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SAM Phantom. The red devices are clamps to hold the cellphone in a specified location. “CTIA” is the Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association. Source: Speag Phantom Product Flyer. 

SAM Phantom. The red devices are clamps to hold the cellphone in a specified location. “CTIA” is the Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association. Source: Speag Phantom Product Flyer. 

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Computer simulation using MRI scans of children is the only possible way to determine the microwave radiation (MWR) absorbed in specific tissues in children. Children absorb more MWR than adults because their brain tissues are more absorbent, their skulls are thinner and their relative size is smaller. MWR from wireless devices has been declared a...

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... absorption properties of the 40 tissues of the head is poured into a hole at the top of this head. A robotic arm with an electric field probe is positioned within the mannequin such that the location of the highest electric field is located within any one cubic centimeter volume. A cellphone to be certified is clamped to either side of SAM (see Fig. 2). The electric fields values are used to calculate the maximum spatial peak Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) for any 1 g of Table 1 A comparison of the capability to measure SAR using the computer simulation certification process or the SAM certification process for various ...
Context 2
... in parotid gland tumors relative to other salivary gland tumors. A newspaper in Israel reported “[S]alivary gland cancer, which researchers suspect to be linked to cellphone use, was disproportionately common among young patients. One fifth of those patients were under 20” [33]. Perhaps more than any other adverse health effect from exposure to MWR, damage to sperm is the most documented including in vitro, in vivo and human epidemi- ological studies. A 2005 study with data collection from November 2002 to March 2004 examined the motility of sperm. “The pro- portion of slow progressive motile sperm increased with increase of the duration of the daily transmission time p < 0.01” [34]. A study of cellphone usage among men who attended an infertility clinic concluded, “Use of cell phones decrease the semen quality in men by decreasing the sperm count, motility, viability, and normal morphology. The decrease in sperm parameters was dependent on the duration of daily exposure to cell phones and independent of the initial semen quality” [35]. A Japanese study reported “This study has indicated significant decrease in sperm count [ p = 0.004] and motility [ p = 0.003] . . . because of exposure to MP [Mobile Phone] emission, respectively” [36]. An Australian study investigated how sperm cells are damaged by cellphone MWR. Its conclusions stated “RF- EMR [Radio Frequency-Electro Magnetic Radiation] in both the power density and frequency range of mobile phones enhances mitochondrial reactive oxygen species genera- tion by human spermatozoa, decreasing the motility and vitality of these cells while stimulating DNA base adduct formation and, ultimately DNA fragmentation. These find- ings have clear implications for the safety of extensive mobile phone use by males of reproductive age, potentially affecting both their fertility and the health and well-being of their offspring” [37]. Professor Stanton A. Glantz is a Professor of Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco Medical School. He is also author of a renowned graduate level statistics textbook, Primer of Biostatistics, Seventh Edition [38]. Refer- ring to the above four studies on sperm damage from MWR he concludes: “Taking all the information we have discussed on cell phones and sperm allows us to confidently conclude that exposure to cell phones adversely effects sperm.” A study of temperature controlled human sperm placed 3 cm beneath a laptop computer connected to Wi-Fi for 4 h [39] reported, “Donor sperm samples, mostly normo- zoospermic [normal sperm], exposed ex vivo during 4 h to a wireless internet-connected laptop showed a significant decrease in progressive sperm motility and an increase in sperm DNA fragmentation.” The study concluded “Ex vivo exposure of human spermatozoa to a wireless internet- connected laptop decreased motility and induced DNA fragmentation by a nonthermal effect. We speculate that keeping a laptop connected wirelessly to the internet on the lap near the testes may result in decreased male fertility.” The average time between exposure to a carcinogen and the diagnosis of a resultant solid tumor is 3 or more decades. Brain tumors, like lung cancer and many other solid tumors have, on average , long latency times [8,40]. Therefore, it may be several decades before tumors induced by current MWR exposures in children are diagnosed. For example, the Israeli study showing brain tumor risk was inverse with age had long latency times [8]. In contrast the Aydin et al. study had relatively short latency times [24]. The FCC has approved two processes to certify that a wireless device meets the required exposure limit: (1) The computer simulation process, and (2) The Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM) process. The computer simulation process is discussed above. The SAM process is based on a plastic mannequin rep- resenting the top 10% largest U.S. military recruits in 1989. Any head smaller than SAM will absorb more MWR ( ∼ 97% of the U.S. population) [17]. A liquid with the average adult absorption properties of the 40 tissues of the head is poured into a hole at the top of this head. A robotic arm with an electric field probe is positioned within the mannequin such that the location of the highest electric field is located within any one cubic centimeter volume. A cellphone to be certified is clamped to either side of SAM (see Fig. 2). The electric fields values are used to calculate the maximum spatial peak Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) for any 1 g ...

Citations

... The influence of electromagnetic fields on biological samples, interesting for the planned exposure of cell cultures, has already been examined several times using different endpoints [5][6][7][8][9][10]. However, adverse effects on the human organism beyond thermal effects are not documented [5][6][7][8]. ...
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The paper is aimed at reporting the recent findings of studies documenting cell cultures exposure to electromagnetic fields of various origin. Both thermal and non-thermal effects were analysed, highlighting the role of the specific absorption rate as a metric offering a common framework for comparison among different results. The main problems related to electromagnetic field exposure of cell cultures were identified as reporting accurate field magnitude and ensuring suitable environmental conditions for cell cultures in order to guarantee the reproducibility of the experiments.
... Step Width (SW) [19], Gait Speed (GS) [20], Stride Frequency (SF), Toe Out Angle (TOA), and Support Phase Time Ratio (SPTR). Stance Phase Time Ratio (SPTR) is shown in Figure 1 [21]. e stride length is the distance between the centres of the two ipsilateral feet after one step, expressed in cm. ...
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The aim of this study was to summarise the therapeutic effects of exercise interventions for common chronic diseases and to analyse the scope of application and problems of various exercise treatment protocols, with a view to guiding clinical practice and providing references for subsequent research. To this end, this paper describes how to extract feature parameters for gait analysis based on a digital human motion model. In-depth descriptions of the extraction algorithms for spatiotemporal features, centre-of-mass movement features, joint mobility, and joint contact forces are presented, and the reliability of the knee contact force extraction algorithm is analysed in particular. To analyse the effect of exercise on the treatment of chronic diseases, 50 cases of elderly chronic disease patients collected from the community were selected and subjected to healthy exercise for 1 year, before and after the healthy exercise. After the exercise, the elderly chronic disease patients’ blood pressure, lipid, and blood glucose attainment rates, chronic diseases, and knowledge of nonpharmacological treatments were significantly higher, with statistically significant differences compared to the preexercise period ( P < 0.05 ).
... In contrast, risks associated with young children's smartphone use abound. Risks include eye problems (Rudolph & Wagner, 2014), sleep disturbance (Falbe et al., 2015), postural and skeletal problems (Fares, Fares, & Fares, 2017), inattention (Marty-Dugas, Ralph, Oakman, & Smilek, 2018), social isolation and behavioral problems (Hosokawa & Katsura, 2018), and microwave radiation (Morgan, Kesari, & Davis, 2014). Much of the existing research into risks of smartphone use focuses on the frequency and duration of phone use (e.g., screen time), content (e.g., violent games), or consequences associated with using the device itself (e.g., eye strain; posture). ...
Article
Smartphones are prevalent across society. Substantial literature has highlighted risks of smartphone use for children under three years of age. Nonetheless, recent surveys suggest that young children use smartphones regularly. Therefore, understanding the associated developmental risks remains pivotal. Most research has examined what children do on their phones, and how long they use them, as keys to understanding risk. We additionally highlight that the contexts in which smartphones are used provide another lens through which to evaluate and mitigate smartphone use risk. In some contexts, for example, smartphones could interfere with developing early emotion regulation competencies. We describe smartphone interference in emotion regulation development using Morris et al.'s (2007) tripartite model of familial influence, to demonstrate incorporating contextual perspectives of developmental smartphone interference. Additionally, the existing literature high- lights SES disparities in smartphone use trends and for emotion regulatory functions that warrant greater attention. Clinical and research implications will be discussed.
... Fetuses, babies, and younger children are especially vulnerable to environmental electromagnetic fields (EMF) because they have smaller head sizes and thickness of the skull, and their brain tissues absorb more MWR than the adults (Morgana et al., 2014). ...
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Our goal is not to describe a single harmful environmental or lifestyle risk factor in great detail, as most scientific articles do. In contrast, we aim to point out that human beings are continuously and simultaneously exposed to countless kinds of harmful environmental and lifestyle risk factors. First, we briefly review and evaluate several environmental, technological, and lifestyle risk factors. We point out that each of these can be associated with perturbed oxidative and epigenetic processes, and the onset of various diseases, including neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative, and neurological disorders, with a worldwide increasing prevalence. In addition, disturbed epigenetic changes by modern technological innovations and lifestyle risk factors can be inheritable to offspring and subsequent generations. Furthermore, disturbed epigenetic changes may also accumulate in the genome. Finally, diverse environmental and lifestyle risk factors may enhance vulnerability and decrease the resilience of modern humans.
... Moreover, our previous results showed highest risk for subjects that started the use of mobile or cordless phone before 20 years of age [104]. That age groups would also be more vulnerable to RF radiation [106]. In legends to Figures 1 and 3 we report the history for wireless phone use in Sweden. ...
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Some historical aspects on late lessons from early warnings on cancer risks with lost time for prevention are discussed. One current example is the cancer-causing effect from radiofrequency (RF) radiation. Studies since decades have shown increased human cancer risk. The fifth generation, 5G, for wireless communication is about to be implemented world-wide despite no comprehensive investigations of potential risks to human health and the environment. This has created debate on this technology among concerned people in many countries. In an appeal to EU in September 2017, currently endorsed by more than 400 scientists and medical doctors, a moratorium on the 5G deployment was required until proper scientific evaluation of negative consequences has been made (www.5Gappeal.eu). That request has not been taken seriously by EU. Lack of proper unbiased risk evaluation of the 5G technology makes adverse effects impossible to be foreseen. This disregard is exemplified by the recent report from the International Commission on non-ionizing radiation protection (ICNIRP) whereby only thermal (heating) effects from RF radiation are acknowledged despite a large number of reported non-thermal effects. Thus, no health effects are acknowledged by ICNIRP for non-thermal RF electromagnetic fields in the range of 100 kHz-300 GHz. Based on results in three case-control studies on use of wireless phones we present preventable fraction for brain tumors. Numbers of brain tumors of not defined type were found to increase in Sweden, especially in the age group 20-39 years in both genders, based on the Swedish Inpatient Register. This may be caused by the high prevalence of wireless phone use among children and in adolescence taking a reasonable latency period and the higher vulnerability to RF radiation among young persons.
... Despite the extensive literature on the subject [8,10,[23][24][25][26], there has been longstanding controversy about whether children absorb more RF energy than adults when using a smartphone [27]. Using realistic virtual human models, it is possible to find any differences in the exposure for different users such as adults vs. children. ...
... Regarding the question about whether children absorb more RF energy than adults when using a smartphone, the debate is still heated in the literature and to date, there are no firm conclusions on this matter [23][24][25][26][27]. The differences in peak local SAR and Sab between adults and children also found in this work are not relevant for compliance assessment [18] but might be important for other purposes, including research on possible biological effects of RF energy. ...
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The recent development of millimeter-wave (mmW) technologies, such as the fifthgeneration (5G) network, comes with concerns related to user exposure. A quite large number of dosimetry studies above 6 GHz have been conducted, with the main purpose being to establish the correlation between different dosimetric parameters and the skin surface temperature elevation. However, the dosimetric studies from 28 GHz user equipment using different voxel models have not been comprehensively discussed yet. In this study, we used the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for the estimation of the absorption of radiofrequency (RF) energy from a microstrip patch antenna array (28 GHz) in different human models. Specifically, we analyzed different exposure conditions simulating three real common scenarios (a phone call scenario, message writing scenario, and browsing scenario) regarding the use of smartphones/tablets by four different individuals (adult male and female, child male and female). From the results of Absorbed Power Density (Sab), it is possible to conclude that all the considered exposure scenarios comply with the safety limits, bothfor adult and children models. However, the high values of the local Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the superficial tissues and the slight differences in its distribution between adults and children suggest the need for further and more detailed analysis.
... Namun di sisi lain muncul kehawatiran noise EMF yang berkembang sangat pesat akibat pemakaian berbagai macam peralatan kesehatan elektronik akhir-akhir ini dapat menimbulkan efek samping (Calvente, Vázquez-Pérez, Fernández, Núñez, & Múñoz-Hoyos, 2017). Meskipun dari beberapa penelitian menunjukkan tidak adanya pengaruh signifikan EMF terhadap kesehatan (Choi et al, 2016) (Koyama, Narita, Shinohara & Miyakoshi, 2014) (Shi, Zhu, Lu, Mao, & Qi, 2014), beberapa penelitian lain menunjukkan EMF terbukti memiliki dampak medis yang signifikan bahkan beberapa diantaranya merupakan dampak yang negatif (Morgan, Kesari, & Davis, 2014) (Jooyan et al., 2019). International Agency for Research on Cancer juga meyatakan medan elektromagnetik pada frekuansi radio berpotensi sebagai karsinogen (IARC,2013). ...
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p>Pengujian kompatibilitas elektromagnetik pada inkubator bayi berdasarkan standar CISPR 11 merupakan pengukuran medan elektromagnetik secara Far Field . Metode pengukuran berdasar CISPR 11 tersebut belum menggambarkan besaran paparan elektromagnetik yang diterima oleh bayi pada jarak dekat. Penelitian ini dilakukan sebagai pengembangan metode CISPR 11 pada pengukuran medan elektrik dengan melakukan pemetaan sebaran medan elektrik. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode ekperimen dengan menggunakan teknik pusposive sampling dalam pemilihan inkubator bayi. Radiasi elektromagnetik inkubator diukur berdasarkan standar pengujian CISPR 11 dan dilakukan pengembangan metode pengukuran dengan melakukan pengukuran near field planar system untuk pemetaan medan elektromagnetik. Pemetaan tersebut digabungkan dengan gambar simulasi posisi bayi saat diletakkan di inkubator kemudian dianalisis perkiraan intensitas medan yang sampai pada bagian otak bayi. Dari sampel yang dipakai terdapat paparan medan elektromagnetik tertinggi di 3 frekuensi yaitu 121, 132, 221 MHz. Pola sebaran medan elektrik yang dihasilkan dari setiap frekuensi berbeda-beda dan masing-masing frekuensi memiliki area yang memiliki medan elektrik tertinggi yang berpotensi mempengaruhi bayi terutama organ vital yang berada pada area tersebut. Metode pemetaan ini dapat digunakan sebagai pengembangan metode pengukuran radiasi elektromagnetik pada inkubator bayi, terutama untuk mengetahui sebaran medan elektrik diatas permukaan matras inkubator.</p
... Among the human beings, children and fetus are especially prone to radiation. Major sources of radiation exposure to this population group include diagnosis instruments used in hospitals, communication systems, dryers, etc 3,4 . This paper has been aimed to study the adverse effects of electromagnetic radiation on human health, especially mother, fetus and children. ...
... Similarly, X-rays are typically used to provide static images of body parts (such as teeth and bones), and are also used in industry to find defects in welds. But, ionizing radiations can be potentially harmful if not used correctly as these also include Alpha Particles, Beta Particles, Gamma Rays and X-Rays and Neutrons: which are emitted from naturally occurring radioactive materials (such as uranium, thorium, and radium) and other man-made radioactive elements and thus, need to be handled with utmost care (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8) . ...
... It is recommended to pregnant women to avoid exposure to radiation as much as possible. The diseases associated with radiation are as follows (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11) : ...
... Brain tissues of young children can absorb higher lead than adults because their brain tissue are thinner compare to adult [4][5][6]. From the previous study, children are more easily to have an increase in blood lead level cause by overlong exposure to electromagnetic radiation [6,7]. In another study, it was reported that some of the computer users complained of hearing loss, headaches, dizziness, tension, and anxiety symptoms [8,9]. ...
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This paper mainly discusses on the effectiveness of multiple plain-woven fabric towards electromagnetic shielding (EMS). The measurement includes the effect of fabric distance from the transmitter antennas in the shielded enclosure test. The conductive fabric consists of copper cover hybrid yarns produced using hollow spindle spinning machine. The electromagnetic shielding test was performed according to IEEE-299 specification at 2000MHz. The range was selected to reflect mobile phones, wireless fidelity, Bluetooth and GPS transmission range frequencies. Four samples of conductive fabrics were used in the work, as 0°/0°, 90°/90°, 0°/90° and 90°/0, respectively. The fabric sample with 0°/90° alignment was found to give the best electromagnetic shielding at -65.79dBM. The initial results also show that the hybrid conductive fabrics have large potential to be utilized for shielding electromagnetic radiation (EMR).
... Among the human beings, children and fetus are especially prone to radiation. Major sources of radiation exposure to this population group include diagnosis instruments used in hospitals, communication systems, dryers, etc 3,4 . This paper has been aimed to study the adverse effects of electromagnetic radiation on human health, especially mother, fetus and children. ...
... Similarly, X-rays are typically used to provide static images of body parts (such as teeth and bones), and are also used in industry to find defects in welds. But, ionizing radiations can be potentially harmful if not used correctly as these also include Alpha Particles, Beta Particles, Gamma Rays and X-Rays and Neutrons: which are emitted from naturally occurring radioactive materials (such as uranium, thorium, and radium) and other man-made radioactive elements and thus, need to be handled with utmost care (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8) . ...
... It is recommended to pregnant women to avoid exposure to radiation as much as possible. The diseases associated with radiation are as follows (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11) : ...
Article
Full-text available
Human population throughout the world is surrounded by an invisible continuously increasing web of radiation, originating from both natural and non-natural sources. Radiation is of two types: ionizing and non-ionizing depending upon their energy. The exposure to radiation has increased many folds in the recent years with the invention and launch of many electromagnetic devices. Exposure to ionizing radiations has been found to cause severe abnormalities in human beings such as DNA damage, cancer, infertility, electro-hypersensitivity, etc. which however is of different intensity depending upon the age group of human beings, with children and fetus being the maximum sufferers because of immature immune system and also various other cells in their body are still at the stage of division and differentiation. Present study has been aimed to investigate a generalized preliminary idea of various health related complications caused by ionizing radiations to human beings with special emphasis to fetus and children. Keywords: