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SEVENTY-EIGHT HISTORICAL AND MUSEUM RECORDS OF PRONGHORN (ANTILOCAPRA AMERICANA) IN NEBRASKA

SEVENTY-EIGHT HISTORICAL AND MUSEUM RECORDS OF PRONGHORN (ANTILOCAPRA AMERICANA) IN NEBRASKA

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Archeological and paleontological records indicate that the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) have a history of at least 20,000 years of occurrence within the current boundaries of Nebraska. Pronghorns occurred throughout the state for much of its history. With the evidence at hand we concluded that the eastern boundary of the geographic distributi...

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Context 1
... of the remainder of the records in Table 2 supports the idea that pronghorns occurred historically in all other areas of the state. However, by 1849, Captain Howard Stansbury already was noting that hunting was poor along the Little Blue River valley because of "the game having been driven from the vicinity of the traveled route by the unintermitted stream of emigration which had already passed over the road" (Stansbury 1852). ...
Context 2
... (1904) showed possible herds in extreme north- western Nebraska, probably based on Cary's (1902) ob- servations. Although pronghorns were almost extirpated from the state, scattered records of individuals and small herds were documented over the next two decades ( Table 2), all confined to the panhandle of Nebraska. However, Hornaday (1914) in his survey of pronghorn populations throughout its geographic range mapped no herds in Nebraska. ...

Citations

... The δ 15 N value (6.8‰) for the pronghorn matches those of the bison and the elk, but the δ 13 C col value (−19.6‰) points to this animal consuming mainly C 3 grasses and plants and, therefore, not subsisting on the same tallgrass-prairie ecosystem. While pronghorns are not found in Iowa today, historically they were in the far west of the state, with a habitat range throughout most of the Great Plains and into the far western states (Hoffman et al. 2011). Today their habitat is much reduced. ...
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This study provides evidence of the value of using isotopic data from faunal remains to understand human diet and mobility patterns when human remains are not available for examination. In this research, bone apatite, bone collagen, and enamel apatite from fauna recovered from recent excavations of the Dixon site (13WD8), an Oneota complex site (AD 1300-1400) in western Iowa, were analyzed for δ 13 C, δ 15 N, δ 18 O, and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values. The goals of this study were to gather information about human and animal diet and mobility and faunal procurement strategies of humans in the late prehistoric period of upper midwestern North America and to contribute to the growing literature using domesticated dogs as surrogates for humans in isotopic studies of dietary patterns. The results of this study find that the people occupying the Dixon site were subsisting on agricultural products, including maize, in conjunction with the gathered wild resources and hunted fauna, which included both large and small local game. While the Oneota complex is thought to be associated with some amount of seasonal migration, there is no evidence of these movements offered via this study's data nor is there strong evidence of long-distance hunting. Domesticated canids were an important part of the Dixon settlement and were fed human foodstuffs and scraps, including maize. At times, these canids were also a source of food. As a substitute for analyses of human remains, this study uses the canine surrogacy approach (CSA) and argues that the canid data would be similar to the human data from the Dixon settlement. A Bayesian stable-isotope mixing model (MixSiar) was used to quantitatively interpret the stable-isotope values of the Dixon canids, and it suggests that bison hunting was a specialization of the human population occupying the Dixon site.
... Although Bee et al. (1981:225) suggest that the eastern margin of the Flint Hills was the boundary for pronghorn prior to Euroamerican settlement, historical Table 2; numbered records are in Table 3. Nebraska records are provided in Hoffman et al. (2011). ...
... Two eyewitness accounts are documented in Minnesota in counties that are near its border with North Dakota and South Dakota. Again, this pattern is an extension of a series of sites documented in Nebraska just west of the Missouri River, a study that suggests that pronghorn were relatively abundant in eastern Nebraska (Hoffman et al. 2011). Holocene records for pronghorn in Nebraska total seven sites in five different counties that border the Missouri River; an eighth site in Cedar County, Nebraska, is situated across the Missouri River from southeastern South Dakota, and only a short distance west of the Iowa state line (Hoffman et al. 2011:155). ...
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Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana Ord) remains from archaeological sites in west-central Missouri and northwest Arkansas record the presence of the taxon in middle Holocene contexts as far east as the Cherokee Plain- Ozark Highland border. Pronghorn appear initially during the onset of middle Holocene warming and prairie expan- sion (ca. 9000 cal B.P.) and persist until ca. 1000 cal B.P. Historical documents suggest that pronghorn range had receded westward by the time of Euroamerican settlement, but pronghorn were still present in the tallgrass prairies of the Prairie-Plains of Oklahoma, Osage Cuestas east of the Flint Hills in Kansas, and the loess uplands and till plains of eastern Nebraska. The pattern of occasional eastward move- ment into the tallgrass prairie south of the Missouri River compares favorably with records of similar range extensions into the grasslands of the northern Prairie Peninsula.
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This review describes the formation, structure, and function of bony compartments in antlers, horns, ossicones, osteoderm and the os penis/os clitoris (collectively referred to herein as AHOOO structures) in extant mammals. AHOOOs are extra‐skeletal bones that originate from subcutaneous (dermal) tissues in a wide variety of mammals, and this review elaborates on the co‐development of the bone and skin in these structures. During foetal stages, primordial cells for the bony compartments arise in subcutaneous tissues. The epithelial–mesenchymal transition is assumed to play a key role in the differentiation of bone, cartilage, skin and other tissues in AHOOO structures. AHOOO ossification takes place after skeletal bone formation, and may depend on sexual maturity. Skin keratinization occurs in tandem with ossification and may be under the control of androgens. Both endochondral and intramembranous ossification participate in bony compartment formation. There is variation in gradients of density in different AHOOO structures. These gradients, which vary according to function and species, primarily reduce mechanical stress. Anchorage of AHOOOs to their surrounding tissues fortifies these structures and is accomplished by bone–bone fusion and Sharpey fibres. The presence of the integument is essential for the protection and function of the bony compartments. Three major functions can be attributed to AHOOOs: mechanical, visual, and thermoregulatory. This review provides the first extensive comparative description of the skeletal and integumentary systems of AHOOOs in a variety of mammals.
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The adult sex ratio (ASR) is an important component of a population's demographics and can be used as an indicator of a population's status. However, the causes of annual variation in ASRs are unknown for many species. Fluctuations in ASR can arise through demographic stochasticity and intense selective harvesting. In this study we investigate the long-term patterns of variation in the ASRs (bucks: 100 does) for four populations of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) in western Nebraska. We used multiple variables in a model selection process to predict annual fluctuation of pronghorn ASRs. We found that the number of bucks: 100 does significantly varied over the four populations. The best predictors of annual variation in pronghorn ASRs were variable across all populations. The number of pronghorn bucks harvested in the previous year's hunting season and the previous year's density of pronghorn were the most common predictors of ASR fluctuation. Buck harvest was an important predictor variable in only two of the four populations. Variation of harvest strategies within the populations could account for the lack of importance of buck harvest in half of the populations. The relationship between density and ASR is novel but difficult to interpret due to lack of data on birth sex ratios and fawn survival. More data on pronghorn demographics are needed in order to better explain the connection between density and ASR.