FIGURE 4 - uploaded by Ronan Allain
Content may be subject to copyright.
Right femur of Berberosaurus in anterior (A), medial (B), posterior (C), and lateral (D) views. Abbreviations: atr, anterior trochanter; femoral head; great trochanter; mep, medial tibiofibular crest; ts, trochantericshelf; fourth trochanter. Scale bar equals 5 cm.  

Right femur of Berberosaurus in anterior (A), medial (B), posterior (C), and lateral (D) views. Abbreviations: atr, anterior trochanter; femoral head; great trochanter; mep, medial tibiofibular crest; ts, trochantericshelf; fourth trochanter. Scale bar equals 5 cm.  

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
The fossil record of abelisauroid carnivorous dinosaurs was previously restricted to Cretaceous sediments of Gondwana and probably Europe. The discovery of an incomplete specimen of a new basal abelisauroid, Berberosaurus liassicus, gen. et sp. nov., is reported from the late Early Jurassic of Moroccan High Atlas Mountains. Phylogenetic analysis re...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... femur is the only element known from two specimens. A nearly complete right femur was found associated with the other bones described here (Fig. 4), and the proximal end of a right femur from a smaller individual (Fig. 5) was found at the site that yielded the holotypic material of Both femora are hollow. The proximal end of the larger and better-preserved femur was affected by tectonism and is now displaced 1 cm an- giving the femur a posteriorly hooked profile in proxi- mal ...
Context 2
... but it is more mediolaterally compressed and flange-like as in abelisaurids, and tetanurans. The anterior trochanter extends proximally as far as the level of the right middle of the femoral head, and is set off from the femoral shaft by a weak cleft. The holotypic femur shows more of a mound than a shelf for the M. iliofemoralis insertion (Fig. 4). The re- ferred femur exhibits a pronounced trochanteric shelf that origi- nates on the anterior base of the anterior trochanter and extends distolaterally as in coelophysoids, and Ceratosaurus ( Fig. 5 A-B). This suggests some degree of femoral dimorphism in as in Coelophysis (Colbert, 1989;Raath, Ceratosaurus et al., and (Carrano et ...
Context 3
... fourth trochanter is strongly developed. It rises 19 mm above the posteromedial margin of the femur and extends approximately one-fifth the length of the bone (Fig. 4 B-D) to end 240 mm from the proximal articular surface. The holotypic femur preserves an enlarged medial epicondyle (Fig. but because its distal condyles are broken, it is impossible to know if this enlargement was as strongly developed as in ...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
one of the fossil record's most puzzling features is the absence of preserved eggs or eggshell for the first third of the known 315 million year history of amniote evolution. Our meagre understanding of the origin and evolution of calcareous eggshell and amniotic eggs in general, is largely based on Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous fossils. For d...
Article
Full-text available
The sauropod Aragosaurus ischiaticus Sanz, Buscalioni, Casanovas & Santafé, 1987 was the first dinosaur to be described in Spain. The holotype was recovered from the site of Las Zabacheras (Galve, Teruel province). This site has traditionally been situated in the El Castellar Formation (in the lower part of the Wealden facies). Recently, it has bee...
Article
Full-text available
journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research and education use, including for instruction at the authors institution and sharing with colleagues. Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling or licensing copies, or posting to personal, institutional or third part...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge regarding the early evolution within the dinosaurian clade Ankylopollexia drastically increased over the past two decades, in part because of an increase in described taxa from the Early Cretaceous of North America. These advances motivated the recent completion of extensive preparation and conservation work on the holotype and only known...
Article
Full-text available
Massospondylus carinatus Owen, 1854, from the earliest Jurassic upper Elliot Formation of South Africa, was one of the first dinosaurs to be described from Gondwana. It has been incorporated into numerous phylogenetic, palaeobiological and biostratigraphic analyses, is often viewed as an exemplar for understanding sauropodomorph anatomy and is a ke...

Citations

... Ceratosaurs (abelisaurids) have been described, for example from Aalenian-Bajocian deposits of Argentina (Pol and Rauhut 2012). From the Toundoute continental series (Lower Jurassic, Pliensbachian-Toarcian) of the Quarzazate area, High Atlas, Morocco, the medium-sized abelisauroid Berberosaurus liassicus was described (Allain et al. 2007). The early allosauroid Asfaltovenator vialidadi was documented from the famous Cañadon-Asfalto beds (Toarcian-Bajocian) of Argentina (Rauhut and Pol 2019). ...
Article
Tridactyl theropod and ornithischian dinosaur tracks and trackways from Imilchil and Isli formations (Middle–?Late Jurassic, Bajocian–?) of the central High Atlas region (Morocco) are described. The Imilchil Formationconsists of brackish marine-continental deposits, and the Isli Formation is a continental red-bed succession. Considering numerous new footprint discoveries, including recently described Polyonyx sauropod trackways, tridactyl dinosaur tracks from the Imilchil-Tounfite region are revised. Dominating are theropod footprints resembling the ichnogenus Changpeipus and known from Lower-Middle Jurassic deposits of China. Other theropod ichnotaxa are Trisauropodiscus isp., cf. Wildeichnus isp.,Carmelopodus isp., Megalosauripus isp., Kayentapus isp. and an indeterminate small grallatorid. Ornithischians are represented by small indeterminate ornithischian tracks, large ornithischian footprints cf. Stegopodus isp. and a large indeterminate ornithopod form. Makers of the small theropod trackswere small coelurosaurs or basal tetanurans, larger forms belong toceratosaurs, megalosauroids, allosauroids or tyrannosauroids. Ornithischian tracks suggest dryomorphs, iguanodontians and thyreophorans as producers. Together with crocodylomorph and pterosaur tracks, invertebrate traces and plants, the Imilchil and Isli formations document a flourishing ecosystem and dinosaur habitat. Remarkable is the presence of Changpeipus theropod tracks known from abundant occurrences in East Asia. This suggests an exchange of dinosaur faunas between this region and northern Africa during the Middle Jurassic.
... In order to assess the phylogenetic position of the new specimen, we included and codified it in a recently published data matrix (Filippi et al., 2016), which was assembled from several previous works of ceratosaurs (Allain et al., 2007;Carrano and Sampson, 2008;Sereno and Brusatte, 2008;Canale et al., 2009;Ezcurra et al., 2010;Pol and Rauhut, 2012;Farke and Sertich, 2013;Tortosa et al., 2013). To this data matrix we added characters 417-420 from Aranciaga Rolando et al. (2021) and 421-423 from Gianechini et al. (2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
The fossil record of abelisaurid theropods in South America is mostly limited to Brazil and Argentina. In Argentina, abelisaurids are generally known from Patagonia, where their record is relatively abundant and includes well-known and complete specimens. However, for Northwestern Argentina, abelisaurids are represented by incomplete and isolated bones and teeth that remain largely unpublished. The aim of this contribution is to report a nearly complete abelisaurid braincase from the Late Cretaceous Los Blanquitos Formation (Campanian), Amblayo Valley, Salta province, Argentina. The specimen shows plesiomorphic features for abelisaurids, including a thin skull roof, absence of skull projections like horns or bulges, and low and narrow parietal eminence that lie at the same level as the sagittal crest. Furthermore, the specimen possesses some autapomorphies that support its status as a new taxon and its small size allows it to be assigned as one of the smallest abelisaurids recorded up to date. The finding of this specimen constitutes the first unequivocal occurrence of an abelisaurid in Northwestern Argentina and brings new evidence concerning the geographic distribution of the clade during Late Cretaceous times in South America.
... The fossa is bordered anteriorly and medially by a slightly curved flange (the attachment site of an interosseous membrane). The medial fossa (Fig. 5B) is similar in shape and size to that described in several other abelisaurids (e.g., Arcovenator, Rahiolisaurus, Majungasaurus, MPMA 08-0069-13) and more developed than in basal theropods (Carrano and Sampson, 2008), Berberosaurus (see Allain et al., 2007, fig. 7b), Ceratosaurus (see M endez et al., 2014), and Eoabelisaurus (MPEF PV 3990). ...
... Therefore, the morphology and size of the tubercle seen in Xenotarsosaurus resemble those of Aucasaurus, Carnotaurus, Eoabelisaurus, Majungasaurus, Rahiolisaurus, and Rajasaurus among other abelisaurids. This tubercle appears to be less developed in Berberosaurus (see Allain et al., 2007, fig. 7), Ceratosaurus (see M endez et al., 2014), Elaphrosaurus (see Rauhut and Carrano, 2016, fig. ...
Article
Xenotarsosaurus bonapartei was the third abelisaurid theropod dinosaur to be named from Argentina. The holotype comprises two partial anterior dorsal vertebrae and a complete right hind limb from the Upper Cretaceous (lower Cenomanian–upper Turonian) Bajo Barreal Formation, central Patagonia, Argentina. The materials display morphological features that undoubtedly position Xenotarsosaurus within Abelisauroidea. Moreover, detailed comparisons with members of that theropod group confirm the close relationship of this taxon to abelisaurids. Here we provide an emended diagnosis of Xenotarsosaurus bonapartei that includes five newly recognized autapomorphies: (1) anterior dorsal vertebrae with large, strongly dorsoventrally developed parapophyses; (2) anterior dorsal vertebrae with well-developed centroprezygapophyseal fossae that are taller dorsoventrally than wide mediolaterally; (3) fibular condyle of femur triangular in shape and projecting posteriorly; (4) well-marked groove on the anterolateral corner of the proximal fibula; and (5) iliofibularis tubercle of fibula distally interrupted by a hook-like shaped concavity. To determine its systematic position within Abelisauroidea, we incorporated Xenotarsosaurus into a phylogenetic analysis, recovering this theropod as a non-carnotaurine abelisaurid more derived than Eoabelisaurus mefi. Xenotarsosaurus displays several plesiomorphic traits when compared with penecontemporaneous abelisaurids from the Neuquén Group. Similarly, other non-avian dinosaur taxa from the Bajo Barreal Formation are frequently postulated as more phylogenetically basal than coeval forms from northern Patagonia. This scenario suggests the potential existence of provincialism in early Late Cretaceous continental vertebrate faunas of southern South America. The present study increases knowledge of abelisaurid systematics, evolution, and paleobiogeography and augments our understanding of the Late Cretaceous dinosaur assemblage of central Patagonia.
... (1-3 m in length) carnivores, with large-bodied theropods becoming common in the Jurassic (201-145 Ma;Allain et al., 2007). The extensive theropod footprint record of the Late TriassicEarly Jurassic of eastern North America has been used to suggest that a sharp, statistically significant increase in theropod body size occurred across the Triassic/Jurassic (T/J) boundary, synchronous with a terrestrial mass extinction (Olsen et al., 2002). ...
... In order to assess the phylogenetic position of Tralkasaurus, we included and codified it in a recently published data matrix (Filippi et al. 2016; see Appendix 1), which was assembled by several previous works of ceratosaurs (Allain et al., 2007;Carrano and Sampson, 2008;Sereno and Brusatte, 2008;Canale et al., 2009;;Ezcurra et al., 2010;Pol and Rauhut, 2012;Farke and Sertich, 2013;Tortosa et al., 2013) The resulting matrix (42 taxa, 416 characters) was analyzed using TNT 1.5 (Goloboff et al., 2008). The tree search used the following settings: holding space for 50000 trees in memory, 500 replicates, saving 100 trees per replication and using Tree Bisection-Reconnection (TBR) as swapping algorithm. ...
... Records from northern Africa are critical to answering this question, yet remain relatively poorly known in comparison to elsewhere across the continent and Gondwana as a whole (Fig. 1). In particular, the extensive Mesozoic sedimentary strata of Ethiopia are well-positioned to help address the biogeographic effects of the break-up of Pangaea, but the vertebrate fossil assemblages from these units are not well sampled compared to other African faunas, such as the Triassic-Jurassic of southern Africa (e.g., Olsen and Galton, 1984;Knoll, 2004Knoll, , 2005Rubidge, 2005;Sidor et al., 2013) and Morocco (e.g., Dutuit, 1976;Jalil, 1999;Jalil and Peyer, 2007;Tourani et al., 2000;Allain and Aquesbi, 2008;Allain et al., 2004Allain et al., , 2007Kammerer et al., 2012), and the Late Jurassic of Tendaguru, Tanzania (e.g., Janensch, 1914Janensch, , 19221961;Russell et al., 1980;Galton, 1988;Heinrich, 1991Heinrich, , 1998, 2001Heinrich et al., 2001;Aberhan et al., 2002;Arratia et al., 2002;Remes, 2007Remes, , 2009Mannion et al., 2019). This under-sampled "African Gap" (O' Connor et al., 2006;Roberts et al., 2010) is vital for a comprehensive understanding of Mesozoic Pangaea because this area is near the actively rifting Gondwana-Laurasia margin in the Tethys, and records warm and semi-arid low-paleolatitude regions in a hothouse world (cf. ...
Article
Ethiopia preserves extensive Mesozoic non-marine sedimentary sequences, but dinosaur fossils are exceptionally rare. The record is limited to a handful of theropod and ornithischian teeth from the Upper Jurassic Mugher Mudstone of the eastern margin of the Northwest Plateau, which has otherwise produced a diverse vertebrate fossil assemblage including actinopterygians, dipnoans, testudineans, crocodyliforms, and mammaliaforms. Here, we report the discovery of the first confirmed sauropod dinosaur from Ethiopia. The tooth BST VP-1/1 comes from a fine-to medium-grained, pebble and clast-rich zone with concentrated lenses of vertebrate microfossils in the lower part of the Mugher Mudstone. BST VP-1/1 is broad crowned, complete to the root, and slightly ellipsoidal midway in cross-section proximally toward the root. The distal half of the tooth has a chisel like appearance. BST VP-1/1 is planar lingually, convex labially, and narrows apically. These features compare closely with those of early macronarians, such as Giraffatitan brancai from the penecontemporaneous Tendaguru Formation in Tanzania. This specimen demonstrates the presence of sauropods in Ethiopia for the first time, and indicates that macronarians were widespread in East Africa during the Late Jurassic Epoch.
... Abelisaurid theropods first appear in the fossil record in the early Jurassic and survived until at least the end of the Mesozoic [1][2][3]. These dinosaurs were dominant in South America, India, and Madagascar but are thought to have been less abundant in North America and Asia [3]. ...
... These dinosaurs are much less well-known in Africa, although several recent discoveries of abelisaurid fossils have been made in North Africa [2,[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. In this work, we add a partially preserved ilium to a growing body of evidence that suggests that abelisaurs were also present, and dominant in Africa. ...
... It is relatively deep in all theropods [25] except for Herrerasaurus [26] and Eoraptor [27] and so diagnoses the clade Neotherapoda Bakker, 1986 [28]. The brevis fossa is also broadened posteriorly [2,7,[29][30][31][32]. This broadening is a derived trait which has been observed in the following taxa: Carnotaurus, Ceratosaurus, Ligabueino, Majungasaurus, and Masiakasaurus. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abelisaurid theropods first appear in the fossil record in the early Jurassic and survived at least until the end of the Mesozoic. They were known to have dominated South America, India and Madagascar but were not so abundant in North America or Asia. Much less is known about their presence in Africa, although there has been several recent discoveries of abelisaurid material in Morocco. Here we add a partially preserved ilium to a growing body of evidence that suggests abelisaurs might also have dominated Africa.
... Skeletal remains of theropod dinosaurs are extremely rare in the Lower Jurassic and most reports are of only fragmentary remains (Benton, Martill & Taylor, 1995;Owen, 1863;Woodward, 1908;Andrews, 1921;Cuny & Galton, 1993;Delsate & Ezcurra, 2014). Moreover, ceratosaurian-grade taxa are absent until Middle Jurassic times (Maganuco et al., 2007;Pol & Rauhut, 2012), with one exception from the Pliensbachian-Toarcian of Northern Africa (Allain et al., 2007). This paucity of skeletal remains results in a considerable gap in our knowledge of these animals at a time when theropods were diversifying rapidly in the aftermath of the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction event, as it is proven by the rich and worldwide distributed ichnofossil record (Delsate & Ezcurra, 2014, and references therein). ...
... In the rest of the world, the most famous Early Jurassic theropod is certainly Dilophosaurus wetherilli from the Hettangian of Arizona (Welles, 1954(Welles, , 1984, which is known from several specimens. Other relevant taxa are Sinosaurus (="Dilophosaurus" sinensis) from the Hettangian-Sinemurian of China (Hu, 1993), Coelophysis rhodesiensis from the Hettangian-Pliensbachian of South Africa and Zimbabwe (Raath, 1990), Dracovenator from the Hettangian of South Africa (Yates, 2005), Cryolophosaurus from the Early Jurassic (?Sinemurian-Pliensbachian) of Antarctica (Hammer & Hickerson, 1994), Podokesaurus from the Pliensbachian to Toarcian of Massachussetts (Talbot, 1911), Segisaurus from the Pliensbachian to Toarcian of Arizona (Carrano, Hutchinson & Sampson, 2005), "Syntarsus" kayentakatae from the Hettangian of Arizona (Rowe, 1989), and Berberosaurus from the Toarcian of Morocco (Allain et al., 2007). We do not take into consideration the enigmatic genus Eshanosaurus from the Lower Jurassic of China, tentatively dated as Hettangian (Xu, Zhao & Clark, 2001), pending correct identification and reliably dating, as this purported therizinosaurian coelurosaur might be a sauropodomorph as well. ...
... 7), Dilophosaurus (Welles, 1984), and Eoabelisaurus (Pol & Rauhut, 2012). This condition was likely present-albeit not surely-also in Berberosaurus (Allain et al., 2007), pending confirmation (Carrano & Choiniere, 2016) that the preserved bone of Berberosaurus might instead represent a left metacarpal III (by affinity with the third metacarpal of Ceratosaurus: note that this interpretation is followed in the character score of the phylogenetic analysis used here). ...
Article
Full-text available
The homology of the tridactyl hand of birds is a still debated subject, with both paleontological and developmental evidence used in support of alternative identity patterns in the avian fingers. With its simplified phalangeal morphology, the Late Jurassic ceratosaurian Limusaurus has been argued to support a II-III-IV digital identity in birds and a complex pattern of homeotic transformations in three-fingered (tetanuran) theropods. We report a new large-bodied theropod, Saltriovenator zanellai gen. et sp. nov., based on a partial skeleton from the marine Saltrio Formation (Sinemurian, lowermost Jurassic) of Lombardy (Northern Italy). Taphonomical analyses show bone bioerosion by marine invertebrates (first record for dinosaurian remains) and suggest a complex history for the carcass before being deposited on a well-oxygenated and well-illuminated sea bottom. Saltriovenator shows a mosaic of features seen in four-fingered theropods and in basal tetanurans. Phylogenetic analysis supports sister taxon relationships between the new Italian theropod and the younger Early Jurassic Berberosaurus from Morocco, in a lineage which is the basalmost of Ceratosauria. Compared to the atrophied hand of later members of Ceratosauria, Saltriovenator demonstrates that a fully functional hand, well-adapted for struggling and grasping, was primitively present in ceratosaurians. Ancestral state reconstruction along the avian stem supports 2-3-4-1-X and 2-3-4-0-X as the manual phalangeal formulae at the roots of Ceratosauria and Tetanurae, confirming the I-II-III pattern in the homology of the avian fingers. Accordingly, the peculiar hand of Limusaurus represents a derived condition restricted to late-diverging ceratosaurians and cannot help in elucidating the origin of the three-fingered condition of tetanurans. The evolution of the tridactyl hand of birds is explained by step-wise lateral simplification among non-tetanuran theropod dinosaurs, followed by a single primary axis shift from digit position 4 to 3 at the root of Tetanurae once the fourth finger was completely lost, which allowed independent losses of the vestigial fourth metacarpal among allosaurians, tyrannosauroids, and maniraptoromorphs. With an estimated body length of 7.5 m, Saltriovenator is the largest and most robust theropod from the Early Jurassic, pre-dating the occurrence in theropods of a body mass approaching 1,000 Kg by over 25 My. The radiation of larger and relatively stockier averostran theropods earlier than previously known may represent one of the factors that ignited the trend toward gigantism in Early Jurassic sauropods.
... The cervical vertebra of DGM 929-R is assigned to Neoceratosauria due: the ventral surface of the transverse process pierced by multiple pneumatic foramina (Character 141(1), Fig. 4; see Carrano and Sampson, 2008;Tortosa et al., 2014); the preserved region of the neural spine indicates reduced neural spine (Character 160(1); see Carrano and Sampson, 2008;Tortosa et al., 2014); and the presence of a posterior fossa on the lateral surface of the centrum, with pneumatic foramina on its anterior rim (Character 174(1); see Carrano and Sampson, 2008;Farke and Sertich, 2013;Tortosa et al., 2014;Rauhut and Carrano, 2016). The neural arch housing lateral cavities to the neural canal found in DGM 929-R, is synapomorphic to Abelisauroidea (Character 165(1); see Allain et al., 2007;Tortosa et al., 2014) as well as the pedicels pierced by foramina anteroventral to postzygapophyses (Character 166(1)). The development of the eprl, forming a corner on the transverse process (Character 167(2)) supports the assignment in the node that comprises Eoabelisaurus and Abelisauria (sensu Pol and Rauhut, 2012;see Farke and Sertich, 2013;Tortosa et al., 2014;Rauhut and Carrano, 2016). ...
... The deep sprf and spof, is synapomorphic to Abelisauria (Character 163(2); see Carrano and Sampson, 2008;Farke and Sertich, 2013;Tortosa et al., 2014;Rauhut and Carrano, 2016). The Brazilian specimen is grouped within derived noasaurids (Fig. 4) by the neural spine located in the anterior half of the vertebra (Character 162(1); see Allain et al., 2007;Carrano and Sampson, 2008;Farke and Sertich, 2013;Tortosa et al., 2014;Rauhut and Carrano, 2016). ...
Article
The study of pneumatization along axial series of theropods is mostly based on isolated and fragmented specimens. Among abelisauroids, so far the pneumatization of vertebrae was only recognized by external aspects and the morphology of internal pneumatic structures is restricted to the observation of broken regions. Here we describe and provide μCT-scan of one vertebra recovered from the Adamantina Formation (Campanian-lower Maastrichtian) of the Bauru Group, from Brazil. The specimen (DGM 929-R) comprises a cervical vertebra, which is assigned to Noasauridae based on the anteriorly-placed neural spine, and the developed centroprezygapophyseal fossae. The internal structures show regular branching pattern of septae, wide chambers with at least 3 ramifications, and pneumatic pedicles connecting wide, deep fossae of the neural arch, which are indicative of a polycamerate centrum and a procamerate neural arch. Comparisons with other internal structures revealed by tomographic studies and broken regions of cervical series of other theropod specimens show a more diverse arrangement of pneumatic chambers. In addition, a discussion of the internal camerate pneumatic morphology of previously studied theropod cervical vertebrae in the light of the new information revealed by the new material is presented.
... Frontal-parietal contact area: flat (0), or with a median fossa anterior to the sagittal crest (1). Allain et al., 2007) ...
... Lacrimal, anterior ramus dorsoventral height respect to the anteroposterior width of the ventral ramus: approximately equal (0), or much narrower (1). Allain et al., 2007) ...
... Presacral vertebrae, interior pneumatization: absent (0), or present with a camerate structure (1), or present with camellate structure (2). (Ordered character) Farke & Sertich 2013;Pol & Rauhut 2012;Allain et al., 2007;Rauhut 2003) 175. ...
Article
Abelisaurid theropods were most abundant in the Gondwana during the Cretaceous Period. Pycnonemosaurus nevesi was the first abelisaurid dinosaur described from the Bauru Group (Brazil, Upper Cretaceous). Nevertheless, its initial description was based on the comparison of a restricted number of remains with other abelisaurids. In this paper, I present a new description of the morphology of Pycnonemosaurus nevesi, including three new caudal transverse processes and a discussion of several new characteristics based on perspectives derived from recently described abelisauroids. Pycnonemosaurus nevesi differs from other abelisaurids based on the following features: a pubis with a small rounded foot and a ventrally-bowed anterior distal end; posterior caudal vertebrae with a hook-shaped transverse process that has an anterodistal expansion that is short and bowed; a strong and massive tibia with a well-developed lateral malleolus that is ventrally expanded. The unfused sutures represent signs of skeletal immaturity, but the specific ontogenetic stage is still uncertain. The current phylogenetic analysis suggests strongly relationship within Pycnonemosaurus and the most-derived abelisaurids (e.g Carnotaurus and Aucasaurus).