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Results for Task 1 of Experiment 2. Left: Mean pupil diameter. Middle: Mean refraction. Right: Mean vergence angle. The black vertical line indicates the transition from the control slide to the multiplication slide. A more negative refraction value corresponds to an increase in accommodation. For ease of interpreting the magnitudes of effects, the ranges of the y-axes are the same as in Experiment 1.

Results for Task 1 of Experiment 2. Left: Mean pupil diameter. Middle: Mean refraction. Right: Mean vergence angle. The black vertical line indicates the transition from the control slide to the multiplication slide. A more negative refraction value corresponds to an increase in accommodation. For ease of interpreting the magnitudes of effects, the ranges of the y-axes are the same as in Experiment 1.

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Much psychological research uses pupil diameter measurements for investigating the cognitive and emotional effects of visual stimuli. A potential problem is that accommodating at a nearby point constricts the pupil. This study examined to what extent accommodation is a confounder in pupillometry research. Participants solved multiplication problems...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... significant p-values are indicated in boldface. Figure 6 (left) shows the mean pupil diameter of participants per difficulty level as a function of time. The pupil diameter started increasing after the presentation of the multiplication. ...
Context 2
... hard multiplications took more time to solve (see RT in Table 4) and resulted in a more sustained dilation than the easy ones. Figure 6 further shows the mean refraction (middle) and mean vergence (right) of participants. It can be seen that the refraction and vergence angle were relatively constant. ...
Context 3
... .017). Figure 6 (left) shows the mean pupil diameter of participants per difficulty level as a function of time. ...
Context 4
... hard multiplications took more time to solve (see RT in Table 5) and resulted in a more sustained dilation than the easy and medium ones. Figure 6 further shows the mean refraction (middle) and mean vergence angle (right) of participants. It can be seen that the refraction and vergence angle were relatively constant. ...

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