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Româneşti-Dumbrăviţa I. Debitage and laminar structures: Mogoşanu's (layers II-V) and 2009-2010 (GH3) excavations. Abb. 6. Româneşti-Dumbrăviţa I, Grundformhäufigkeiten. Ausgrabungen Mogoşanu (Schichten II-V), Ausgrabungen 2009-2010 (Schichten GH3 und 4).

Româneşti-Dumbrăviţa I. Debitage and laminar structures: Mogoşanu's (layers II-V) and 2009-2010 (GH3) excavations. Abb. 6. Româneşti-Dumbrăviţa I, Grundformhäufigkeiten. Ausgrabungen Mogoşanu (Schichten II-V), Ausgrabungen 2009-2010 (Schichten GH3 und 4).

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- Previous archaeological research in the Banat area (South-western Romania) resulted in the definition of a chronologically late Krems-Dufour type Aurignacian, followed by the isolated find of several considerably old anatomically modern human (AMH) remains at Oase Cave, several decades later. The last find set the stage for new stratigraphic, chr...

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... over blades, which are 1.8 times less common at the bottom and 2.5 times at the top, showing progressive decrease in laminar blanks (from 38.8 % to 26.5 %). The laminar structure reflects the stable and absolute dominance of blades (>80 %) over smaller laminar products: bladelets (from 14.6 % to 18.4 %) and micro-blades (never exceeding 1.5 %) (Fig. ...
Context 2
... debitage structure over micro-blades and blade- lets (22.7 % and 20.1 % correspondingly), while blades are nearly twice as less frequent (Fig. 6). Nevertheless, the laminar orientation of GH3 industry is evident, since all laminar removals (54.8 %, including tools on laminar blanks and burin spalls) dominate over flakes and tool-flakes (45.2 %). Laminar structure shows a clear priority for small blank production, while blades appeared to be less important. Moreover, micro- ...

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... Par contre, l'investigation sur les traces d'occupations humaines est beaucoup plus fructueuse aux pieds des montagnes dans la moyenne-vallé e du Danube. Elle s'est même intensifié e dans les deux derniè res dé cennies grâce à des prospections de terrain et aux nouvelles fouilles de sites connus surtout dans le Banat en Roumanie et en Serbie, ainsi que dans la ré gion montagneuse de la Hongrie du nord (Borić et al., 2012;Chu et al., 2014Chu et al., , 2018Mester, 2014;Sitlivy et al., 2012Sitlivy et al., , 2014a. ...
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... Cârciumaru, Nițu and Bahn 2019). However, ongoing open-air excavations demonstrate that assemblages are rich in Paleolithic artifacts, contemporaneous with the modern human fossils, and regionally clustered such as in the Banat (Sitlivy et al. 2012;Schmidt et al. 2013). However, these sites have failed to produce any appreciable amount of organic preservation and it therefore seems evident that a main goal of research in this area is the connection of these cave and open-air archives. ...
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... Româneşti-Dumbrăviţa I is located in South-western Romania, in the eastern part of the Banat historical region, in Timiş county (E 22.32, N 45.81). The site itself is found on a mostly flat-top river terrace at the confluence of the two branches of the river Bega (Bega Mare and Bega Mică) that originates 15 km in south-eastern direction in the Poiana Ruscă Mountains (Kels et al., 2014;Sitlivy et al., 2012). These are the main features of Albeluvisols, especially fitting is the interfingering of tongues of bleached, lighter-coloured sediment in the lowermost clay horizon, due to possible root channels, ice-wedges and cracks (Kels et al., 2014). ...
... Archaeologically, three main and discrete artefacts levels can be distinguished in good accordance with the dating Sitlivy et al., 2012): Despite the general chrono-cultural accordance with Mogoşanu observations, the modern assemblage features many more small-sized findings, especially bladelets, due to the use of wet sieving Sitlivy et al., 2012). Most of the artefacts are produced on a meso-local variety of chert called "Banat flint", which occurs in a wide variety of brownish-reddish colouration and waxy, slightly translucent appearance (Chu, 2018;Schmidt et al., 2013). ...
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... 42-37 ka cal BP; Trinkaus et al., 2003a;Trinkaus et al., 2003b;Trinkaus et al., 2012). The conspicuous absence of accompanying archeological artifacts stimulated the re-investigation of the openair sites of Românesţi, Cosava and Tincova (Figure 1) that highlight the archeological importance of the Banat during the early Upper Paleolithic (e.g., Anghelinu et al., 2012;Sitlivy et al., 2012;Kels et al., 2014;Sitlivy et al., 2014;Chu et al., 2016b). Furthermore, abundant, nearby loess archives have augmented our understanding of the prevailing palaeoenvironmental conditions during the Late Pleistocene (e.g., Schmidt et al., 2013;Kels et al., 2014;Schulte et al., 2014;Obreht et al., 2015;Zeeden et al., 2016;Gavrilov et al., 2018;Pötter et al., 2020). ...
... Excavations uncovered early Upper Paleolithic Aurignacian lithic artifacts (usually placed around 43-35 ka),including several bladelet cores (e.g., thick endscrapers, nosed endscrapers), blades and endscrapers(Figure 3). Most or all of the blades come from single-platform cores and the high bladeto-flake ratio of the lithic assemblage made primarily from socalled Banat flint(Ciornei et al., in press) that is technologically consistent with the Aurignacian artifacts from the open air sites of the Romanian BanatSitlivy et al., 2012;Sitlivy et al., 2014;Chu et al., 2016b;Chu et al., 2019). Some of the Selected lithic artifacts from the Crvenka-At 2015 excavations (fromChu et al., 2016a). ...
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... Broglio, 2000;Cortés-Sánchez et al., 2019;Demidenko et al., 2012;Dinnis et al., 2019aDinnis et al., ,b, 2020Hahn, 1977;Kozlowski & Otte, 2000;Laplace, 1966;Otte & Derevianko, 2001;Zilhão & d'Errico, 1999). Recently, researchers, ourselves included, have raised doubts about the application of this model on a supra-regional scale (Bataille, 2013;Bataille & Conard, 2018;Bataille et al., , 2020Conard & Bolus, 2006, 2015Falcucci et al., 2017;Hauck et al., 2018;Sitlivy et al., 2012;Tafelmaier, 2017). We have argued, in fact, that the variability and definition of the oldest stages, known as Protoaurignacian (PA) and Early Aurignacian (EA), have been over-simplified to better construct scenarios of modern humans' arrival into Europe. ...
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The cultural dynamics that led to the appearance of the Aurignacian have intrigued archaeologists since the start of Paleolithic research. However, cultural reconstructions have often focused on a restricted region of Europe, namely the northern Aquitaine Basin. The Mediterranean Basin, though, is also a region worthy of consideration when testing if the Protoaurignacian was followed by the Early Aurignacian adaptive system. Fumane Cave is a pivotal site for tackling this issue because it contains evidence of repeated human occupations during the time span of the European Aurignacian. Here we investigate the diachronic variability of the lithic assemblages from five cultural units at Fumane Cave using a combination of reduction sequence and attribute analyses. This paper also reassesses the presence and stratigraphic reliability of the organic artifacts recovered at Fumane Cave. Our results show that the features of the Protoaurignacian techno-typology are present throughout the stratigraphic sequence, and by extension, to the onset of Heinrich Event 4. Additionally, the appearance of split-based points in the youngest phase is evidence of extensive networks that allowed this technological innovation to spread across different Aurignacian regions.
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... Although at BL I/II, this situation may relate to the location of the new trench close to the terrace edge, the tendency in earlier stages of research towards describing 'ideal' or 'corrected' archaeological successions seemed rather a norm than an exception (cf. Sitlivy et al., 2012), and advises caution. Such arbitrary grouping of lithics may add significant noise in particular to palimpsestic accumulations, documented as overlapping combustion structures or discrete peaks in artifact density at all newly excavated sites (Cârciumaru et al., 2006bTuffreau et al., 2018;Anghelinu et al., 2019). ...
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A major impact of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) on the East-Central European Upper Paleolithic (UP) demographic and cultural adaptation is now largely acknowledged. Archaeologically, the basic trend leading to a fragmentation of the Gravettian technocomplex and the emergence of increasingly regionally-focused paleo-cultural units is also generally agreed upon. Higher-resolution regional syntheses remain, however, the only means of validating continental-scale tendencies. Here, we focus on the previously underreported archaeological record of the Romanian Eastern Carpathians, which host a consistent network of UP sites occupied in the timeframe of the LGM. The many sites located on the Bistrița river terraces display highly similar litho-stratigraphic sequences and comparable successions of archaeological layers and are therefore particularly prone to a synthetic survey. Based on recently updated chronometric support, a selected sample of 12 lithic assemblages from six sites illustrate the diachronic changes potentially related to the LGM impact on regional UP groups. In terms of raw material provisioning, mobility and techno-typological patterns, a sharp contrast is marked between the Late Gravettian and the subsequent early Epigravettian. This shift is particularly visible at the peak of the LGM, around 24 ka cal BP, and indicates an increased focus on the Eastern Carpathians.
... Though the region has remained understudied in past decades, recent interest has been renewed by the recognition of the deep antiquity of modern humans and the direct evidence of Neandertal hybridization from the fossils at the Peștera cu Oase found in the region (Fig. 1;Trinkaus 2003;Trinkaus et al. 2003aTrinkaus et al. , 2009Trinkaus et al. , 2012Fu et al. 2015). Subsequent archaeological work focusing on the early Upper Palaeolithic led to re-evaluations of the lithic assemblages and the production of radiometric dates that verified the contemporaneity of the fossils and their potential association (Teyssandier 2004;Doboș et al. 2009;Anghelinu et al. 2012;Anghelinu & Niță 2014;Chu et al. 2014;Sitlivy et al. 2014). ...
... The higher number of fine particles and distinct archaeological layers (Sitlivy et al. 2012;Kels et al. 2014), indicate higher landscape stability in Românești, compared to the sites of Coșava and Temerești, which are more strongly influenced by reworking processes. The sand fraction in Românești is also poorly sorted, which also indicates reworking, but to a lesser extent than Coșava and Temerești. ...
... Such an interpretation would fit well within the typo-technological scheme of other local stratified archaeological assemblages at Românești and Coșava that preserve stratified Aurignacian and (Epi-)Gravettian assemblages in similar sediments. Given the morphology of the Dufour bladelets alone, such a scenario might echo the affinity to the Proto-Aurignacian character of Românești and the further afield Tincova for the earlier part (Teyssandier 2004;Sitlivy et al. 2012). ...
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This paper reports on the excavation of a Late Pleistocene site at Temerești Dealu Vinii in Western Romania, one of only four sizeable lithic assemblages with similarities to the tradition known from open-air localities in this region. The site consists of a flint scatter covering an area of at least 15 square meters and is comprised of blade, bladelet and flake cores, knapping debris and retouched tools including endscrapers and burins. An interesting feature of Temerești Dealu Vinii is that it is on the same river system as the Upper Palaeolithic sites of Românești and Coșava that are about 10 km upstream. Similarities in the tools and blade technology imply that the sites may have been roughly contemporary. Here, we report on new artifacts, geochemistry, grain size, GIS analysis and geochronology that point to a Holocene reworking of the site. It also highlights the importance of rivers to humans as communication routes in the Upper Palaeolithic in the region.
... Moreover, the dominance of bladelets with curved profiles in Kostenki/LVA was used as an argument to associate it with the Early Aurignacian by Dinnis et al. (2019) and with a Roc-de-Combe Aurignacian with Early Aurignacian features by others (Sinitsyn, 2003;Zwyns and Flas, 2010). In fact, empirical studies of Aurignacian assemblages over the last decade have revealed technotypological overlaps between purported chronocultural stages of the technocomplex and rejected the validity of the Aquitaine model for regions outside of the core area (e.g., Sitlivy et al., 2012;Tafelmaier, 2017;Falcucci, 2018;Riel-Salvatore and Negrino, 2018a,b). The same is true for Kostenki 14/LVA (Bataille, 2013;. ...
... These models are based on the chronocultural development of the Aurignacian as seen in the Aquitaine Basin, which is frequently applied throughout all of Europe (e.g., Zilhão, 2011). Regional studies reject the applicability of the Aquitaine model, especially when referring to Southern, Eastern and Central European assemblages (e.g., Hahn, 1988;Conard and Bolus, 2006;Sitlivy et al., 2012Sitlivy et al., , 2014Bataille, 2016;Tafelmaier, 2017;Bataille and Conard, 2018;Falcucci, 2018;Riel-Salvatore and Negrino, 2018a, b). In Central Europe, the lowermost Aurignacian layers at Keilberg-Kirche, Geißenkl€ osterle, and Hohle Fels, which are among the oldest known Aurignacian assemblages, cannot be assigned to the Protoaurignacian (Uthmeier, 1996;Conard and Bolus, 2008;Higham et al., 2012Higham et al., , 2013. ...
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With great interest, we read the new study on early Upper Palaeolithic assemblages of the Kostenki region conducted by Dinnis et al. (2019). In this reply, we point out analytical and interpretative inconsistencies we found in that article. Dinnis et al. (2019) associated the early Upper Paleolithic (EUP) assemblages from the three Central Russian sites Kostenki 1, 14 and 17 with the Aurignacian four-phase model developed in Southwestern Europe. Thus, Dinnis et al. (2019) assigned the EUP assemblage from Kostenki 17 layer II to the Protoaurignacian and Kostenki 1/III as well as Kostenki 14/layer in volcanic ash (LVA; ~40 ka cal BP) to the Early Aurignacian. By doing so the authors promoted a unidirectional expansion of modern humans from the southeast into Europe. Moreover, they assumed a pan-European validity of the Aquitaine model, neglecting regional peculiarities and developments during the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. In our view, the Protoaurignacian association of Kostenki 17/II and the general adoption of the Western European chronocultural system fails due to severe technological and typological inconsistencies.