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Results for the research model.

Results for the research model.

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Active citizenship and trustworthiness may affect behavioural intentions to use e-government services. Such uses of information and communication technologies may improve public administration, yet adoption of e-government systems by end users has remained far below expectations, despite continued efforts in many countries. The low adoption and use...

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... tested our research model using linear regression with SPSS and thereby uncovered the relationships among trustworthiness, active citizenship, and behavioural intentions to use e-government services, as we show in Fig. 2. Specifically, our proposed model explains a substantial percentage of the variance in the relation- ship between active citizenship, trustworthiness and behavioural intentions to use e-government services in ...

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Citations

... Trust in the virtual assistant in turn positively influences behavioural intentions. On a study conducted in the unique setting of Lebanon, results show that by developing trustworthiness, citizens will increase their behavioural intention to use the services provided to them (Fakhoury and Aubert, 2015); in our study results show that privacy concerns had no major effect on trust in virtual assistants and its use contrarily to the results of previous studies (Bélanger and Crossler 2011; Muscanell and Guadagno 2012; Saffarizadeh 2018) where privacy concerns were an essential factor in avoiding interaction with new technology. Are these results still relevant today with the problems related for example to WhatsApp and Facebook. ...
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Dans cet article, nous abordons l'acceptabilité sociale (culturelle/ psychologique) au Liban qui connaît des défis et des opportunités similaires à ceux que rencontrent d'autres pays arabes dans leur acceptation ou leur rejet de l'interaction homme-machine et les raisons de leur attitude. À cette fin, un questionnaire a été distribué à 805 participants libanais travaillant dans différentes entreprises pour recueillir des données pour cette recherche. Une série d'analyses de variance a été réalisée pour tester les quatre hypothèses du modèle concernant l'âge et la culture des répondants, leurs attitudes d'évitement de la technologie / souci de confidentialité, et enfin l'effet de la langue utilisée par l'assistant virtuel et le dialecte de l'utilisateur. Mots-clés Agent assistant virtuel-Chatbot-Intelligence artificielle-Interaction homme-machine-Évitement de la technologie. Abstract In this article, we will tackle social acceptability (cultural/psychological) in Lebanon because it experiences similar challenges and opportunities that other Arab countries encounter in their acceptance or rejection of human-machine interaction (Dajani, 2016) and the reasons behind their attitude. For this purpose, a questionnaire was distributed to 805 Lebanese participants working in different fields and companies to collect required data for this research. A series of analyses of variance were performed to test four hypotheses of the model concerning age and culture of the respondents, their technology avoidance attitudes/ privacy concerns, and finally the effect of the language used by the virtual assistant and the dialect of the user.
... Innovation technology has essential impact on banking industry through initiating and making value for banks as well as clients, encouraging clients to conduct banking without accessing a brick bank system (Fakhoury & Aubert, 2015). In addition, e-banking has encouraged banks to participate successfully on the worldwide platform via expanding their services and products in spite of their time and space constraints (Hammoud, Bizri, & El Baba, 2018). ...
... -According to Rafidain Bank website, there are (146) branch offices distributed in Iraq, the largest number of operating branch offices is located in Baghdad (39) and Nineveh (16). So, out of (55) branch offices of the Bank in both provinces, (23) selected departments depending on clients number, the deposit balance, the loan balance and the transaction volume. ...
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... Third, prior studies provided mixed results on the effect of UT on e-government adoption. On the one hand, different researchers reported its positive effect on adoption (Carter & Bélanger, 2005;Bélanger & Carter, 2008;Teo et al., 2008;Navarrete, 2010;Schaupp & Carter, 2005;Fakhoury & Aubert, 2015;Alharbi et al., 2017;Ejdys et al., 2019;Maharaj & Munyoka, 2019). On the other, other researchers failed to find significant effect UT on adoption (e.g: Horst et al., 2007;Horsburgh et al., 2011) or even found that UT has the least effect on IR e-government as compared to other factors (Carter & Bélanger, 2005). ...
... Following prior studies that showed that UT increases IR in non-Arab (Carter & Bélanger, 2005;Schaupp & Carter, 2005;Bélanger & Carter, 2008;Wang & Lo, 2013;Kurfalı et al., 2017;Ejdys et al., 2019;Maharaj & Munyoka, 2019) and Arab contexts (Fakhoury & Aubert, 2015;Ahmad & Khalid, 2017;Ahmad & Campbell, 2015;Alharbi et al., 2017), we infer that H9: Higher perceived UT is associated with higher IR. ...
... With regard to the relative importance of UT → IR and OR → IR our results found the former has the second strongest effect, after PV, and OR exerts the least effect on IR. These results confirm the important role of trust on IR in the Arab culture, and suggest that positive feeling (represented by trust) has more influence than negative feeling (represented by risk perceptions) and are consistent with finding of prior studies (Bélanger & Carter, 2008;Fakhoury & Aubert, 2015) but contrasts with others (Carter & Bélanger, 2005;Ahmad & Campbell, 2015). ...
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... Alzahrani et al., 2018;Janssen et al., 2018;Beldad et al., 2012;Srivastava and Teo, 2009;B elanger and Carter, 2008), trust in government (e.g. Alzahrani et al., 2018;Janssen et al., 2018;S a et al., 2016;Fakhoury and Aubert, 2015;Abu-Shanab, 2014;Beldad et al., 2012;Morgeson et al., 2010;Srivastava and Teo, 2009;B elanger and Carter;2008) and trust in e-government (e.g. Kumar et al., 2020;Santa et al., 2019;Alzahrani et al., 2018;S a et al., 2016). ...
... In addition, developing citizen trust in e-government services requires citizens to have trust in the government organisation that is providing these electronic services (Alzahrani et al., 2018;Janssen et al., 2018;S a et al., 2016;Fakhoury and Aubert, 2015;Abu-Shanab, 2014). In the context of e-commerce research, consumer perceptions of a company's reputation, which is measured by the extent of the company's sincerity and credibility in its dealings with customers, are considered to be a milestone in users' trust in the company's website services (Kaur et al., 2020;Zheng et al., 2017). ...
... Pearson et al., 2012;Cyr, 2008). High-quality e-government services that consistently match citizens' expectations are seen to foster trust among citizens with regard to their government (Fakhoury and Aubert, 2015;Beldad et al., 2012;Welch et al., 2004) and to e-government services (Alzahrani et al., 2018;Morgeson et al., 2010;Gefen, 2002). Thus, the following hypotheses are proposed: ...
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... To enable effective management of constituent relations; and to support the economic and social development goals of citizens, business and civil society at the state, national and international levels. E-government uses ICT in public administration to streamline and integrate workflows and processes to effectively manage data and information to achieve greater efficiency, more complete access to government services, increased service levels, greater transparency, and citizen empowerment country [4], [6]. From the above definition, the main point of e-Government is the implementation of ICTs to improve people's wellbeing. ...
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Good Governance and Smart Governments are optimising the use of ICT to change the characteristics of traditional government bureaucracy to smart government. The government opens itself by applying information technology in providing services to the citizen, businesses, and government under it. We are familiar with the concept of the term e-Government. Success in implementing e-Government is undoubtedly a concern of the government because it is the responsibility of the executive side. In achieving success, we also must look for barriers ahead. This study aims to find barriers and challenges so the success can be made. In this article, we will discuss the barriers and challenges to be implementing e-Government. The method used is a systematic review and qualitative analysis of using content analysis in empirical and theoretical studies. The results show the 34 main Barriers dan Challenges of e-Government services both in theory and implementation to get the right strategies and recommendation to improve public services.
... Various studies have proposes the argument as the more advanced the innovation or technology, the more difficult it is to use. [27] 3. Social influence is the degree to which peers influence use of the system by other members of society in regard to his/her intention of technological use. Social influence is significant in intention and usage [55] . ...
... In the context of e-government, trust refers to the perception of confidence in the reliability and integrity [26], and its role in determining citizen adoption of e-government has been widely confirmed [13,64]. It is viewed as one of the crucial enablers of e-government transactions and e-loyalty [47,48,47,48], [74]. ...
... Trust could affect citizen adoption to m-government. People are reluctant to use e-government services mainly for issues of security, privacy, and transparency [39], [26]. They hesitate because they are concerned about the appropriate use of their data and protecting their privacy. ...
... In fact, they "have attracted enormous attention recently, due to the simplicity and rapidness with which private information appeared to be processed" [64], p.404). Surveys conducted in the U.S. show that they are barriers to the use of e-government [26], p. 348). Citizens weigh the anticipated benefits and consequences before disclosing their personal information and might turn away from the internet to contact government when they have greater concerns over privacy [64]. ...
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Mobile government applications have been increasingly adopted by governments around the world, but their use by targeted clients is lower than expected and under-examined in the literature. We conceptualize citizen adoption of m-government as a dynamic process composed of three interrelated stages—awareness, current use, and future use. However, we suggest that citizen demand will affect them differently. To test this, we used recent survey data from a Chinese city to examine the antecedents of citizen adoption of an m-government application, a traffic APP. The results reveal that citizens’ commuting demands significantly affected their awareness of the APP, but did not impact their current and planned future uses, which were primarily affected by citizens’ perceptions and habits. These findings help open up the “black box” of citizen adoption, and generate policy suggestions for boosting citizen use, of m-government.
... Finally, the 'environment' of each country must be considered because the development of the physical and institutional infrastructures are different for each country and the internal digital gap significantly affects the development of e-government (Al-Sharafi, 2014). Therefore, the behavioural factors of the individual such as perceived trust, security, or the tools and benefits that users hope to obtain (effort and performance expectancy), in addition to extrinsic factors such as government policy, the environment, and the system, motivate the use of e-government (Alghamdi et al., 2013;Faaeq et al., 2014;Fakhoury and Aubert, 2015;Gilbert et al., 2004;Meftah et al., 2015). ...
... Similarly, other studies have analysed variables related to the use of technology, such as the effort expectancy variable. Fakhoury and Aubert (2015) note that in Lebanon, citizens consider it crucial that e-government be easy to access and use. Other studies have analysed performance expectancy. ...
... According to Gilbert et al. (2004), trust perception is one of the major precedents of the adoption of e-government due to the public nature of the services offered on the governmental web pages. The reason is that citizens convey their trust in the government to the perception of trust in the use of online government, which then affects the value of the security in handling confidential information, the quality of information, and privacy that citizens may perceive (Fakhoury and Aubert, 2015). ...
... "Consumers" the focal phenomenon of UTAUT2 theory is one possible class of thing out of multiple class of things under individual technology user class making UTAUT2 as a micro level theory. Apart from consumer user class, the UTAUT2 theory is used to examine various related individual user classes such as "visually impaired persons" use of tele-guidance based navigation system (Chaudary et al., 2017), "Citizens" use of e-government services Fakhoury & Aubert, 2015), and "students" use of Facebook for learning (Escobar-Rodrguez et al., 2014). Given the usage of UTAUT2 in examining range of consumer user types, a higher-level formulation is also necessary. ...
... The second largest category Type II comprised of 23 studies. Apart from adding new and/or enriching existing attributes as in Type I, studies in Type II category extended the boundary of consumer user class in UTAUT2 to include user types such as Citizens (e.g., Fakhoury & Aubert, 2015), Students (e.g., Hajli & Lin, 2016;Koohikamali et al., 2015), Nurses (e.g., Van Houwelingen et al., 2014). The final category Type III witnessed studies incorporating new classes and their attributes to extend UTAUT2. ...
... The novelty of UTAUT2 extension studies is primary driven by their changes to the UTAUT2 model through addition/deletion of attributes and associations. In terms of parsimony, majority of the UTAUT2 extension studies reduced/omitted higher order moderators and their complex associations from the UTAUT2 theory (Abed et al., 2015;Fakhoury & Aubert, 2015), the parsimony column in Table G2 provides comprehensive analysis of all UTAUT2 extension studies and their modifications to UTAUT2 model in their quest to achieve parsimony. Finally, majority of UTAUT2 extensions focused on individual user class of things as a focal phenomenon following the micro level formulation as the original UTAUT2 theory. ...
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The extended unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) is less than ten years old and has already garnered more than 6000 citations with extensive usage in information systems and beyond. This research employed cited reference search to systematically review studies that cited UTAUT2 originating article. Based on UTAUT2 usage, the downloaded articles were classified into four categories such as: 1) General citation, 2) UTAUT2 application, 3) UTAUT2 integration, and 4) UTAUT2 extensions. Weber's (2012) theory evaluation framework revealed UTAUT2 as a robust theory on most dimensions except for parsimony arising from the complex model. UTAUT2 extensions emerged as popular UTAUT2 utilization category as researchers extended the model with context specific variables. Finally, UTAUT2 extensions were mapped to Johns' (2006) context dimensions to identify various limitations of the existing technology adoption research and to provide multi-level framework for future researchers with libraries of context dimensions.
... These intermediaries should create, build, and maintain trust with citizens to pursue the activities cited above because it requires exchanging sensitive personal information with them [19]. Lack of trust is considered a barrier to the adoption of electronic services in several studies and is a factor for adopting e-government [22], [23]. Citizens are reluctant to use e-government services, mainly for security, privacy, and transparency issues. ...
... E-government transactions limit both wasta and bribery [28]. As most of the Lebanese neither trust their government nor the public bureaucracy [22], [23], [29], "it is merely impossible to implement the laws and regulations related to anti-corruption and bribery" [27, p. 4]. However, Lebanon has made progress fighting corruption in 2017 with the passage of Access to Information Law. ...
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E-government is undergoing a dramatic change, especially in developed countries and in many parts of the developing world. Advancement in technology and pluralization of e-service provision are the driving forces behind these changes. This paper argues that developing countries need to embrace these changes selectively and draw on a range of models appropriate while putting the needs and interests of their citizens at the heart of the reform efforts. This study builds on a better solution for citizens for intermediation that shall extend the coverage to non-users of e-services. Thus, the paper suggests a human intermediary framework based on bibliometric analysis and literature review that aims to reduce the gap between e-government readiness and citizen's ability to use e-services. It also examines Mukhtar's case, a legitimate human intermediary in three developing countries, and how they can shape the public-sector reform agenda, highlighting the factors that might impact these reforms if implemented efficiently.