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Right postorbital (holotype) of Taurovenator violentei gen. et sp. nov. interpretive drawing. A, lateral view; B, medial view; C, posterior view; D, dorsal view; E, anterior view. Scale bar: 3 cm.

Right postorbital (holotype) of Taurovenator violentei gen. et sp. nov. interpretive drawing. A, lateral view; B, medial view; C, posterior view; D, dorsal view; E, anterior view. Scale bar: 3 cm.

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The present contribution describes theropod remains coming from the Huincul Formation (Neuquén Group; Cenomanian-Turonian; Upper Cretaceous) at a single locality located in northwestern Río Negro province, Patagonia, Argentina. This theropod association is composed of abelisauroids, two different-sized carcharodontosaurid allosauroids, a coelurosau...

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... brow of Taurovenator expands ventrally and is medially directed surrounding the orbit. This feature is present in Taurovenator, Acrocanthosaurus, and Mapusaurus (Coria and Currie, 2006). In other allosauroids, such as Allosaurus or Sinraptor, this feature is absent, whereas in Eocarcharia the brow expands ventrally but does not surround the orbit (Figs. ...
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... material: MPCA-Pv 806/1-806/11, associated individual composed of three incomplete caudal vertebral centra (806/1-3), incomplete anterior cervical vertebra (806/4), incomplete distal caudal vertebra (806/5), incomplete distal metapodial (806/6), incomplete proximal ungual phalanges of the hand (806/7-8) ( Figure 15). Description and comparisons: The specimen (Fig. 16) represent a single individual of small-sized coelurosaur having notably slender proportions. ...
Context 3
... be better interpreted as caudal elements), a neural arch, three sacral centra, pubes and a proximal ischium (all illustrated and described by Stromer, 1934, but lost during the Second World War). The remaining specimens were referred by Sereno et al. (1996) to Deltadromeus, including pubes, femur, fibula, and proximal tibia (Stromer, 1922, pl. 2, figs. 4,15; pl. 3, figs. 3,5,6). In spite of noticing minor differences between both taxa, Sereno et al. (1996) did not deny the close similarities between the materials of Deltadromeus and Bahariasaurus, as originally pointed out by Stromer (1934Stromer ( , ...

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... They have narrow teeth of variable labial-lingual compression and oval crosssection, with well-developed mesial and distal serrated carinae (Smith 2007;Delcourt et al. 2020). Megaraptora, on the other hand, have considerably smaller representativeness in the Bauru Basin, and its identification is still questioned by some authors (Motta et al. 2016;Delcourt and Iori 2018;Porfiri et al. 2018). The only records would be a caudal vertebra found in the SJRP Formation and another from the Uberaba Formation, identified as Megaraptora mainly due to its pneumaticity (Méndez et al. 2012;Martinelli et al. 2013). ...
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... Node names mostly follow Tortosa et al.[3] and Smyth et al.[41]; numerals in (b) are percentages of MPTs. Note that several recent works have regarded Camarillasaurus cirugedae and Deltadromeus agilis as members of Tetanurae rather than Ceratosauria; specifically, Samathi et al.[47] reappraised Camarillasaurus as a representative of Spinosauridae, and Apesteguía et al.[48] and Motta et al.[49] regarded Deltadromeus as a member of Bahariasauridae, a clade with potential affinities to Megaraptora. As such, we regard the phylogenetic positions of these two forms depicted above with caution. ...
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... Compared to the non-abelisauroid theropods know for the Bauru Basin, LPRP/USP L0020 lacks the pleurocoels of the middle and distal caudal centra of megaraptorans (Martinelli et al., 2013;Méndez et al., 2012). It also differs from the undetermined maniraptoriform DGM 930-R by lacking lateral foramina and having a flat ventral surface (Delcourt and Grillo, 2014) and from Unenlagiini middle caudal vertebrae by not having a very constricted and elongated centrum (Motta et al., 2016). ...
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... The Aoniraptor is resolved as a megaraptoran of uncertain affinities (Fig. 15A), as has been observed in other works 13,32 . The enigmatic theropod Gualicho 18 , which in some analyses 63 has been considered as a possible synonym of Aoniraptor, here is deeply nested within Tyrannosauroidea, but far from Aoniraptor (Fig. 15A-B). ...
... Smaller (4-4.5 m), early-branching megaraptoran species evolved during the Barremian-Aptian of Asia, South America and Australia 4,5,11,22,24 . Medium-sized (4.5-6 m) megaraptorids appeared during Aptian through lower Turonian times in Australia and South America 20,24,26,28,29,32 . In the course of the Turonian and Coniacian, the megaraptorids are only known from South America, with medium-to large-size (6-7.5 m) forms more closely related to each other than to other members of the group. ...
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... The allosauroid record is globally scarce after the Turonian age, since it only includes megaraptoran taxa and several post-Cenomanian carcharodontosaurid teeth that have been reevaluated as belonging to Abelisauridae (see Canale et al., 2009 and references therein). From Argentina proceed the Cenomanian-Turonian Aoniraptor and two unnamed specimens (Motta et al., 2016;Lamanna et al., 2020), the late Turonian-early Coniacian Megaraptor namunhuaiquii (Novas, 1998;Porfiri et al., 2014), the middle Coniacian Murusraptor barrosaensis (Coria & Currie, 2016), and the Santonian Tratayenia rosalesi (Porfiri et al., 2018). From the Campanian of Argentina, Aerosteon riocoloradensis (Sereno et al., 2008), ...
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The Late Cretaceous theropod fauna of South America is composed of Abelisauridae, Noasauridae, Spinosauridae, Carcharodontosauridae, Megaraptora, and Coelurosauria. These groups include mostly small (Noasauridae and Coelurosauria) and medium- tolarge-sized taxa (Carcharodontosauridae, Abelisauridae, and Megaraptora). Some of these lineages are predominantly Gondwanic (Abelisauridae, Noasauridae, Carcharodontosauridae, Megaraptora) and poorly represented in Laurasian landmasses. Particularly, several theropods have been reported from Patagonia, known either due to distinct anatomical features or due to their high degree of preservation, such as Carnotaurus, Skorpiovenator, Giganotosaurus, Megaraptor, Alvarezsaurus, and Unenlagia. Here we describe a new incomplete tibia (MAU-PV-CM-653) from the Sierra Barrosa Formation (middle Coniacian, Upper Cretaceous), Patagonia, Argentina. MAU-PV-CM-653 shows an anteroposteriorly reduced cnemial crest that is strongly curved laterally. Finally, the tibia lacks a proximal extension of the fibular crest. These traits are reminiscent of tetanuran morphology and, together with the stratigraphic provenance of MAU-PV-CM-653, they allow us to assign it to an allosauroid theropod, thus improving the Allosauroidea global record for the middle Late Cretaceous.
... The analyses with and without fragmentary taxa show a topology similar to those of previous analyses 19,12 being megaraptorans nested within Coelurosauria, and forming the sister group of Tyrannosauroidea (Fig. 15A). Aoniraptor results as a megaraptoran of uncertain a nities (Fig. 15A), like has been observed in other works 13,31 . The enigmatic theropod Gualicho 18 , which is some analyses 54 has been considered as a possible synonym of Aoniraptor, here is deeply nested within Tyrannosauroidea, very far from Aoniraptor ( Fig. 15A-B). ...
... The smaller (between 4-4.5 meters) and basal megaraptoran species are observed in the Barremian-Aptian sediments of Asia, South America and Australia 4,5,11,21,22 . The mid-sized (between 4,5-6 meters) megaraptorid forms are present in Aptian-Lower Turonian of Australia and South America 20,22,24,26,27,31 . In Turonian-Conician times, the megaraptorids are only documented in South America, with medium to large-sized (between 6-7 meters) forms, more closely related each other than with other members of the group. ...
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Megaraptorans are a theropod clade distributed in former Gondwana landmasses and Asia. Most members of the clade are known from early Cretaceous to Turonian times whereas Maastrichtian megaraptorans are known just from isolated and poorly informative remains. The aim of present contribution is to describe a partial skeleton of a megaraptorid coming from Maastrichtian beds at Santa Cruz province, Argentina. This new taxon constitutes the most informative megaraptoran from post-Turonian beds. Phylogenetic analysis nested the new taxon together with South American megaraptorans in a monophyletic clade, whereas Australian and Asian members constitute successive stem groups. South American forms differ from more basal megaraptorans in several anatomical features and in being much larger and more robustly built. It is possible that the Cenomanian-Turonian extinction of carcharodontosaurids was allowed to megaraptorans to occupy the niche of top predators in South America.
... The archive of theropods in India is represented by four species, namely Indosaurus matleyi (Huene and Matley 1933); Indosuchus raptorius (Chatterjee 1978); Rahiolisaurus gujaratensis (Novas et al. 2010) and Rajasaurus narmadensis . Abelisaurids have been widely recorded from Gondwanan continents (Novas et al. 2013;Delcourt 2018) such as Argentina (Canale et al. 2009;Novas et al. 2013;Motta et al. 2016), Brazil (Naish et al. 2004;Langer et al. 2019); Madagascar (Ratsimbaholison et al. 2016;Krause et al. 2019) and Morocco (Longrich et al. 2017;Zitouni et al. 2019), but a few fragmentary skeletal remains are also known from Europe (Tortosa et al. 2014). Sereno et al. (2004) and Sereno and Brusatte (2008) in light of the presence of abelisauroid dinosaurs from the Aptian-Albian and Cenomanian of Africa, proposed a 'Pan-Gondwana' model that indicated that the possible reason for the dominance of abelisaurids in Gondwana is because India, Madagascar, Argentina and Africa were in contact with each other during the Early Cretaceous. ...
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The Infra- and Intertrappean deposits have yielded diverse vertebrates, especially dinosaurs, mammals, snakes, turtles, crocodiles, and invertebrates. The biotic assemblages demonstrate a remarkable degree of resemblance between these deposits. The palaeobiogeographical affinities of the paleobiota are more intricate, yielding remains of Gondwanan and Laurasian affinities, and some endemic forms. In order to explain the presence of such a complex biota during the northward drift of the Indian plate (Late Cretaceous period), different palaeobiogeographical models have been proposed. Special emphasis has been given in this paper to the palaeobiogeographical implications of Indian Late Cretaceous dinosaurs. The size of the animal played an essential role in determining the nature of the biotic interchange between India and its nearby landmasses. The faunal exchange between India and Asia through the Kohistan Dras volcanic arc system has been considered as the superlative migratory route, which favoured the small fauna during transmaritime dispersal. Conversely, it was difficult for small animals to cross huge marine boundaries, other than for the very large vertebrates (especially dinosaurs). Consequently, a straight terrestrial course, especially in the northern India, is a lesser probability, and the dispersal of these huge vertebrates ought to be seen as part of a ‘Pan Gondwanan’ model.
... Another megaraptorid materials from this formation are those described by Bell et al. (2015). In Argentina, the oldest known megaraptoran is Aoniraptor libertatem (Aranciaga Motta et al. 2016) represented by an isolated sacral vertebra and many elements of the tail, extracted from the Huincul Formation (Cenomanian). Megaraptor, found in Turonian rocks of Portezuelo Formation, is represented by three specimens: the second specimen more complete than the holotype (Novas 1998;Calvo et al. 2004), and the third specimen (a juvenile individual) described by Porfiri et al. (2014). ...
... In this tip and those of Murusraptor and Orkoraptor, we observe an oblique and thin groove that runs along the entire height of the tip. Posteriorly, the postorbital has an acute posterior process, which is notably shorter than in other theropods, such as Allosaurus, carcharodontosaurids (Eocarcharia and Giganotosaurus; Sereno and Brusatte 2008), Alioramus, and Tyrannosaurus (Madsen 1976;Brochu 2003;Sereno and Brusatte 2008;Brusatte et al. 2012;Motta et al. 2016), but similar to other taxa (e.g., Murusraptor, Orkoraptor, Sinraptor, dromaeosaurids, and some ornithomimosauroids and therizinosauroids ;Ostrom 1969;Osmólska et al. 1972;Currie and Zhao 1993;Novas et al. 2008;Zanno 2010a). Compared with other megaraptorids, the posterior process of Aerosteon is short, straight and with a dorsal margin that is totally straight but in Murusraptor and Orkoraptor this process is longer, dorsally curved, with a concave dorsal margin that points dorsomedially. ...
... It is oval in outline and longer than tall. Such a morphology is observed in other megaraptorans as Orkoraptor, Megaraptor (juvenile and adult specimens), and Aoniraptor, and has been proposed has a common feature uniting most megaraptorids (Novas 2009;Porfiri et al. 2014;Motta et al. 2016). The transverse process is long, subhorizontally oriented and strongly posterolaterally directed. ...
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Aerosteon riocoloradensis represents one of the most complete megaraptorans yet discovered. This theropod comes from Anacleto Formation (Campanian) of Mendoza Province, Argentina. The aims of this contribution are: to present a detailed, bone by bone description of this specimen with figures of each bone; provide comparisons to other closely related theropods; revise the original assignation and diagnosis of such taxa. Three bones were re-assigned and almost all the autapomorphies of Aerosteon were modified. Features in the vertebral columns, which are shared with other megaraptorans, show that these theropods shared features with basal coelurosaurs. Anatomical Abbreviations ACDL: Anterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; CDF: Centrodiapophyseal fossa; CPAL: Centroparapophyseal lamina; CPRL: Centroprezygapophyseal lamina; CPRF: Centroprezygapophyseal fossa; CPR-CDF: Centroprezygapophyseal-centrodiapophyseal fossa; Hye: Hyposphene; Hym: Hypantrum; ILT: Intervertebral ligament tuberosity; IPOL: Infrapostzygapophysela lamina; IZL: Intrazygapophyseal lamina; PADL: Paradiapophyseal lamina; PAD-CDF: Paradiapophyseal-centrodiapophsyeal fossa; PCDL: Posterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; POEL: Postzygaepipophysela lamina; PODL: Postzygadiapophyseal lamina; POSF: Postspinal fossa; POCDF: Postzygapophsyeal-centrodiapophyseal fossa; Poz: Postzygapophysis; PRDL: Prezygadiapophyseal lamina; PRPAF: Prezygaparapophyseal fossa; PRPAL: Prezygaparapophyseal lamina; PRSF: Prespinal fossa; PRSL: Prespinal lamina; PRD-CDF: Prezygadiapophyseal-centrodiapophyseal fossa; PRD-PADF: Prezygadiapophyseal-paradiapophyseal fossa; PRD-PODF: Prezygadiapophyseal-postzygadiapophyseal fossa; PRCDF: Prezygapophyseal-centrodiapophyseal fossa; Prz: Prezygapophyses; SDF: Supradiapophsyeal fossa; SDL: Supradiapophyseal lamina; SPOF: Spinopostzygapophyseal fossa; SPOL: Spinopostzygapophyseal lamina; SPRF: Spinoprezygapophyseal fossa; SPRL: Spinoprezygapophyseal lamina; SR(number): Sacral rib; STP(number): Sacral transverse process
... Fossil discoveries within the past three decades have revealed an unexpected diversity of tetanuran theropod dinosaurs from Cretaceous localities in the Southern Hemisphere landmasses, especially South America (e.g., Bonaparte 1991;Coria and Salgado 1995;Kellner and Campos 1996;Martill et al. 1996;Novas 1997Novas , 1998Novas and Puerta 1997;Kellner 1999;Naish et al. 2004;Makovicky et al. 2005Makovicky et al. , 2012Novas and Pol 2005;Novas et al. 2005Novas et al. , 2008aNovas et al. , 2008bNovas et al. , 2012Coria andCurrie 2006, 2016;Martínez and Novas 2006;Martinelli and Vera 2007;Sereno et al. 2008;Kellner et al. 2011;Porfiri et al. 2011aPorfiri et al. , 2018Agnolín et al. 2012;Apesteguía et al. 2016;Motta et al. 2016Motta et al. , 2020Coria et al. 2020; see reviews in Novas et al. 2013;Ezcurra and Novas 2016). Among the most enigmatic of these predominantly Gondwanan tetanuran clades is Megaraptora, definitively represented in South America by the Argentinean Late Cretaceous species Aerosteon riocoloradensis (Sereno et al. 2008), Megaraptor namunhuaiquii (Novas 1998;Calvo et al. 2004;Porfiri et al. 2007aPorfiri et al. , 2007bPorfiri et al. , 2008Porfiri et al. , 2014Paulina-Carabajal and Porfiri 2018), Murusraptor barrosaensis (Coria and Currie 2016;Paulina-Carabajal and Currie 2017;Aranciaga Rolando et al. 2019), Orkoraptor burkei (Novas et al. 2008a), and Tratayenia rosalesi , as well as multiple taxonomically indeterminate (e.g., Aranciaga Rolando et al. 2015Novas et al. 2019;Ibiricu et al. 2020) or as-yet undescribed (e.g., Porfiri et al. 2011b;Casal et al. 2019;Méndez et al. 2019) specimens. ...
... Still others (e.g., Novas et al. 2016) have identified conflicting morphological characters within Megaraptora, some of which support a position with Coelurosauria and others that are more consistent with allosauroid affinities. Even the lower-level taxonomic composition of the clade has proven controversial in recent years, with various authors linking other Laurasian (Chilantaisaurus tashuikouensis, Eotyrannus lengi, Phuwiangvenator yaemniyomi, Siats meekerorum, Vayuraptor nongbualamphuensis, Vectaerovenator inopinatus; e.g., Zanno and Makovicky 2013; Samathi et al. 2019; Barker et al. 2020) and/or Gondwanan (e.g., the mysterious bahariasaurids Aoniraptor libertatem, Bahariasaurus ingens, Deltadromeus agilis, and Gualicho shinyae [Stromer 1934;Sereno et al. 1996;Apesteguía et al. 2016;Motta et al. 2016;Aranciaga Rolando et al. 2020;Ibrahim et al. 2020]) species to the clade as putative nonmegaraptorid megaraptorans. (Note, however, that, based on comparisons of their caudal vertebrae, Aranciaga Rolando et al. [2020] recently contested the putative close relationships of Aoniraptor and Gualicho.) ...
... Unfortunately, although many unquestionable (Aerosteon, Fukuiraptor, Megaraptor, Murusraptor, [Dong et al. 1983;Gao 1999], Neovenator [Brusatte et al. 2008], Tyrannosaurus rex [Brochu 2003]) indicate that this vertebra pertains to the anterior-mid caudal region, probably near position 15. The anterior articular surface of the centrum, although damaged, is slightly concave and appears subcircular in shape, approximately as wide as tall ( Motta et al. [2016] suggested that the former two Brazilian vertebrae were sacrals rather than caudals); and the 'Río Senguerr caudal,' recovered from southern Chubut Province (possibly the Bajo Barreal Formation) in the 19 th century (Huene 1929;Méndez et al. 2012). An ovoid fossa situated dorsal to the dorsoventral midline of the centrum of UNPSJB-PV 944-4 excavates each of its lateral surfaces. ...
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We describe two partial postcranial skeletons belonging to the enigmatic theropod dinosaur clade Megaraptoridae from the Upper Cretaceous (lower Cenomanian-upper Turonian) Bajo Barreal Formation of southern Chubut Province, central Patagonia, Argentina. The specimens are assigned to Megaraptoridae due to their possession of multiple anatomical features that are considered synapomorphies of that predatory dinosaur group, such as a greatly enlarged, laterally compressed ungual of manual digit I that possesses asymmetrical lateral and medial vascular grooves. Overlapping elements of the two skeletons are nearly identical in morphology, suggesting that they probably represent the same taxon, a large-bodied theropod that was previously unknown from the early Late Cretaceous of southern South America. The Bajo Barreal specimens constitute the most ancient unquestionable records of Megaraptoridae from that continent, and exhibit particularly strong osteological resemblances to penecontemporaneous megaraptorids from the Winton Formation of Australia. Phylogenetic analysis recovers the unnamed Bajo Barreal taxon as the earliest-diverging South American megaraptorid and the oldest-known representative of this clade that likely attained a body length of at least seven meters and a mass of at least one metric ton. Overall, the balance of the evidence suggests that megaraptorids originated in eastern Gondwana (Australia) during the Early Cretaceous, then subsequently dispersed to western Gondwana (South America) during the mid-Cretaceous, where they attained substantially larger body sizes, ultimately coming to occupy the apex predator niches in their respective habitats.
... To date, the Indian Late Cretaceous theropods are represented by four species, Indosaurus matleyi (Huene and Matley 1933); Indosuchus raptorius (Chatterjee 1978); Rajasaurus narmadensis and Rahiolisaurus gujaratensis (Novas et al. 2010). The abelisaurids have been widely recognized from the Gondwana landmasses (Delcourt 2018), for instance, Madagascar (Ratsimbaholison et al. 2016;Krause et al. 2019), Morocco (Longrich et al. 2017;Zitouni et al. 2019), Brazil (Naish et al. 2004;Langer et al. 2019) and Argentina (Canale et al. 2009;Novas et al. 2013;Motta et al. 2016), yet a couple of fragmentary skeletal remains are also known from Europe (Tortosa et al. 2014). Sereno et al. (2004) and Sereno and Brusatte (2008) proposed a "Pan Gondwana" model that indicated that the predominance of abelisaurids in Gondwana is based on the fact that India, Madagascar, Africa and Argentina were in contact with one another during the Early Cretaceous. ...
Chapter
The morphostructural diversity of Indian, French and Argentinean eggshells has been compared and reviewed in great detail and a serious attempt has been made to evaluate their parataxonomy. Indian and French eggshell oospecies show a close resemblance between five Indian and four French oospecies (Megaloolithus khempurensis = M. siruguei; Megaloolithus jabalpurensis = M. mamillare; M. cylindricus = M. siruguei and M. microtuberculata; Fusioolithus padiyalensis = M. microtuberculata; F. baghensis = M. pseudomamillare). Examination of four oospecies from India and Argentina uncovers three groupings, which show similarity between megaloolithids and fusioolithids of the two continents (Fusioolithus baghensis = Patagoolithus salitralensis; Megaloolithus megadermus = Tipo 1e; M. cylindricus = Tipo 1d; M. jabalpurensis = Tipo 1e). The biomineralization aspects of Indian eggshells or any calcified tissue with dental enamel have been compared and studied at four levels (crystallite, unit, morphostructural and megascopic levels). The dinosaur nests, eggs and eggshell fragments are found to be diagenetically altered by calcite recrystallization (herringbone pattern) and chertified silica, which has been commonly noticed in the pores and pore canals.