Figure 2 - uploaded by Lisa Kristina Horvath
Content may be subject to copyright.
Salary estimates for typically feminine and masculine professions. Note that answers were given on a 11-point scale. Higher numbers indicate higher estimates of salary.

Salary estimates for typically feminine and masculine professions. Note that answers were given on a 11-point scale. Higher numbers indicate higher estimates of salary.

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
In many languages, masculine forms (e.g., German Lehrer, ‘teachers, masc.’) have traditionally been used to refer to both women and men, although feminine forms are available, too. Feminine-masculine word pairs (e.g., German Lehrerinnen und Lehrer, ‘teachers, fem. and teachers, masc.’) are recommended as gender-fair alternatives. A large body of em...

Context in source publication

Context 1
... means and standard deviations are reported in Table 4. These differences are displayed in Figure 2. For all other effects not involving linguistic form, please see Appendix C. Ratings were given on a 7-point scale with higher scores indicating ascriptions of higher social status. ...

Citations

... Feminine personal nouns in Slavic languages have recently become the focus of attention of linguists from various perspectives: word formation models [7], [10], [21], [29], [50], semantic and pragmatic features [13], [20], [24], gender-fair language [38], [39], political correctness [29], [49], language policy [25], and others. The social perception of these lexical items has been studied by psychologists [11]. In the field of lexicography, dictionaries of feminine terms in Polish [22] and Russian [34] have been published, and a number of studied are devoted to different lexicographic traditions for codifying these lexical items [16], [17], [21], [23]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The paper discusses how Ukrainian feminine personal nouns are represented in Ukrainian online dictionaries and how corpus data can be used in their exploration. Particular attention is paid to the Web Dictionary of Ukrainian Feminine Personal Nouns (2022, published on r2u.org.ua) and its coverage of these lexical items in comparison with other dictionaries. The discussion of corpora focuses on the General Regionally Annotated Corpus of Ukrainian (GRAC) against the background of two other large Ukrainian corpora. The use of GRAC in the compilation of the said dictionary is explained, and the results of corpus-based explorations of feminine personal nouns are presented, highlighting the unique features of the corpus that are useful for their study. The paper concludes with a summary of the current situation with the feminine terms in modern Ukrainian and outlines prospects for further research.
... This result is an indication of the inconsistencies in the existing literature on gender and language. However, the main effect of gender on GNL is similar to the observation of Horvath, et al. (2016) who reported that women's visibility increased for most professions when GNL was used instead of the masculine forms. Hansen, Littwitz, and Sczesny (2016) also revealed that GNL resulted in more gender-balanced mental representations of the roles ascribed to men and women. ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the wide spread awareness regarding the need to reduce gender bias in communication styles, it still exists in organizations and its negative effects on women’s behaviour and perceptions in the workplace remain a great concern. Consequently, the importance of gender neutral language (GNL) use in reducing gender stereotypes and discrimination cannot be overemphasized. Gender differences between gender and non-gender policy organizations has not been given much attention among university lecturers in the investigation of GNL use in Nigeria. This study examines the main and interaction effects of gender and institution type on GNL among public and private university lecturers. Using a two-way factorial design, 161 lecturers were randomly selected from four faculties and twelve departments while convenient sampling method was used to select the target respondents. A questionnaire focusing on socio-demographic profile and a GNL test was administered to the participants. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test analysis and analysis of variance at 0.05 level of significance. Three hypotheses were tested. The results revealed that gender differences and institution type interacted to influence GNL use among the participants of the study. Gender and institution type are important in developing interventions for GNL use in academia. Article visualizations: </p
... Wer sprachlich nicht sichtbar ist, ist dies auch nicht in den geistigen Repräsentationen. Und das wiederum führt zu stereotypischen (Rollen-)Bildern und beeinflusst, welche Tätigkeiten wir welchen Menschen zutrauen und welche nicht (Gaucher et al., 2011;Horvath et al., 2016;Kollmayer et al., 2018;Sczesny et al., 2016). So ist es nicht verwunderlich, dass in Kulturen, in denen sich männliche Dominanz auch in der Sprache wiederfindet, sich diese Dominanz auch in der Teilhabe am Arbeitsmarkt zeigt (Gay et al., 2018). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Unsere Sprache schafft unsere Realität. Insofern bietet Sprache auch die Möglichkeit, unsere Realität und unseren Blick auf die Welt zu reflektieren und bei Bedarf neu auszurichten. Der folgende Beitrag erkennt einen solchen Bedarf in der Sprache der Polizei. Bis heute befleißigt sich diese robust einer heteronormativen, und hier genauer: vorzugsweise männlichen Perspektive auf eine faktisch vielfältige Genderkultur, die gelernt hat, mindestens bis drei zu zählen. Wir argumentieren, dass das Festhalten am generischen Maskulinum innerhalb polizeilicher Sprach-und Schriftkultur nicht länger angemessen ist. Angemessen ist vielmehr eine gendersensible Sprache der Polizei, die den unterschiedlichen Formen des sozialen Geschlechts und ihren vielfältigen Begegnungskontexten begründet Rechnung trägt. In der Hinwendung zu zur Gendersensibilität sehen wir einen zentralen Gradmesser polizeilicher Professionalität.
... Aquests i d'altres experiments similars (Kidd, 1971;J. W. Schneider i Hacker, 1973;Harrison, 1975;Moulton, Robinson i Cherin, 1978;Stout i Dasgupta, 2011;Lisa K. Horvath, Merkel, Maass i Sczesny, 2016;Lindqvist, Renström i Gustafsson Sendén, 2018;Redl, Frank, Swart i Hoop, 2020), que comparen els efectes de canviar només els gèneres gramaticals emprats en la redacció dels textos, ens mostren que els usos lingüístics basats en el masculí gramatical (tot i vestir-se de genèrics i per molt que, per als propòsits d'una disciplina concreta, puga ser productiu dir-ne no marcats) marquen l'experiència, comporten i provoquen una visió desigual de les possibilitats d'homes i dones que sobreviu a les intencions personals de transgredir convencions de rol. A més, els estudis interlingüístics ens permeten veure que aquests resultats poden extrapolar-se (Gygax, Gabriel, Sarrasin, Oakhill i Garnham, 2008;Esaulova i Von Stockhausen, 2015) i s'han proposat agrupacions de llengües pel sistema de marques gramaticals de gènere per facilitar estudis, comparatives i interpretacions (Gygax et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Gender-inclusive language has become prominent in modern societies as a political measure for acknowledging gender-based diversity. The changes required to speak in non-sexist ways have aroused awareness but also resistance. A position that has achieved special traction in institutional contexts for some languages (including Catalan) is that masculine forms are actually the neutral form of gendered languages. Based on the absence of a morphological mark, grammar scholars use unmarked to refer to masculine forms that match the lexical root of words. This conventional meaning has been altered in using the term to intrinsically justify a semantic, communicative, sociocultural, and even symbolic neutrality of masculine forms. The argument denies or, at best, ignores the relationship between language, cognition, and society. This article reviews the knowledge accrued on that relationship on the basis of empirical studies challenging the alleged neutrality of masculine forms and assessing specific linguistic means that may counter the gender bias that looms large on our societies and how it is constructed as natural.
... Among actions to fight linguistic sexism, the focus is placed on those mechanisms that directly address speakers' habits. Some consist of the creation of morphological procedures for the feminine form or the modification of terms relating to prestigious professions or occupations, which normally appear in the masculine form (Budziszewska, Hansen, and Bilewicz 2014;Formanowicz et al. 2013;Gabriel et al. 2008;Horvath et al. 2015). Mercedes Bengoechea's work (2011) provided a comprehensive analysis of the difficulties of incorporating those alternatives into the use of the generic masculine in educated speakers' language, despite the profusion of rules and laws on the topic in Spain, as well as the publication of guidelines, style books and GFL manuals (Guerrero Salazar 2013). ...
... Studies undertaken into the English, French and German languages have associated the use of the generic masculine with negative attitudes towards women (Parks and Roberton 2004;Sarrasin, Gabriel, and Gygax 2012;Swim, Mallett, and Stangor 2004). One example is the relationship between the grammatical gender of occupations and their social perception (Budziszewska, Hansen, and Bilewicz 2014;Formanowicz et al. 2013;Gabriel et al. 2008;Horvath et al. 2015). Sczesny, Formanowicz, and Moser (2016) concluded that when the masculine is used, women are considered to be a less prototypical exemplar, and less adequate or less preferred for the job. ...
... In what can be regarded as a possible attempt to undo standardised linguistic categories, the present study has demonstrated that preservice Spanish teachers favour the use of GFL expressions which make the presence of women explicit, especially when referring to prestigious professions or occupations such as juez or maestro. This corroborates findings of previous studies regarding the importance of using feminine nouns for prestigious professions in such a way that a woman can be considered a prototypical member of that profession (Sczesny, Formanowicz, and Moser 2016;Budziszewska, Hansen, and Bilewicz 2014;Formanowicz et al. 2013;Horvath et al. 2015). Unexpectedly, there are some exceptions such as médico, in which no sexist bias is perceived when using the masculine form to address women, even if those exceptions are incorrect from a Spanish grammatical perspective. ...
Article
This article examines preservice Spanish teachers’ perceptions of linguistic sexism, norm, and use in Spanish. Analysis of 723 participants’ answers showed that sexism and linguistic non-adequacy were associated. Results proved that the exclusion of women from the generic masculine in Spanish was considered sexist, and that participants used some Gender Fair Language (GFL) mechanisms to make women visible when deemed necessary, especially with professions. Also, regardless of its adherence to norm, linguistic sexism was perceived as grammatically wrong. Thus, GFL criteria were finding their way into use even if contrary to norm. Therefore, policies based on direct intervention in the training of preservice teachers Spanish as a first language would produce a more egalitarian use of language.
... avvocata) was given similar social status to the generic masculine form avvocato (Merkel, Maass, & Frommelt, 2012). In a study investigating judgments of women using feminine and masculine occupational titles, using feminine occupational titles was found to lead to a decreased estimated salary (Horvath, Merkel, Maass, & Sczesny, 2016). In addition, feminine forms may not have the same meaning as the masculine form. ...
... Among actions to fight linguistic sexism, the focus is placed on those mechanisms that directly address speakers' habits. Some consist of the creation of morphological procedures for the feminine form or the modification of terms relating to prestigious professions or occupations, which normally appear in the masculine form (Budziszewska, Hansen, and Bilewicz 2014;Formanowicz et al. 2013;Gabriel et al. 2008;Horvath et al. 2015). Mercedes Bengoechea's work (2011) provided a comprehensive analysis of the difficulties of incorporating those alternatives into the use of the generic masculine in educated speakers' language, despite the profusion of rules and laws on the topic in Spain, as well as the publication of guidelines, style books and GFL manuals (Guerrero Salazar 2013). ...
... Studies undertaken into the English, French and German languages have associated the use of the generic masculine with negative attitudes towards women (Parks and Roberton 2004;Sarrasin, Gabriel, and Gygax 2012;Swim, Mallett, and Stangor 2004). One example is the relationship between the grammatical gender of occupations and their social perception (Budziszewska, Hansen, and Bilewicz 2014;Formanowicz et al. 2013;Gabriel et al. 2008;Horvath et al. 2015). Sczesny, Formanowicz, and Moser (2016) concluded that when the masculine is used, women are considered to be a less prototypical exemplar, and less adequate or less preferred for the job. ...
... In what can be regarded as a possible attempt to undo standardised linguistic categories, the present study has demonstrated that preservice Spanish teachers favour the use of GFL expressions which make the presence of women explicit, especially when referring to prestigious professions or occupations such as juez or maestro. This corroborates findings of previous studies regarding the importance of using feminine nouns for prestigious professions in such a way that a woman can be considered a prototypical member of that profession (Sczesny, Formanowicz, and Moser 2016;Budziszewska, Hansen, and Bilewicz 2014;Formanowicz et al. 2013;Horvath et al. 2015). Unexpectedly, there are some exceptions such as médico, in which no sexist bias is perceived when using the masculine form to address women, even if those exceptions are incorrect from a Spanish grammatical perspective. ...
Article
This article examines preservice Spanish teachers' perceptions of linguistic sexism, norm, and use in Spanish. Analysis of 723 participants' answers showed that sexism and linguistic non-adequacy were associated. Results proved that the exclusion of women from the generic masculine in Spanish was considered sexist, and that participants used some Gender Fair Language (GFL) mechanisms to make women visible when deemed necessary, especially with professions. Also, regardless of its adherence to norm, linguistic sexism was perceived as grammatically wrong. Thus, GFL criteria were finding their way into use even if contrary to norm. Therefore, policies based on direct intervention in the training of preservice teachers Spanish as a first language would produce a more egalitarian use of language.
... There was no gender difference in the Mandarinlanguage description for the position of a senior executive. So, the effect of the feminine or masculine form of language was not considered in the experiment (Horvath et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Today, many women work in occupational roles that had once been dominated by men (e.g., senior business executives). However, expectations on senior executives to be agentic (e.g., assertive, dominant) may conflict with prescriptive stereotypes about women to be communal (e.g., helpful, warm). According to this double-bind dilemma, female senior executives get criticized for lacking either agency or communion as both dimensions can be perceived as posing a tradeoff. We hypothesize that female senior executives report higher levels of agency and lower levels of communion than women in a more neutral role (e.g., lecturers) due to the perceived requirements of these occupational roles. In Study 1, N = 212 students rated adjectives on their desirability for men vs. women in Chinese society. They rated agentic characteristics as more desirable for men and communal characteristics as more desirable for women. Studies 2 and 3 used this material. Study 2 randomly assigned N = 207 female students to the role of a senior executive vs. lecturer. Study 3 was conducted with N = 202 female role occupants (96 senior executives, 106 lecturers). As expected, female senior executives reported higher levels of agency and lower levels of communion than female lecturers in both studies. Some women may be particularly aware of the above-mentioned double-bind dilemma and may be more worried about the potential backlash than others. They may attempt to reconcile occupational demands (i.e., higher agency, lower communion) with prescriptive gender stereotypes (i.e., lower agency, higher communion). We, therefore, explored whether fear of backlash attenuates the effect of the type of role of women (senior executives vs. lecturers) on agency and communion. Indeed, we found that senior executives who were particularly worried about backlash reported almost as much communion as lecturers did. In contrast, senior executives consistently reported higher levels of agency than lecturers regardless of their fear of backlash. The present study documents prescriptive gender stereotypes in China, how women differ as a function of their occupational roles, and how fear of backlash may motivate female senior executives to reconcile having high levels of both agency and communion.
... Two items adapted from Horvath et al. (2016) assessed participants' estimates of the sex distribution: "What is your perception of the proportion of women and men in professorships at your faculty?" and "For whom is the professorship at your faculty more typical?" Participants responded on 11-point bipolar rating scales with 10% intervals (ranging from 100% men to 100% women, with higher values indicating greater representation of female professors; α = .68). ...
Article
Full-text available
The study addressed the underrepresentation of women in university leadership by focusing on the middle management role of dean. This research set forth two processes that may affect female and male professors' ambition to become a dean: (a) gender bias whereby stakeholders are more likely to recommend men than women for deanships, and (b) self-selection bias whereby men may find deanships more appealing than women do. A multisource, time-lagged study of 278 professors from Germany, Austria, and Switzerland found that both being recommended by stakeholders for a deanship and finding the position appealing related positively to deanship ambitions for female and male professors. In contrast to the gender bias perspective, female and male professors were equally likely to be recommended for deanships, with recommendations reflecting prior administrative leadership experience. Consistent with the self-selection perspective, female professors' perception of more women among deans and their greater endorsement of communal career goals (e.g., serving the community) related to the appeal of the position, which in turn related to their own ambition to become a dean. In contrast, male professors' endorsement of agentic career goals (e.g., receiving recognition) related to the appeal of deanships, which in turn related to their own ambition to become a dean. Overall, these findings suggest that policies to increase the number of women in university deanships should make salient the presence of other women in these roles and also the potential of these roles to fulfill communal career goals.
... The level of gender inequality is revealed to be closely linked to the gender markedness of that language (Garnham et al., 2016;Pacheco, 2018;Prewitt-Freilino et al., 2012). Horvath et al. (2016) examined the implication of the masculine form, or feminine-masculine pairs, in the gendertyping of occupations. They found that word pairs are conducive to avoiding a male bias and therefore make women more visible but also lower salary estimates of typically feminine professions. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposes a textual analytics approach to the discovery of trends and variations in social development. Specifically, we have designed a linguistic index that measures the marked usage of gendered modifiers in the Chinese language; this predicts the degree of occupational gender segregation by identifying the unbalanced distribution of males and females across occupations. The effectiveness of the linguistic index in modelling occupational gender segregation was confirmed through survey responses from 244 participants, covering 63 occupations listed in the Holland Occupational Codes. The index was then applied to explore the trends and variations of gender equality in occupation, drawing on an extensive digital collection of materials published by the largest newspaper group in China for both longitudinal (from 1946 to 2018) and synchronic (from 31 provincial-level administrative divisions) data. This quantitative study shows that (1) the use of gendered language has weakened over time, indicating a decline in occupational gender stereotyping; (2) conservative genres have shown higher degrees of gendered language use; (3) culturally conservative, demographically stable, or geographically remote regions have higher degrees of gendered language use. These findings are discussed with consideration of historical, cultural, social, psychological, and geographical factors. While the existing literature on gendered language has been an important and useful tool for reading a text in the context of digital humanities, an innovative textual analytics approach, as shown in this paper, can prove to be a crucial indicator of historical trends and variations in social development.