Delta system would be discussed. Delta progradation and occurrence of post depositional subsidence in the Bengal could also be characterised by studies on pollen, foraminifera and nature of sediments. Sundarban being the world’s largest mangrove forest holds the credit of sequestrating a substantial amount of blue carbon, however, substantial land loss occurred in the last four decades. The geochemistry of the heavy metal concentration has been recorded from Diamond Harbour, Kulpi, Namkhana, and Nazat, and attributed to high anthropogenic activity. Shallow aquifers show high arsenic in groundwater wherein the arsenic value decreases with depth. Most of the distributaries of the Ganges like Matla, Vidya, Saptamukhi or Ichamati, etc. lost their upstream freshwater sources and were gradually silted up. The estuaries, now act as tidal inlets only. The bathymetry and current velocities are variable along and across the estuaries influencing the erosion accretion process, sediment distribution pattern and the stability of the delta in the face of Anthropocene sea level rise. The major landforms observed in Sundarban are vast alluvial plain intersected by a large number of tidal rivers, creeks, mangrove swamps, mudflats, salt flats and dune complexes. The current field traverse is planned to cover all the major rivers in the Indian part of Sundarban Delta System such as Muriganga, Saptamukhi, Thakuran, Matla and Bidya. The sediment distribution in the channels generally shows a coarsening towards estuarine end due tosouth while in the north they are generally silty or clayey in nature. The most significant issue emerged from the current status of knowledge is the highly unstable geomorphology of the islands by the effects of erosionaccretion coupled with neo-tectonism. The erosion-accretion system of islands indicates changes in shoreline which causes the erosion of the sea facing islands with aggradations/ growth of islands towards the northern side. Deployment of an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) under different tidal conditions enables us to have an idea about the possible sediment transport pattern in and around the spot of sampling and to identify areas suitable for setting up of tidal turbines to generate green energy as an alternative to carbon based energy.