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SUMMARY OF FINDINGS BY CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION STAGE

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS BY CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION STAGE

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Twenty-five years of consumer socialization research have yielded an impressive set of findings. The purpose of our article is to review these findings and assess what we know about children's development as consumers. Our focus is on the developmental sequence characterizing the growth of consumer knowledge, skills, and values as children mature t...

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... stages have been characterized along a number of dimensions that characterize children's knowledge, skills, and values during childhood and adolescence (see Table 1). We have also reviewed empirical evidence consistent with these stages, documenting children's growing sophistication about prod- ucts, brands, advertising, shopping, pricing, decision-mak- ing strategies, and influence approaches (see Table 2). ...

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... However, establishing healthy food-related behaviours in early childhood is important as they have been found to persist in both adolescence and adulthood, contributing to improved health and well-being (Coulthard et al., 2010;Janacsek et al., 2012;Laska et al., 2012;Metcalfe et al., 2018;Moore, 2018;Mura Paroche et al., 2017). Piaget's theory of cognitive development (Wadsworth, 1996) suggests that children in the preoperational stage (under 10 years old) are usually less developed cognitively than adolescents and may not be as proficient in processing complex information but still can process and understand stimuli from their surroundings (Barenboim, 1981;John, 1999). As a result, the development stage of younger children is likely to influence the types of food literacy skills and knowledge that are developed by the dietary gatekeeper and the way in which this occurs. ...
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Food literacy is a concept that encompasses a range of skills and knowledge required by consumers to navigate an increasingly complex foodscape and ensure healthy dietary behaviours. It is important that these skills are developed from a young age as food related consumption behaviours can persist into adulthood. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the family’s dietary gatekeeper, the person primarily responsible for food shopping and meal preparation in the home environment, shares their food literacy skills and knowledge with young children and to identify any challenges they face in doing so. In-depth semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with parents with high levels of food literacy who had children between 5 and 9 years old. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. The findings identify that dietary gatekeepers share their food literacy capabilities with young children in four main ways: 1) communicating the relationship between food and health; 2) engaging children in food selection; 3) involving children in simple food preparation tasks; and 4) modeling healthy behaviours. These practices incorporate skills and knowledge related to the preparation, selection and eating domains of food literacy. Several challenges were also encountered by gatekeepers when trying to share food literacy including time pressure, safety concerns, lack of interest from children and conflict between siblings. The current study highlights the importance of developing initiatives to encourage and support dietary gatekeepers to educate and develop food literacy in young children and to assist them in overcoming the challenges in doing so.
... The degree of influence depends upon child's interest in the product or involvement in the purchase process (Belch et al. 1985;Chavda et al. 2005). Hence, more influence is expected in the purchase of children related products (Foxman et al. 1989;John 1999). In contrast, significantly less influence is expected in the purchase of products which are not personally related to child. ...
... For the durable and expensive family products like TV or car etc., parents are taking the purchase decisions and do not allow the children to influence their decision (Belch et al. 1985;Foxman and Tansuhaj 1988;Foxman et al. 1989;Isler et al. 1987;Swinyard and Sim 1987). The cognitive development theory (John 1999) describes the different stages of cognitive development i.e. perceptual stage (3-7 years), analytical stage (7-11 years) and reflective stage (11-16 years). Perceptual stage exhibits that the children at this age are well aware of products for their use and can tell brands whereas at the analytical stage, children have knowledge of various dimensions related to the products. ...
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The role of children in family purchase decisions has been changed in the transformed society. Today children have a demanding and persuading voice which drives the parents’ purchase decisions from convenience to durable products. This paper investigates the influencing role of children in purchase of 78 products and attempts to identify different product groups to develop an empirical framework with the help of exploratory factor analysis. Further, the paper examines the children influence on parents’ purchase decisions in identified product groups. The findings reveal that children play a significant role in purchase of ‘school supplies’ followed by ‘entertainment’, ‘enticing’, ‘children education’ and ‘healthy items’. The influence is also evident in ‘durables’ product group however, it is the lowest as compared to other groups. The paper concludes by suggesting the implications of the empirical framework developed in the study.
... It has also been used to examine the influence of various socialization agents on emerging adults' financial behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge (Shim et al., 2010). The degree and type of influence that each socialization agent (i.e., parents, peers, employment, and media) has on a person varies depending on developmental stage (Clark et al., 2001;John, 1999). The present study uses consumer socialization theory as a framework to understand how the socialization agents of parents, peers, employment, and media, as well as different regional locations, relate to the spending behavior of emerging adults. ...
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Using consumer socialization theory, this study examined the associations between perceived influence of parents, peers, employment, and media and spending behaviors of emerging adult college students from three different regions of the US: Northeast, South Atlantic, and Mountain regions. Data from the Emerging Adult Financial Capability Study ( N = 2,322) were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Greater parental and employment influences perceived by the students were linked with more responsible spending behaviors, while greater peer and media influences were associated with less responsible spending behaviors. This study highlights the importance of the home and the workplace as the nexus for financial learning. This knowledge can help focus efforts to help future emerging adult college students learn responsible spending behaviors.
... Danes (1994) likewise explained the importance of family by stating that it is a key and primary source of a child's socialization, wherein children, through the observation of their parents, participate in financial practices, and receive direct objective instruction. Researchers argue that financial socialization also includes consumer socialization (John, 1999), economic socialization (Lunt & Furnham, 1996), and the theory of social learning (Bandura, 1986), which ultimately leads to the development and enhancement of financial knowledge and financial skills through numerous life occasions, experiences, and various interactions at an individual level (Fox et. al., 2000), also explained in Bronfenbrenner's (1979) human ecological model. ...
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The idea that young students learn a wide range of financial beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors from family members supports the theory that family communication about money plays a key role in developing certain sets of financial behaviors in the young students that they can use more broadly in adulthood. However, less is known about the relationship between this financial socialization and financial self-efficacy and financial autonomy, which is the subject of this study. Financial socialization is an independent variable comprising four attributes: financial discussion with parents, financial discussion with peers, observation of parents’ financial behavior, and observation of peers’ financial behavior. Financial self-efficacy and financial autonomy act as dependent variables. The primary data is collected from 1300 post-graduate and undergraduate students enrolled in colleges across three states of India across various disciplines, are the young students who are the users of financial products and services. I use two multiple regression models. The first explains the positive association between attributes of financial socialization and significant predictors of financial self-efficacy, while the second finds that the observation of peers’ financial behavior is a nonsignificant predictor for financial autonomy in the context of Indian young students. The results also show that among all significant predictors, financial discussion is a comparatively more influencing variable than others. The results of this research study will be useful to policymakers, counselors, and education providers in their framing and development of financial education programs based on family financial socialization.
... Children are most often not able to recognise the persuasive intent of marketing and may perceive it as entertainment, making them particularly susceptible to marketing content. 1 Children and adolescents are a potentially important market segment, as effective marketing towards them can build early positive associations, create life-long consumers and brand relationships that extend into adulthood. 2 3 As such, the World Health Organization (WHO) and others have called for restrictions on marketing to children and younger adolescents of specific products (such as tobacco or vaping products and unhealthy foods or beverages). ...
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Objectives The study objectives were to examine: (1) adolescents’ media viewing habits, (2) associations with media viewing and self-reported exposure to unhealthy food and beverage advertising and (3) differences in trends among younger and older adolescents in six high and upper middle-income countries. Design Repeat cross-sectional online survey. Setting Australia, Canada, Chile, Mexico, the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States of America (USA). Participants Respondents to the International Food Policy Study who provided information on all variables of interest in November–December 2019 aged 10–17 years (n=9171). Outcome measures Self-reported exposure to screen-based media (screen time by media channel), use of social media platforms and self-reported location and frequency of exposure to unhealthy food and beverage advertising. Results The average amount of time spent in front of various screens ranged from 7.6 hours to 10.2 hours across countries per week day, which may include possible viewing of multiple media channels simultaneously. Overall, Instagram was the most popular social media platform (52%–68% by country), followed by Facebook (42%–79%) and Snapchat (28%–52%). The percentage of respondents who self-reported having seen unhealthy food advertisements in the past 30 days was highest on television (43%–69%), followed by digital media (27%–60%) and gaming applications (10%–17%). Self-reported daily exposure to advertising varied between countries for sugary drinks (10%–43%) and fast food (19%–44%) and was positively associated with self-reported screen time. Self-reported exposure to screen-based media and social media platforms differed by sociodemographic characteristics and was higher among older adolescents than younger adolescents. Conclusions The important amount of time spent on screen-based media reported by adolescents and large percentage of adolescents reporting social media usage, coupled with high rates of self-reported advertising exposure, support the need for policies to restrict marketing of unhealthy food and beverages appealing to adolescents on screen-based media.
... Nielsen (2015) identified that children are exposed to approximately 16,000 commercial messages each year, delivered through a growing number of increasingly engaging and targeted media channels. Given that young children possess meagerly developed cognitive resources to protect them from the persuasive influences of these messages (John 1999), a mediator is needed to help them understand the purpose and intent of new forms of advertising to help them develop into dynamic, informed consumers. Brucks et al. (1988) suggested that interventions that educate children about the nature and form of advertising could make them less susceptible to advertising's effects; and Rozendaal et al. (2016) identified that active parental advertising mediation positively influences children's conceptual and attitudinal understanding of advertising, regardless of its form. ...
... The results of the study supported children's strongest influence towards noisy goods such as food and beverages, clothes and shoes and video games. These results are consistent with the findings of the extant studies; Jenkins (1979), Belch et al. (1985), Foxman et al. (1989), McNeal (1992, John (1999), Lee and Beatty (2002), Hansen et al. (2002), Guneri et al. (2009), Flurry andVeeck (2009). The mean score revealed that children exercise comparatively lesser influence on the loud goods than the noisy goods, but scored higher than the quite goods category. ...
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Purpose This paper aims to identify the perception levels of the child and parents towards the child’s influence on different product categories and stages of the family buying process in an Arab country Oman. Design/methodology/approach On the basis of the research gap identified from the literature, two separate bilingual questionnaires (parent and child) in English and local language (Arabic) were developed. The research commenced with a pilot study on 10 school students followed by contact with school authorities requesting to conduct a survey on school students 8–12 years of age and data collection through the survey on the students and their parents (either father/mother) during September-November, 2017–2018. Data analysis was made through an independent sample t-test and confirmatory factor analysis was made using AMOS 24. Findings A model was proposed incorporating three product categories as noisy, quiet and loud goods and perceptions of Arab parents and children were examined for the three stages of the family buying process. The findings of the study reveal that significant differences exist in child-parental perceptions on the child’s influence in the search, evaluation and final buying stages. The mean score among the three product categories was highest for noisy goods (Mean = 3.21, SD = 0.817) while in the case of buying stages, the mean of the final buying stage was highest (Mean = 2.11, SD = 0.514). Research limitations/implications More research studies are required in the Arab context, especially bringing in the social status of parents to justify their different shopping behaviours. This analysis is based on the perceptions of the tweenager segment, adding perceptions of the teenage segment could generate better research implications. Practical implications The research will serve as a base to consumer marketers in understanding distinct features of Arab tweenagers towards different products and will aid them in designing appropriate marketing strategies targeting parents and children in the Arab region. Originality/value After an extensive review of the consumer literature, it is assumed that almost no research study has been made examining parent-child perceptions towards the different product categories and buying stages targeting traditionally oriented families in the Arab region.
... A comprehensive perspective on advertising literacy that goes beyond the "cognitive defense view" (Rozendaal et al., 2011) encompasses three components: the ability to identify ads, to evaluate them, and to attitudinally defend against them (Rozendaal & Figner, 2020). Advertising literacy is developed over time with experience (John, 1999), and thus, adolescents are a distinct case from other age groups (De Jans, Wright et al., 2005). They are different from adults in terms of advertising literacy because their cognitive abilities differ from those of adults. ...
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Our study stresses the importance of developing understandable and easily recognizable ad disclosures for adolescents as a specific target group of social media influencer (SMI) advertising. A comprehensive advertising literacy concept that includes a cognitive, performative, and attitudinal component builds the theoretical background of the present research. We examine the effectiveness of ad disclosure in the native language of adolescent Instagram users, explore their understanding of the economic mechanism behind SMIs’ advertising activities, and their skepticism toward sponsored content. Furthermore, we analyze the role that sponsorship transparency on Instagram stories plays in adolescents’ responses to advertising. A three-level between-subjects survey-based experimental design (manipulating the absence of ad disclosure versus ad disclosure in the participants’ native language versus standardized paid partnership ad disclosure in English) was conducted online with female adolescent participants (N = 241) in a European country. Findings showed that adolescents who understand the economic model behind SMI advertising have positive intentions toward the SMI and intend to spread online information about the promoted brand. However, even if ad disclosure made in the adolescents’ native language improved ad recognition, such knowledge did not result in more sophisticated defense mechanisms in the form of critical evaluations of the ads.
... Bilişsel faktörler, yaşa bağlı olup tüketici bilgisi ve karar verme becerilerinin gelişmesine katkıda bulunur. Bilişsel yeteneklerin gelişmesi, çocukların ürünleri değerlendirme, onları diğer alternatiflerle karşılaştırma ve seçilen ürünü bir mağazadan satın alma sürecini kolaylaştırır (John, 1999;Sharma, 2011;Valkenburg, 2000). Sosyal faktörler aile, medya ve akranları kapsamaktadır (Sharma, 2011;Sharma & Sonwaney, 2014). ...
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Araştırma ilkokul çocuklarının tüketici olarak sosyalleşme durumlarını yordayan değişkenlerin incelenmesi amacıyla yapılmıştır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda araştırmada çocukların tüketici olarak sosyalleşme durumlarının çeşitli değişkenler açısından anlamlı farklılık gösterip göstermediği ve anne babaların çocukların sosyalleşme durumlarına ilişkin görüşleri araştırılmıştır. Araştırma nicel ve nitel desenlerin birlikte kullanıldığı karma desenle yürütülmüştür. Bu doğrultuda araştırmada iki farklı örneklem grubu oluşturulmuştur. Nicel verilerin elde edilmesi amacıyla Erzincan il merkezindeki iki ilkokulda öğrenim gören 237 çocuğun anne babası araştırmaya dâhil edilmiştir. Nitel verilerin toplanması amacıyla ise 30 anne-baba çalışmaya dahil edilmiştir. Nicel verilerin elde edilmesi amacıyla Çocukların Tüketici Olarak Sosyalleşmesi Ölçeği, nitel verilerin elde edilmesi amacıyla ise Yarı Yapılandırılmış Görüşme Formu kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda anne babanın öğrenim düzeyi ve yaşı, birlikte alışveriş yapma durumunun çocukların tüketici olarak sosyalleşme düzeylerinin anlamlı yordayıcısı olduğu belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca anne babalar çocukların tüketici olarak sosyalleşmelerini desteklediklerini ve bu konuda olumlu görüşleri olduğunu bildirmişlerdir.
... Most of the research on children and the environment has focused on environmental socialisation, and reverse socialisation in particular, with specific attention on adolescents (e.g. Singh et al., 2020), and has largely overlooked children at the analytical stage (7-12 years old; John, 1999). Children from the analytical stage benefit from environmental education at school (Jorgenson et al., 2019), and might be catalysts for behavioral change in the family setting (O'Neill & Buckley, 2019). ...
... The families were recruited through the use of personal contacts and through a snowballing approach. They were purposively chosen to ensure that the families had at least one child belonging to the analytical stage (John, 1999). We further looked for diversity in the sample, with families exhibiting varying levels of engagement with environmental issues. ...
... All the children gave a definition of engagement with environmental issues, and further explained how little or how much they felt that they were engaged. Because of the cognitive development of children at the analytical stage (John, 1999;Peracchio & Mita, 1991;Wells, 1965), we kept the interviews fairly short as recommended in prior research designs with children (Banister & Booth, 2005). Interviews lasted between 15 and 40 minutes. ...