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Scales Used to Measure Social Presence

Scales Used to Measure Social Presence

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The need for a theory of social presence is more press- ing as the Internet and virtual environments become increas- ing social. With time we can observe an increase in social interaction not only among users, but also between users and computer agents. A robust and detailed theory and measure of social presence could contribute to our under- stand...

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... people to connect through computers. There are questions about the effectiveness of these computer mediated communication tools and the degree to which any of these tools can provide the experience of the face-to-face social interactions that they are meant to replace (Biocca et al., 2002;Slater, 2004;Hayes, 2015;Oh et al., 2018). ...
... Historically, researchers and practitioners have evaluated social interaction mediated through immersive interfaces by various measures of social presence, or the sense of connection with another (Biocca et al., 2002;Slater, 2004;Hayes, 2015;Oh et al., 2018). Social presence is a sub-construct of presence derived from the constructs: telepresence and co-presence. ...
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Social presence, the sense of connection with another, is more important than ever as teachers, healthcare providers, and other professionals are using immersive tools to facilitate the social interaction for education, training, therapy and collaboration between geographically distributed humans and surrogates (avatars, agents, or robots). Leading researchers cite the subjective nature of the traditional self-report measures of social presence and the absence of a standardized approach to measuring social presence as a constraint to gaining deeper understanding of user’s experiences of emerging and existing tools. This discourse highlights behavioral indicators of social presence that have been identified over decades across disciplines from psychology, communication, computer science, education, and engineering. The authors explicate the behavioral themes of social presence and describe a classification system grounded in exogenic and endogenic themes of social presence. This article goes on to describe the design of a social presence behavioral coding system (SPBCS) instrument that provides a structure to coding behaviors associated with a users’ experience of social presence. The behavioral coding system described in this paper is the first step in creating a robust standardized approach to quantifying social presence through behavioral, physiological, and subjective indicators that ultimately may replace the current standard subjective approaches to describing the user’s experience in all realities.
... The presence is the feeling of actually experiencing the mediated experience [25][26][27][28][29], and it is divided into telepresence and social presence. Telepresence means forgetting the media's mediation and feeling as if users are actually there [28,30,31] and social presence refers to the feeling of being with other persons in a media-mediated environment [25,27,[32][33][34]. ...
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Is our mental health at risk due to spending a significant amount of time online due to the COVID-19 pandemic? In the new era that we are living in, where we live a life that coexists with the virus, we are participating in video conferences held online rather than on-site in order to slow the spread of the virus. Video conferencing has become our necessity since March 2020, and is becoming a new standard, especially in the MICE industry. Recently, however, people who have excessively used video conference platforms are complaining of video conference fatigue, which is a new negative emotion such as stress, anxiety, and worry as well as general work fatigue. Therefore, this study focused on the mechanism of video conferencing in MICE, which is rapidly digitally converted by the virus, and the digital psychological factors of the participants. This study derived the quality attributes of video conferencing in MICE and empirically analyzed the relationship with digital psychological factors of the video conference participants, such as video conference fatigue, social presence, and flow. One hundred and thirty-eight valid questionnaires collected from participants of several international academic conferences held in EXCO, Daegu, Korea, from 23 to 28 May 2021, were analyzed. The main results are as follows. First, unlike general video conference fatigue, MICE video conference fatigue was not found to be related to the preceding and following variables. This is due to the characteristics of the MICE video conference and the expertise of the participants. Second, social presence was identified as an important variable in MICE video conferencing. Although media-mediated, the feeling of being present with the presenter and participants was found to affect the participants’ flow in the video conference. Third, in this study, the fun factor was identified as the most important video conference quality that can enhance the social presence of the video conference participants of MICEs.
... Wird soziale Präsenz im Zusammenhang mit kognitiven Zuständen betrachtet, beinhaltet dies die Konzeption eines mentalen Modells des Gegenübers, welches durch die Wahrnehmung von Verhalten, das Rückschlüsse auf die Anwesenheit einer anderen Intelligenz gibt, aktiviert wird (vgl. Biocca, 1997;Biocca, Burgoon et al., 2001;Biocca et al., 2003). Aus dieser Perspektive wird soziales Präsenzerleben als multidimensional betrachtet . ...
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Das Unterhaltungserleben von audiovisuellen Musikperformances kann durch das soziale Präsenzerleben, d. h. das Gefühl, mit jemand anderem zusammen zu sein, verstärkt werden. Soziale Präsenz wird in einigen Ausarbeitungen als multidimensionales Konstrukt beschrieben, in denen als Dimensionen u.a. empfundene wechselseitige Wahrnehmung (WW; d. h. das Gefühl einer beidseitig wahrgenommen Co-Präsenz mit dem vermittelten anderen) sowie empfundene Empathie (E; d. h. Rezipierende empfinden eine gegenseitige Beeinflussung der Stimmungslage) angeführt werden. Blickkontakt als nonverbaler Hinweisreiz kann zu einer Steigerung der sozialen Präsenz führen. Es kann zudem davon ausgegangen werden, dass ein höheres Level an E sowie WW sich auf die wahrgenommene soziale Reichhaltigkeit (SR) einer Musikperformance auswirkt und zusammen mit der SR das Unterhaltungserleben der Musikperformance positiv beeinflusst. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Studie ist, zu untersuchen, ob der Blickkontakt im Rahmen einer audiovisuellen Musikperformance die soziale Präsenz (E und WW) sowie die SR erhöhen kann und dadurch das Unterhaltungserleben an der Performance gesteigert werden kann. Für diesen Zweck wurde ein 1 x 2 between-subjects Online-Experiment (N = 114) durchgeführt. Die unabhängige Variable Blickkontakt variierte darin, ob der Musiker während der Performance zeitweise in die Kamera schaute oder seinen Blick die ganze Zeit auf den Klaviertasten behielt. Die Ergebnisse der Mediationsanalyse zeigen, dass der Blickkontakt das Level an Unterhaltungserleben erhöhen kann und dass der Effekt durch die drei Mediatoren (WW, E und SR) vollständig mediiert wird. Das Modell konnte 67 % der Varianz des Unterhaltungserlebens der Teilnehmer:innen erklären. Der positive Einfluss sozialpsychologischer Prozesse auf die Entstehung von Unterhaltungserleben von audiovisuellen Musikperformances konnte sowohl untermauert als auch weiter differenziert werden.
... Unfortunately, what followed this adoption of Short et al.'s (1976) social presence theory in online group learning is an expansion of new interpretations of what social presence is and what it determines. In fact, many conceptualizations and definitions of social presence have come into existence as well as measures for assessing it (Biocca et al., 2001b;Cui, 2013;Kreijns et al., 2014;Lowenthal and Snelson, 2017;Weidlich and Bastiaens, 2017). Table 1 gives an overview of many of these definitions without being exhaustive. ...
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Social presence is an important construct in online group learning. It influences the way how social interaction unfolds online and affects learning and social outcomes. However, what precisely social presence is has been under debate, as presently a plethora of different definitions and measures exist preventing the development of a coherent research field regarding social presence and its defining role in online group learning. To solve the issue, we went back to the original social presence theory as devised by the communication researchers Short et al. (1976) to show that although they had a clear idea of social presence --namely "realness" of other persons in the interaction-- their definition is ambiguous, not operationalizable, and the measurement of it questionable. We, therefore, disentangled their social presence theory and (1) reformulated the social presence definition to enable an operationalization in line with the previous conceptualization of social presence; (2) departed from the technological determinism of social presence; and (3) identified two other constructs closely linked to social presence, namely, sociability (as a medium attribute) and social space (as a group attribute). By reformulating the definition of social presence and by linking it to social space and sociability, we hope to contribute to a more coherent line of social presence research and to better understand interpersonal communication, group learning, and group dynamics when learning and working together in an online setting.
... The term refers to a sense of 'being together' with another, involving the modelling of mental states and theories of other minds. This is an aspect of presence distinct from the positional notion of telepresence which mediates modelling of spatial environments in virtual contexts [6], and which has links to illusory sensations of embodied placement [7]. ...
Article
In this paper, we investigate the effect of a realism mismatch in the voice and appearance of a photorealistic virtual character in both immersive and screen-mediated virtual contexts. While many studies have investigated voice attributes for robots, not much is known about the effect voice naturalness has on the perception of realistic virtual characters. We conducted the first experiment in Virtual Reality (VR) with over two hundred participants investigating the mismatch between realistic appearance and unrealistic voice on the feeling of presence, and the emotional response of the user to the character expressing a strong negative emotion. We predicted that the mismatched voice would lower social presence and cause users to have a negative emotional reaction and feelings of discomfort towards the character. We found that the concern for the virtual character was indeed altered by the unnatural voice, though interestingly it did not affect social presence.The second experiment was conducted with a view towards heightening the appearance realism of the same character for the same scenarios, with an additional lower level of voice realism employed to strengthen the mismatch of perceptual cues. While voice type did not appear to impact reports of empathic responses towards the character, there was an observed effect of voice realism on reported social presence, which was not detected in the first study. There were also significant results on affinity and voice trait measurements that provide evidence in support of perceptual mismatch theories of the Uncanny Valley.
... Social presence, the general sense of being with another person, is important when using VHAs to communicate with patients [20]. Through the lens of TAM, social presence is relevant to patients accepting VHAs in part because perceptions o f social presence can lead to a desire for future interaction [21]. Patients may perceive a virtual agent in a number of ways including warm [22], interested, friendly, or emotional about a conversation [23]. ...
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Background Understanding how older, minoritized patients attend to cues when interacting with web-based health messages may provide opportunities to improve engagement with novel health technologies. We assess acceptance-promoting and acceptance-inhibiting cues of a web-based, intervention promoting colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with a home stool test among Black women. Materials and methods Focus group and individual interview data informed iterative changes to a race- and gender-concordant virtual health assistant (VHA). A user-centered design approach was used across 3 iterations to identify changes needed to activate cues described as important; such as portraying authority and expertise. Questionnaire data were analyzed using non-parametric tests for perceptions of cues. Analysis was guided by the Technology Acceptance Model. Results Perceptions of interactivity, social presence, expertise, and trust were important cues in a VHA-delivered intervention promoting CRC screening. Features of the web-based platform related to ease of navigation and use were also discussed. Participant comments varied across the 3 iterations and indicated acceptance of or a desire to improve source cues for subsequent iterations. We highlight the specific key changes made at each of three iterative versions of the interactive intervention in conjunction with user perception of changes. Discussion Virtual agents can be adapted to better meet patient expectations such as being a trustworthy and expert source. Across three evolving versions of a Black, VHA, cues for social presence were particularly important. Social presence cues helped patients engage with CRC screening messages delivered in this novel digital context. Conclusions When using a VHA to disseminate health information, cues associated with acceptability can be leveraged and adapted as needed for diverse audiences. Patient characteristics (age, identity, health status) are important to note as they may affect perceptions of a novel health technologies ease of use and relevancy according to the leading models.
... Driving avatars in social VEs can induce perceptual effects of comparable significance. SoE in virtual characters has been influencial in studies of social presence (Mennecke et al., 2010), the perception of a "real" other in a virtual environment (Biocca et al., 2001;C.S.;Oh et al., 2018). ...
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Avatar use on video-conference platforms has found dual purpose in recent times as a potential method for ensuring privacy and improving subjective engagement with remote meeting, provided one can also ensure a minimal loss in the quality of social interaction and sense of personal presence. This work focuses on interactions of this sort through real-time motion captured 3D personalized virtual avatars in a 2D video-conferencing context. Our experiments were designed with the intention of exploring previously defined perceptual illusions that occur with avatar-use in Virtual and Augmented Reality settings, outside of the immersive technological domains where they are normally measured. The research described here was aimed at empirically evaluating three separate dimensions of human-avatar interaction. The first was humans-as-avatars, with experimental conditions that were designed to measure changes to subjective perceptions of self-face ownership and self-concept. The second focus was other-perception, with the unique design of the studies outlined below among the first to measure social presence in a video-call between two human-driven avatars. The third emphasis was on the experiential content involved in avatar use, as there were measurements for emotion induction, fatigue and behavior change included in the data collection. The results describe some evidence for face and body ownership, while participants also reported high levels of social presence with the other avatar, indicating that avatar cameras could be a favorable alternative to non-camera feeds in video conferencing. There were also some useful insights gained regarding emotion elicitation in non-video vs. avatar conditions, as well as avatar-induced behavior change.
... The quality protection it's an extremely intrigued measure, this movement should be to start with, during and after each online academic action (courses, pragmatic work). Lorenzo has fixed the five mainstays of value in the online training that incorporate learning viability, understudy fulfillment, personnel fulfillment, cost adequacy and access [1]. In our paper we center on the quality protection of the utilization of RL in the e-learning framework. ...
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The incorporation of remote lab into educational system will play a vital role to problem solving towards enhancing quality learning. The proposed system encourages students to follow remotely courses and practical works. With this solution of the remote system, students can manipulate hard laboratory equipment. The insurance quality for this education system becomes a necessity especially online practical works. This paper develop a tool that enable us to have a detailed report about the student and teacher's satisfaction concerning online practical works remotely. The remote-lab exploit questionnaires to generate reports that will enable decisions for the enhancement of infrastructures and also increased student access to equipment, a wider range of possible assignments or activities, and enhanced opportunities for collaboration among students. This system brings hope for reducing costs and improving control education quality.
... escapism and esthetic experiences) impacts overall museum experience, and eventually intention to visit the actual museum. Moreover, elevated perceived immersion leads to positive behavioural intentions such as positive brand attitude or high purchase intention (Biocca et al. 2001). In recent literature, it is suggested that immersion is one of the most essential antecedents that should be examined, and it is one of the most influential factors enhancing users' attitudes and future intentions to use a VR device (Chuah 2019;Shin and Biocca 2018). ...
Article
Despite gaining consumer momentum and interest of Virtual Reality (VR) in the consumer marketplace, the literature has lagged in exploring the continuance usage behaviour and factors associated with the post-adoption. To build on this, the current research seeks to identify factors that support the continuance usage of current VR users. To examine this, we employ a mixed-method approach. In Study 1, we initially gathered a total of 3,205 actual purchasers (Amazon verified purchase) from the top 10 VR brands listed in Amazon.com, Through a nethnographic content analysis, the key determinants of post-adoption of VR devices emerged (i.e. perceived functional benefit, perceived discomfort, perceived focused immersion, temporal dissociation, perceived health risk, and task quality). In Study 2, hypotheses were tested using structural equation modelling from 119 current VR users. The results demonstrate temporal dissociation and task quality were found to be the most significant antecedents affecting continuance usage. Theoretical and managerial implications are debated, as well as suggestions for future research.
... Therefore, spatial presence encompasses the ability of users to experience a sense of presence in any environment in which they are transported. Namely, (i) if the environment is real and non-mediated, the user experiences a natural presence (Biocca, Burgoon, Harms, & Stoner, 2001); (ii) if it is real and mediated, the user experiences a remote presence or "telepresence" (Steuer, 1992); and (iii) if the environment is virtual, i.e., computer generated, the user experiences a virtual presence (Sheridan, 1992). This classification was proposed by Zhao (2002), who emphasized the importance of comparing the sense of presence between the different types of environments in order to better understand this phenomenon. ...
Article
This article presents a user experiment that assesses the feeling of spatial presence, defined as the sense of “being there” in both a real and a remote environment (respectively the so-called “natural presence” and “telepresence”). Twenty-eight participants performed a 3D-pointing task while being either physically located in a real office or remotely transported by a teleoperation system. The evaluation also included the effect of combining audio and visual rendering. Spatial presence and its components were evaluated using the ITC-SOPI questionnaire (Lessiter, Freeman, Keogh, & Davidoff, 2001 ). In addition, objective metrics based on user performance and behavioral indicators were logged. Results indicate that participants experienced a higher sense of spatial presence in the remote environment (hyper-presence), and a higher ecological validity. In contrast, objective metrics prove higher in the real environment, which highlights the absence of correlation between spatial presence and the objective metrics used in the experiment. Moreover, results show the benefit of adding audio rendering in both environments to increase the sense of spatial presence, the performance of participants, and their engagement during the task.