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SOAR: Strategic Inquiry with Appreciative Intent 

SOAR: Strategic Inquiry with Appreciative Intent 

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This article presents the SOAR framework’s evolution from the fields of strategy, organization development and change, and Appreciative Inquiry (AI) to the discipline of positive organizational scholarship (POS). The ‘positive’ in POS asks scholars and practitioners to view the world through a lens where weaknesses and threats are reframed as stren...

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... SOAR framework is just such a strategic thinking process, and by focusing on the 'S' and 'O' elements of the SWOT/TOWS approaches, SOAR uses the AI paradigm to shift and amplify the energy of the planning process into the S-O quadrant and then subsequently build on stakeholders' aspirations ('A') and desired results ('R'). Figure 5 illustrates the transformation of SWOT and TOWS into SOAR. ...

Citations

... Appreciative inquiry is an approach process based on exploring the potential possessed by individuals and organizations so that the object can dream, plan, and have benchmarks of what it really wants (J. Stavros, 2013;J. Stavros & Cole, 2013;JM Stavros & Saint, 2010). Actually, in the process of doing strategic planning with appreciative inquiry, the concept is basically not just about positive, but appreciative inquiry is formed on the basic concept of generative learning (G. Bushe, 2007). From the evaluation process of the ongoing mini-workshop activities experienced by th ...
... In its application, SOAR (strengths, opportunities, aspirations, results) is an alternative to the SWOT approach (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) which focuses more on what strengths and potentials it has, so that it can have an impact on change and effective strategic planning rather than thinking about 50 % weakness and 50% strength (J. Stavros & Cole, 2013). Outcomes from the intervention process, an appreciative inquiry-based strategic planning approach has a positive change impact for its members so that all member elements can simultaneously exchange understandings about how the organization should develop. ...
Article
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This study aims to develop schools by designing and implementing a strategic planning based on appreciative inquiry at XYZ private high school in Lamongan. In practice, there are four aspects that are emphasized when doing strategic plan ning, including strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results. Then, strategic planning activities based on appreciative inquiry led to concrete actions that were supported by all stakeholders. of this study uses an appreciative inquir y approach that has a cycle such as discovery, dream, design, and destiny with a mini workshop media on 24 employees of XYZ private high school while designing strategic planning. The measurement of the research success is measured by the process of holdin The methodology g a mini workshop, and the outcomes of the intervention provided. The results showed that the subject had a positive evaluation of the mini workshop activities and participated in the eve nt with spirit and enthusiasm. Then, the outcomes of this study indicate that the subject experiences the impact of changes both individually and organizationally as well as the implementation of actions that have been designed. In short, the strategic pla nning carried out by school members has a positive impact and change in school development.
... SOAR has been contrasted to the classic SWOT diagnostic analysis that diverts organizational resources away from strengths and opportunities by a focus on weaknesses and threats. Rather, SOAR is a dialogue-based, whole system approach to OD that leverages generative dialogue and interactive communication to focus energy on aspirations and results (Stavros and Cole, 2013;Bushe and Marshak, 2014). The SOAR framework transforms strategic thinking, planning, conversations, and leading through the use of generative questions designed to leverage the capacity for positive change through stories and conversations about what works and organizational perspectives from relevant stakeholders (Stavros and Wooten, 2012;Bushe, 2013;Stavros and Torres, 2018). ...
Article
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Strengths, Opportunities, Aspirations, and Results (SOAR) is a strengths-based framework for strategic thinking, planning, conversations, and leading that focuses on strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results. The SOAR framework leverages and integrates Appreciative Inquiry (AI) to create a transformation process through generative questions and positive framing. While SOAR has been used by practitioners since 2000 as a framework for generating positive organizational change, its use in empirical research has been limited by the absence of reliable and valid measures. We report on the reliability, construct validity, and measurement invariance of the SOAR Scale, a 12-item self-report survey organized into four first-order factors (Strengths, Opportunities, Aspirations, and Results). Data from a sample of 285 U.S. professionals were analyzed in Mplus using confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling. The Four-Factor first-order exploratory structure equation modeling (ESEM) had the best model fit. Measurement invariance tests found the scalar invariance of the SOAR Scale across gender and education groups. Implications are discussed for using the SOAR Scale to build resilience at the individual, the team, and the organizational levels.
... SWOT may include a lack of focus on the most important and highest impact goals, lack of a shared vision and strategic plans to support goals, thereby leading to deficiencies in evaluation plans after implementation (Bryson, 2011). Moreover, in practice, the SWOT method often focuses primarily on weakness and threats (Stavros & Cole, 2013). ...
... SOAR offers an opportunity to create shared understanding and action through the identification and discussion of strengths and opportunities and together reframe deficits and challenges through the eyes of possibility and a forward-thinking frame (Stavros & Hinrichs, 2009). Evidence shows SWOT leads to incremental improvements, whereas SOAR focuses on value generation and innovation (Stavros & Cole, 2013). Unlike SWOT, which is based on hierarchical organization, and a "top down" approach, SOAR provides the stakeholders opportunities to explore their potential, foster cooperation, and build a future based on self-driven thinking (Cooperrider, Whitney, & Stavros, 2008). ...
... Unlike SWOT, which is based on hierarchical organization, and a "top down" approach, SOAR provides the stakeholders opportunities to explore their potential, foster cooperation, and build a future based on self-driven thinking (Cooperrider, Whitney, & Stavros, 2008). While SWOT emphasizes identifying potential gaps and risk mitigation, SOAR emphasizes transformative, co-created change to achieve aspirational goals and measurable results (Stavros & Cole, 2013). Utilization of positive thinking approaches gives an important role to the shared definition and co-construction of the "successes"; this approach offering opportunities for evaluation as a tool for improving the effectiveness of the interventions (Stame, 2014;Stame & Lo Presti, 2015). ...
Article
Persistent gaps exist in healthcare workers’ capacity to address HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control in Asia and Africa due to constraints in resources and knowledge. Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) leverages video-enabled technology to build workforce capacity and promote collaboration through mentorship and case-based learning. To understand current perceptions of ECHO participants and develop a comprehensive evaluation framework for ECHO implementation, we utilized a modified appreciative inquiry guided focus group discussion (FGD) workshops in India and Tanzania and called it SCORE (Strengths, Challenges, Opportunities, Results, and Evaluation). Content and thematic analysis of transcripts from FGDs triangulated with key-informant interview transcripts documented perceptions of diverse stakeholders about ECHO implementation, identifying key elements for development of a comprehensive evaluation framework. The perceived strengths of ECHO were capacity building and establishing communities of practice. The perceived challenges of ECHO included securing resources, engaging leadership, and building systems for monitoring impact. Improved internet connectivity, addressing logistical challenges, encouraging session interactivity, and having strategic scale-up plans were perceived opportunities for sustainability. Contextualizing and facilitating SCORE workshops with qualitative analysis of findings 6 to 12 months post-ECHO implementation may serve as a best practice to assess mid-course corrections to improve ECHO implementation quality.
... Sebagai kerangka kerja, SOAR berfokus pada formulasi dan penerapan strategi positif dengan melihat kekuatan, menyeimbangkan kapasitas dan peluang, mengarahkan individu dan tim untuk menyampaikan aspirasi, dan menentukan hasil yang bermakna dan terukur. (Stavros & Cole, 2014). ...
... Dengan melibatkan semua pemangku kepentingan yang relevan dalam dialog, SOAR menciptakan kemungkinan pemahaman yang lebih besar tentang keseluruhan sistem untuk membantu membentuk strategi dan proses strategis. Pertanyaan dan tanggapan berikut mencontohkan proses dialog seputar elemen SOAR yaitu kekuatan, peluang, aspirasi, dan hasil untuk membantu pemangku kepentingan memahami masa lalu dan membangun masa depan yang menjanjikan untuk mempertahankan misi organisasi(Stavros & Cole, 2014). 1. Kekuatan menawarkan fondasi untuk pertumbuhan strategis dengan menemukan dan menyelaraskan kapabilitas organisasi yang paling berdampak (dan kapasitas untuk tindakan yang efektif) untuk fokus pada pendorong kinerja dan potensi masa depan terbaik. ...
Thesis
Perusahaan logistik membutuhkan inovasi untuk meningkatkan daya saing dalam meningkatkan kinerja logistik Indonesia. Indonesia merupakan negara kepulauan terbesar di dunia sehingga hal ini menjadi tantangan besar bagi logistik Indonesia karena pengiriman barang dalam jumlah besar antar pulau membutuhkan waktu yang lama dan biaya yang cukup besar. Daya saing logistik Indonesia berada pada peringkat lima di tingkat ASEAN, berdasarkan Logistics Performance Index (LPI) 2018 Indonesia (3,15) berada di bawah Singapura (4,0), Thailand (3,41), Vietnam (3,27) serta Malaysia (3,22). Hal yang diuraikan di atas mendorong diusulkannya penelitian ini, yaitu pemanfaatan teknologi smart logistics untuk meningkatkan efisiensi proses logistik secara keseluruhan. Pendekatan yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah pendekatan yang bersifat kualitatif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk merumuskan strategi pengembangan smart logistics menggunakan analisis Strengths, Opportunities, Aspirations, Results (SOAR), menerapkan Business Model Canvas (BMC) untuk menggambarkan dasar pemikiran strategi perbaikan model bisnis yang ada, dan Balanced Scorecard (BSC) sebagai kerangka strategis untuk mengembangkan smart logistics yang terintegrasi. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah menyiapkan sinergi Badan Usaha Milik Negara (BUMN), membangun kerjasama dengan perusahaan logistik lainnya, mengintegrasikan proses logistik dengan teknologi tepat guna, mengembangkan infrastruktur untuk mendukung pergerakan arus barang, merancang solusi logistik yang mengakomodir kebutuhan pasar logistik di Indonesia, dan membuat blueprint untuk mendukung pengembangan smart logistics. Implikasi manajerial yang diperoleh dari penelitian ini adalah memodernisasi cara kerja logistik dengan teknologi sehingga bisa membantu perusahaan logistik untuk memenuhi harapan pelanggan, menurunkan biaya rantai pasok, memberikan layanan yang efisien, dan menggabungkan seluruh kekuatan logistik dalam satu platform.
... SOAR focuses on the formulation and implementation of a positive strategy by identifying strengths, building creativity in the form of opportunities, encouraging individuals and teams to share aspirations, and determining measurable and meaningful results. (Stavros & Cole, 2014). ...
Conference Paper
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Logistics companies need innovation to improve competitiveness in improving Indonesia's logistics performance. Indonesia is the largest archipelagic country in the world, so it becomes a big challenge for logistics companies because the movement of large goods between islands takes a long time and costs a lot of money. Therefore, logistics companies plan to create an integrated logistics system starting from raw material preparation, processing raw materials into finished goods, and shipping processes until finished goods are received by consumers. The things described above encourage this research, to utilize smart logistics technology to increase the efficiency of the overall logistics process. The approach used in this research is qualitative. This research aims to create strategy formulation of smart logistics development using Strengths, Opportunities, Aspirations, Results (SOAR) analysis, applying the Business Model Canvas (BMC) to describe the rationale for the ongoing logistics process improvement strategy and Balanced Scorecard (BSC) as a strategic framework for developing integrated smart logistics. The results of this study are to formulate recommendations for innovation strategies and the transformation of the logistics industry towards a more advanced direction.
... As a framework, SOAR offers the opportunity for a flexible strategic dialogue process to complete a strategic assessment, design a strategy and/or a strategic plan, and determine appropriate action (Stavros & Matthew, 2013). This dialogue makes it feasible for the organization's stakeholders to see happening when the organization is working at its best as well as envision what the organization can become. ...
... Implementation is the last step in the SOAR framework (Stavros & Matthew, 2013). In this phase, attempts are made to put the developed plans into action. ...
... SOAR merupakan suatu proses pemikiran strategis, yang berfokus pada elemen strenghts dan opportunities dalam pendekatan SWOT. SOAR menggunakan paradigma Appreciative Inquiry untuk bergeser dan menekankan proses perencanaan ke kuadran S-O (Strength-Opportunities), kemudian dibangun strategi berdasarkan aspirasi mitra (stakeholders) dan hasil yang ingin dicapai (Stavros & Cole, 2014). Tahap analisis SOAR dimulai dengan pertanyaan positif untuk mempelajari nilai inti, visi, kekuatan, dan peluang potensial (Ma'ruf, 2017). ...
... Pada analisis SOAR (Strenghts Opportunities Aspirations and Results) ini dikelompokkan sesuai indikator smart city menurut (Pratama & Eka, 2014;Purnomo, Meyliana & Prabowo, 2016) (Stavros & Cole, 2014) berdasarkan kekuatan untuk mencapai hasil yang terukur; dan strategi O-R (opportunitiesresults) berorientasi pada peluang untuk mencapai hasil yang terukur (Stavros & Cole, 2014). ...
... Pada analisis SOAR (Strenghts Opportunities Aspirations and Results) ini dikelompokkan sesuai indikator smart city menurut (Pratama & Eka, 2014;Purnomo, Meyliana & Prabowo, 2016) (Stavros & Cole, 2014) berdasarkan kekuatan untuk mencapai hasil yang terukur; dan strategi O-R (opportunitiesresults) berorientasi pada peluang untuk mencapai hasil yang terukur (Stavros & Cole, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
The demands in responding to the regional needs and potentials and providing public services quickly, transparently, and efficiently in the digital era encouraged the Subang Regency Regional Government to undertake various efforts in preparing its region to implement smart cities. Some necessary steps local governments must take before carrying out smart city development are identifying goals or results to achieve, gathering aspirations that arise in the region, and finding out the strengths and opportunities through strategies according to its capacity. It can be accomplished using strategic analysis of cities/districts towards smart cities through SOAR analysis, focusing on analyzing the strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results of the smart city dimensions, namely the smart government, smart economy, smart living, smart people, smart mobility, and smart environment. This study carried out a smart city strategic analysis of the Subang Regency using a qualitative descriptive research approach and a purposive technique to select informants. The data analysis used was SOAR analysis. The study formulated the Subang Regency strategies towards a smart city in each smart city's dimensions. These strategies include accelerating public services, quick decision making on Subang's problems, and supporting the Subang area monitoring system; hence regional heads and related agencies can obtain the latest information and act responsively. Abstrak. Adanya dorongan untuk merespon kebutuhan, potensi daerah serta memberikan pelayanan publik yang cepat, transparan, dan efisien di era digital menjadikan Pemerintah Kabupaten Subang melakukan berbagai upaya dalam mempersiapkan daerahnya menuju smart city. Beberapa langkah penting yang perlu diambil oleh pemerintah daerah sebelum melakukan pembangunan smart city yaitu mengidentifikasi tujuan atau hasil yang ingin dicapai, mengumpulkan aspirasi yang muncul di wilayahnya, serta mengetahui apa yang menjadi kekuatan dan peluang melalui strategi-strategi sesuai dengan kapasitas wilayahnya. Hal ini dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan analisis strategis kota/kabupaten menuju smart city melalui analisis SOAR dengan fokus dalam menganalisis strenghts (kekuatan), opportunities (peluang), aspirations (aspirasi), dan results (hasil) pada dimensi smart city, yakni dimensi smart government, smart economy, smart living, smart people, smart mobility, smart environment. Melalui studi ini dilakukan analisis strategis smart city Kabupaten Subang dengan pendekatan penelitian deskriptif kualitatif dan teknik penentuan informan secara purposif. Analisis data dilakukan dengan menggunakan analisis SOAR. Hasil penelitian memformulasikan strategi Kabupaten Subang menuju smart city pada setiap dimensi smart city. Strategi tersebut di antaranya adalah percepatan layanan publik, pengambilan keputusan cepat terhadap permasalahan yang dihadapi Subang, dan dukungan sistem monitoring wilayah Subang sehingga kepala daerah dan dinas terkait dapat memperoleh informasi yang terkini dan dapat bertindak responsif. Kata kunci: analisis strategis, smart city, SOAR, Kabupaten Subang.
... SOAR merupakan suatu proses pemikiran strategis, yang berfokus pada elemen strenghts dan opportunities dalam pendekatan SWOT. SOAR menggunakan paradigma Appreciative Inquiry untuk bergeser dan menekankan proses perencanaan ke kuadran S-O (Strength-Opportunities), kemudian dibangun strategi berdasarkan aspirasi mitra (stakeholders) dan hasil yang ingin dicapai (Stavros & Cole, 2014). Tahap analisis SOAR dimulai dengan pertanyaan positif untuk mempelajari nilai inti, visi, kekuatan, dan peluang potensial (Ma'ruf, 2017). ...
... Pada analisis SOAR (Strenghts Opportunities Aspirations and Results) ini dikelompokkan sesuai indikator smart city menurut (Pratama & Eka, 2014;Purnomo, Meyliana & Prabowo, 2016) (Stavros & Cole, 2014) berdasarkan kekuatan untuk mencapai hasil yang terukur; dan strategi O-R (opportunitiesresults) berorientasi pada peluang untuk mencapai hasil yang terukur (Stavros & Cole, 2014). ...
... Pada analisis SOAR (Strenghts Opportunities Aspirations and Results) ini dikelompokkan sesuai indikator smart city menurut (Pratama & Eka, 2014;Purnomo, Meyliana & Prabowo, 2016) (Stavros & Cole, 2014) berdasarkan kekuatan untuk mencapai hasil yang terukur; dan strategi O-R (opportunitiesresults) berorientasi pada peluang untuk mencapai hasil yang terukur (Stavros & Cole, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
The demands in responding to the regional needs and potentials and providing public services quickly, transparently, and efficiently in the digital era encouraged the Subang Regency Regional Government to undertake various efforts in preparing its region to implement smart cities. Some necessary steps local governments must take before carrying out smart city development are identifying goals or results to achieve, gathering aspirations that arise in the region, and finding out the strengths and opportunities through strategies according to its capacity. It can be accomplished using strategic analysis of cities/districts towards smart cities through SOAR analysis, focusing on analyzing the strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results of the smart city dimensions, namely the smart government, smart economy, smart living, smart people, smart mobility, and smart environment. This study carried out a smart city strategic analysis of the Subang Regency using a qualitative descriptive research approach and a purposive technique to select informants. The data analysis used was SOAR analysis. The study formulated the Subang Regency strategies towards a smart city in each smart city's dimensions. These strategies include accelerating public services, quick decision making on Subang's problems, and supporting the Subang area monitoring system; hence regional heads and related agencies can obtain the latest information and act responsively.
... Modern developers are moving away from the diagnostic perspective to a dialogic perspective; which is an innovative strategic way of thinking that leads to transformation (Hamel & Prahalad, 1996;Hitt et al., 1998;Lowendahl & Revang, 1998;Kim & Mauborgne, 2005;Stavros & Wooten, 2011). The SOAR analysis is a more action orientated strategic planning tool that focuses on strengths and seeks to understand the entire destination and its development, including inputs from all the relevant stakeholders (Capela & Brooks-Saunders, 2008;Stavros & Cole, 2013). ...
Article
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Tourism is regarded as a key sector through which to bring about sustainable development in rural areas. A suitable product offering should be identified that matches the rural area's unique resources with market demand. The Karoo Rural Node in South Africa's unique landscape coupled with hosting astronomy sites of global importance presents the ideal opportunity to develop Astro Tourism as niche offering. This paper explores the region's state of readiness to harness this potential through describing existing visitors' travel behaviour, experiences and expectations, alongside views from supply side stakeholders. Mixed methodology presents evaluations at the hand of an Importance Performance and a SOAR Analysis depicting the state of readiness. The paper describes how a unique experience such as Astro Tourism can be regarded as viable mechanism to bring about sustainable development in a rural context.
... However, recent analysis emerged from an interesting approach together with the core principle of AI, called S.O.A.R (Strengths, Opportunities, Aspirations, and Results) (Khavarian-Garmsir & Zare, 2014). This model provides a flexible approach to strategic thinking, planning and leading that invites the whole system into strategic planning by including all those with a stake in the success of the organisation's future (Khavarian-Garmsir & Zare, 2014;Stavros & Cole, 2013). In order to understand the rural development at SSAF using the AI approach, the S.O.A.R analysis was performed based on the interviews and literature. ...
Chapter
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This study has explored the prospect and future development of rural tourism at SSAF using the AI approach and it is the first of its kind to conduct a field test using the AI approach in tourism development besides the integration of social exchange theory. The objectives of the study were to explore the strengths, potential, impacts, and perceptions of tourism stakeholders (local communities, local authorities, tourism operators, and visitors) towards sustainable rural tourism development at SSAF. This case study has made some contributions to theoretical and conceptual understanding of AI approach and SET in tourism field.