FIGURE 3 - uploaded by Khandker Nurul Habib
Content may be subject to copyright.
Scenario 1 (a) and Scenario 2 (b).  

Scenario 1 (a) and Scenario 2 (b).  

Source publication
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Urban truck parking policies include time restrictions, pricing policies, space management and enforcement. This paper develops a method for investigating the potential impact of truck parking policy in urban areas. An econometric parking choice model is developed that accounts for parking type and location. A traffic simulation module is developed...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... of both measures of effectiveness are more attractive to both 1 parking authorities and users. Total network travel time (measured in minutes) is the sum of the travel 2 time of all vehicles in the simulation starting from the moment a vehicle enters the study area and 3 ending at the moment it exits. streets where freight parking is prohibited (Fig. ...
Context 2
... 2: Sheppard and Temperance Streets are designated as access streets where access to parking 15 facilities is given only to freight vehicles. Freight vehicles are permitted, however, to park elsewhere in 16 the study area (Fig. 3b). ...

Citations

... Freight vehicles have different parking needs compared to passenger vehicles: (a) they need more space since they are larger vehicles and workers need of extra space to access the cargo and unload goods; (b) drivers have a lower threshold for walking since they often carry heavy loads; (c) they have limited access to parking lots if using vehicles with a comparatively higher height and commercial vehicles often cannot use car parks reserved for passenger vehicles; (d) they have shorter parking duration; and (e) they have a limited flexibility in adjusting schedule or travel mode; (f) they are often more willing to park in unauthorized locations (Nourinejad, Wenneman, Habib, & Roorda, 2014), e.g., on street (Demir, Huang, Scholts, & Van Woensel, 2015). Therefore, some urban areas and buildings have been equipped with loading bays for loading/unloading goods. ...
... There are several potentially relevant factors influencing parking choice. Compiled from Axhausen and Polak (1991), Teknomo and Hokao (1997), Waraich and Axhausen (2012), and Nourinejad et al. (2014), examples are: access time, trip purpose, age, gender, search time, queue time, availability, fees, ability to support fine costs, walking time, security and comfort. A model of parking choice for commercial vehicles is estimated by Dalla Chiara et al. (2020) taking into account explanatory variables such as the cost of alternatives (inclusive of expected fines), the total delivery staff, volume to be handled and expected access time. ...
Article
A growing body of research looks specifically at freight vehicle parking choices for purposes of deliveries to street retail, and choice impacts on travel time/uncertainty, congestion, and emissions. However, little attention was given to large urban freight traffic generators, e.g., shopping malls and commercial buildings with offices and retail. These pose different challenges to manage freight vehicle parking demand, due to the limited parking options. To study these, we propose an agent-based simulation approach which integrates data-driven parking-choice models and a demand/supply simulation model. A case study compares demand management strategies (DMS), influencing parking choices, and their impact in reducing freight vehicle parking externalities, such as traffic congestion. DMS include changes to parking capacity, availability, and pricing as well as services (centralized receiving) and technology-based solutions (directed parking). The case study for a commercial region in Singapore shows DMS can improve travel time, parking costs, emission levels and reducing the queuing. This study contributes with a generalizable method, and to local understanding of technology and policy potential. The latter can be of value for managers of large traffic generators and public authorities as a way to understand to select suitable DMS.
... As a direct result of this, many commercial vehicles are forced to park illegally closer to their delivery location, resulting in parking tickets. Parking is easier to find in the off-peak period [6]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Off-peak delivery (OPD) is the delivery of goods during the evening and overnight hours. This strategy has the potential to alleviate peak period congestion, improve efficiency of delivery firms, and reduce emissions. This paper investigates benefits and challenges of a pilot OPD program in the Region of Peel, with the goal of informing potential broader implementations of OPD. In contrast to other previously implemented OPD projects, this OPD pilot focuses on deliveries in suburban areas. Three firms, delivering to 14 pilot retail stores, participated in the OPD pilot in the Region of Peel from March to August 2019. The analysis shows that during the six-month pilot, the average speed of the trips that were made in off-peak hours, from 7:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m. the next day, is 18.1% faster than those that happened in day-time hours. Furthermore, the total greenhouse gas emissions/km decreased by 10.6%, and emissions factors for air quality pollutants, including CO, NOx, PM10, and PM2.5 reduced by 10.8% to 15.0% in off-peak hours. Results for service times varied between firms, but on average increased by 15.2%, indicating activities in the off-peak hours at the retail stores that prevented overall improvements in service time compared to day-time deliveries. A post-pilot interview was done with logistics managers of the three firms, which provides rich insights about challenges, successes, and ways that the OPD program could be improved.
... Freight vehicles have different parking needs compared to passenger vehicles: (a) they need more space since they are larger vehicles and workers need of extra space to access the cargo and unload goods; (b) drivers have a lower threshold for walking since they often carry heavy loads; (c) they have limited access to parking lots if using vehicles with a comparatively higher height and commercial vehicles often cannot use car parks reserved for passenger vehicles; (d) they have shorter parking duration; and (e) they have a limited flexibility in adjusting schedule or travel mode; (f) they are often more willing to park in unauthorized locations (Nourinejad, Wenneman, Habib, & Roorda, 2014), e.g., on street (Demir, Huang, Scholts, & Van Woensel, 2015). Therefore, some urban areas and buildings have been equipped with loading bays for loading/unloading goods. ...
... There are several potentially relevant factors influencing parking choice. Compiled from Axhausen and Polak (1991), Teknomo and Hokao (1997), Waraich and Axhausen (2012), and Nourinejad et al. (2014), examples are: access time, trip purpose, age, gender, search time, queue time, availability, fees, ability to support fine costs, walking time, security and comfort. A model of parking choice for commercial vehicles is estimated by Dalla Chiara et al. (2020) taking into account explanatory variables such as the cost of alternatives (inclusive of expected fines), the total delivery staff, volume to be handled and expected access time. ...
Preprint
The emergence of ride-sourcing platforms has brought an innovative alternative in transportation, radically changed travel behaviors, and suggested new directions for transportation planners and operators. This paper provides an exploratory analysis on the operations of a ride-sourcing service using large-scale data on service performance. Observations over multiple days in Singapore suggest reproducible demand patterns and provide empirical estimates of fleet operations over time and space. During peak periods, we observe significant increases in the service rate along with surge price multipliers. We perform an in-depth analysis of fleet utilization rates and are able to explain daily patterns based on drivers' behavior by involving the number of shifts, shift duration, and shift start and end time choices. We also evaluate metrics of user experience, namely waiting and travel time distribution, and explain our empirical findings with distance metrics from driver trajectory analysis and congestion patterns. Our results of empirical observations on actual service in Singapore can help to understand the spatiotemporal characteristics of ride-sourcing services and provide important insights for transportation planning and operations.
... Unfortunately, only 16 drivers were surveyed, each reporting only one observation. Most other studies have estimated commercial vehicle cruising times by using simulation, with little empirical evidence (Figliozzi and Tipagornwong, 2017;Lopez et al., 2019;Nourinejad et al., 2014). By recording parking choices in commercial areas in Singapore, Dalla Chiara and Cheah (2017) and Dalla Chiara et al. (2020) observed that commercial vehicles drivers waited on average 7.7 min in a queue to access load/unload areas; queueing behavior is a phenomenon similar to cruising, with the difference that queueing does not involve circling in search for parking but only waiting. ...
Article
Full-text available
Parking cruising is a well-known phenomenon in passenger transportation, and a significant source of congestion and pollution in urban areas. While urban commercial vehicles are known to travel longer distances and to stop more frequently than passenger vehicles, little is known about their parking cruising behavior, nor how parking infrastructure affect such behavior. In this study we propose a simple method to quantitively explore the parking cruising behavior of commercial vehicle drivers in urban areas using widely available GPS data and how urban transport infrastructure impacts parking cruising times. We apply the method to a sample of 2,900 trips performed by a fleet of commercial vehicles, delivering and picking up parcels in Seattle downtown. We obtain an average estimated parking cruising time of 2.3 min per trip, contributing on average for 28 percent of total trip time. We also found that parking cruising decreases as more curb-space was allocated to commercial vehicles load zones and paid parking and as more off-street parking areas were available at trip destinations, whereas it increased as more curb space was allocated to a bus zone.
... These initiatives are needed because roadways in dense cities, or old inner-city areas, are not designed to handle large traffic volumes, and the on-street parking generated. Appropriate curb allocation is essential to reduce congestion and improve environmental conditions (Nourinejad et al. 2013). The main challenge is that the demand for curb space exceeds capacity, as cars, buses, and freight vehicles all need access to the curb. ...
... Other recommendations are to increase the size of loading zones to 100 feet where possible, or to locate them in the middle of the block on the shoulder lane of a link to keep the traffic delay to a minimum (Roca-Riu et al. 2017). Increasing the capacity of parking and loading areas is an obvious and low-cost way to reduce congestion and improve traffic (Nourinejad et al. 2013). An interesting example is the initiative undertaken by the New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT), which increased the parking allocation for commercial vehicles and installed parking meters (New York City Department of Transportation 2012, The City of New York 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
The first in a series of two, this paper conducts a review of the public-sector initiatives that could be used to improve freight activity in metropolitan areas; collects data about initiatives that have been implemented and their performance; and produces a ranking of suggested initiatives. The review of public-sector initiatives is based on a comprehensive analysis of their performance, which cataloged the initiatives into seven major groups, 15 subgroups, and 48 unique initiatives. The initiatives covered in this paper include: Infrastructure Management; Parking/Loading Areas Management; Vehicle-Related Strategies; and Traffic Management. The characterization of the state of the practice and the performance of the initiatives was based on a survey that collected data from 32 countries and 56 cities throughout the world. The third component of the work is a ranking of suggested initiatives based on the performance data collected by the survey. The paper ends with a discussion of chief findings.
... Illegal freight parking is stimulated by a lack of UZs [8,9], an inadequate spatial configuration of UZs [10], and a lack of enforcement [4,[10][11][12]. The illegal parking contributes to congestion [1,11] and delays in deliveries [3,13], requiring more vehicles to deliver cargo, and, consequently, burdening urban distribution costs [3]. ...
... Considering the problems related to UZs, the literature presents approaches for addressing data collection [15], the number of UZs [3], the location of UZs [2,3,5,8,9,[15][16][17][18][19], the parking type [8], the booking and control system [20], the sizing of UZs [10,17,21,22], the operation of UZs [9,13,[23][24], and how to reduce double parking [11,25]. ...
... Considering the problems related to UZs, the literature presents approaches for addressing data collection [15], the number of UZs [3], the location of UZs [2,3,5,8,9,[15][16][17][18][19], the parking type [8], the booking and control system [20], the sizing of UZs [10,17,21,22], the operation of UZs [9,13,[23][24], and how to reduce double parking [11,25]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Unloading zones are a fundamental part of the infrastructure of urban freight transport. The location and accessibility of unloading zones to commercial establishments reduce the operating time and, consequently, the transportation costs. In general, unloading zones are located on-street and allocated by local authorities. In this context, this paper aims to evaluate the level of service of unloading zones. The research approach uses the diversity measures in a multiplex network to identify the level of service and cargo accessibility of unloading zones. An analysis is developed for the central area of Belo Horizonte (Brazil). The results indicate that unloading zones located up to 25 m from the establishments have a high accessibility and low level of service. In contrast, unloading zones located up to 100 m from the establishments have a low accessibility and high level of service. These results allow us to conclude that the planning process of the location of unloading zones in Belo Horizonte is flawed. In addition, the maximum distance from unloading zones to establishments must be 75 m, so that there is a balance between the accessibility and level of service.
... Alho et al. [7] evaluate strategies to reduce double parking attributable to the unavailability of loading bays. Nourinejad et al. [8] use traffic simulation to assess the impact of commercial vehicle parking policies in the central business district of Toronto. Benenson et al. [9] use PARKAGENT, an agent-based simulator, to assess the impact of an off-street overnight car parking facility on the distribution of walking distance and search time for existing on-street parking spaces. ...
Article
Full-text available
Urban freight transport is primarily fulfilled by commercial road vehicles. Within cities, overnight parking is a critical element influencing commercial vehicle operations, particularly for heavy vehicles with limited parking options. Providing adequate overnight parking spaces for commercial vehicles tends to be a challenge for urban planners. Inadequate parking supply can result in illegal parking and additional vehicle kilometers traveled, contributing to traffic congestion and air pollution. The lack of tools for evaluating the impacts of changing parking supply is an impediment in developing parking-related solutions that aim to minimize the negative externalities. In this study, we develop an overnight parking choice model for heavy commercial vehicles and integrate it with SimMobility, an agent-based urban simulation platform, demonstrating the potential of this tool for policy evaluation. Using simulations applied to a case study in Singapore, we compare two parking supply scenarios in terms of vehicle kilometers traveled due to changes in the first and last trips of vehicle tours, as well as resulting impacts in traffic flows.
... In [4] a more complex approach is proposed to understand how urban areas would respond to a new parking policy. For this purpose, the authors develop a freight transport traffic simulation. ...
Article
Full-text available
The relevant role of freight lorry parking facilities as a tool to reduce nuisances and impact of economic activities in densely populated urban areas is widely recognised in the literature. Nevertheless, the literature currently lacks specific contributions addressing the use of a complex Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) approach for coping with an optimal location of freight lorry parking facilities in the urban context. This paper contributes to filling this gap by analysing a real-world case study motivated by the problem of intense freight vehicles traffic around the city of Bradford, Yorkshire (UK). Since it is necessary to include diverse analysis perspectives, reflecting the different classes of involved stakeholders, this study proposes adopting the Analytic Network Process (ANP) approach as a tool to support the selection and evaluation of alternatives for a freight lorry parking facility, followed by the design of software based on this approach. The proposed web Spatial Decision Support System provides a valuable tool to foster extended discussions with experts and facilitate the decision process in this class of location problems.
... Based on the analysis of the drivers' willingness to pay for a high level of security with the financial costs to achieve it, the authors conclude that such high security parking areas are unlikely to generate any profit. A more complex approach for understanding how urban areas would respond to a new parking policy was proposed by [33]. For this purpose, authors developed a freight transport traffic simulation model. ...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing urbanization and economic activities has intensified the need for logistical processes in cities. This leads to higher levels of urban freight transport, which is associated with negative social and environmental impacts. Advances in urban logistics can help to alleviate these problems; the recent literature suggests that the creation of appropriate lorry park facilities can represent one of the possible solutions to the social and environmental issues connected to freight transport in urban areas. However, in order to be effective, such facilities need to be properly designed; studies which identify critical success factors for lorry park operations are currently lacking. As such, the purpose of this research is to identify the main criteria which lorry drivers consider when selecting a lorry park facility. In order to achieve these aims, a questionnaire survey was designed; responses from 99 lorry drivers operating in the United Kingdom were collected. Through descriptive statistics, followed by the usage of a conjoint analysis, the main results show that attributes related to food, price, and security are the most important to lorry drivers and are likely to determine the success of such initiatives. These results can provide information to policy and decision-makers related to the design of lorry park facilities in order to achieve the desired results in urban areas.
... Third, these individual activities can be performed using a variety of methods. For example, gathering information about current situation and freight issues can be achieved using a number of qualitative and quantitative methods (e.g., in-depth interviews for Holguin-Veras et al. (2006) and truck parking counts for Nourinejad et al. (2014)). Similarly, evaluating policies on a given criteria can be performed using pairwise comparison (see e.g., Álvarez and de la Calle, 2011) or quantitative models such as transport network simulation models (see e.g., Le . ...
... They then simulate different alternatives in order to select the one with the highest chance of adoption. This simulation can be done using behavioral scenario analysis (e.g., Marcucci and Danielis, 2008) or by integrating choice models into wider simulation models (e.g., traffic simulation model by Nourinejad et al. (2014)). Some contributions in FBR research also integrate the effects of stakeholder interactions. ...
Article
The urban freight logistics policy-making process takes place in a complex environment and presents numerous challenges, such as difficult trade-offs between the objectives of various stakeholders, unclear problem ownership, and a lack of data on and awareness of urban freight issues. Furthermore, the complex interactions and power dynamics between different stakeholders introduce additional difficulties when attempting to predict the effects of different policies. In this study, we extend the current perspective on urban logistics decision-making by adopting a Complex Adaptive System (CAS) perspective. This allows us to better interpret the behaviors of urban logistics stakeholders and elucidate some of the most pressing challenges encountered in urban logistics policy-making. Building on the extant urban logistics and CAS literature, we establish an integrative decision-making framework that aims at increasing the success of urban logistics policies. Finally, we apply our framework to a case study in order to illustrate the operationalization of the proposed CAS perspective in an empirical setting on urban logistics policy-making.