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The present study aims to investigate the indirect relationship of Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) and followers' citizenship behavior through Organizational Identification (OI) for the first time using Social Identity Theory (STI), and to widen the scope of research by explaining differences in LMX-citizenship behavior relationship through OI arising...

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... In the academic context, LMX is a phenomenon which generates a sense of connectivity with organizations that makes employees attached to the organization, further creating diverse employee outcomes (Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995). Hussain et al (2018) documented LMX to have a relationship, while IWE helps to foster such relationship-oriented contexts. Therefore, if both are combined together and their effects are further examined, it may help provide a better understanding it may offer insight into how positive employee attitudes are related to their job commitment. ...
... The provided graphs showed that IWE dampened the positive relationship of LMX and JE, although the significant value showed effective moderation but the direction of graph for the conditional effect reduced the positive relation. Evidences from prior studies confirmed IWE acts as moderator in such a way that high IWE fosters the relationship of LMX (Hussain et al., 2018) and it could cause an increase in the positive relationship of LMX and JE (Asmara, 2019). But as per this study's results, IWE reduced the positive relationship. ...
... Second, (Buch et al., 2016) stated that transactional relations were based more on economic exchanges suggesting that supervisors allowed less social exchange and usually preferred their employees to practice limited IWE. Further, managers and employees favor each other through fair exchanges due to Pakistan being a collectivist society (Hussain et al., 2018), where managers allow employees to practice IWE. But when employees followed Islamic ethics at the expense of their paid work hours and neglect manager's assigned tasks or exposing the restaurant's (organization) inner secrets, it weakens the embeddedness of employees in their job which suggests employees may not be willing to sacrifice their employment. ...
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This study examined the impact of Leader-member exchange (LMX) on Customer-oriented citizenship behavior (COCB) with the mediating role of Job embeddedness (JE) under the SO -R theory. Further, the conditional effect of Islamic work ethics (IWE) was examined on LMX and JE. The quantitative study used a convenient sampling technique using n=298 frontline customer service restaurant employees based in Pakistan. All instruments were rated by subordinates except for the COCB outcome which was rated by supervisors. A cross-sectional study was employed using three separate time lags. Survey data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire containing 35 closed ended statements. AMOS was used to determine the model fit through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Regression analysis using SPSS was performed to determine direct main effects. Model 4 in Process macro v3.4 was used for testing hypothesized mediation. Model 1 was used for testing hypothesized moderation. Positive results were obtained for all hypothesized direct effects. Findings revealed that LMX explained significant variance for predicting employee attitude and behavior. Findings for indirect effects of JE also confirmed partial mediation in the relationship between LMX and COCB. The conditional effects of IWE on LMX and employees' attitude was significant. Limitations faced within this study were addressed and recommendations were developed to assist future researchers with these limitations. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change. www.ijicc.net Volume 15, Issue 6, 2021 697
... Islamic work ethics (IWE) is a construct which ties workers' struggle, limpidity, and ethically answerable comportment to nurture added constructive behavior for humanity's wellbeing and constructive association based on smoothing collaboration and joint comprehension in humanity (Ali, 2014). Work is observed as means to nurture individual progression and improved communal dealings, this exercise of IWE in group exchanges and team actions could subsequently fetch optimum elevation of psychological health (Hussain, Shahzad, Khan &Ahmad, 2018). Dissimilarities in fellow's insights about managerial labor beliefs make fairly transformation in employee attitudes (Rice, 1999). ...
... Regarding sample size, a number above 400 is considered sufficient to generalize the results to a million of the population with a confidence of 95% (Sekaran&Bougie, 2016). Current literature and practice suffice any number above 200 (Hussain & Shahzad, 2018). Therefore, to ensure sufficient generalizability, around 800 self-administered questionnaires were used to collect the data. ...
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This study has investigated the organizational justice (OJ) organizational cynicism (OC) relationship and established moderating role of Islamic work ethics (IWE) on the OJ-OC relationship. The Study analyzed a data set based on responses from a sample of 463 individuals from multiple private service sector organizations including telecom, hospitals, and universities using the convenience sampling technique. Data were collected in two phases with a time lag of 3 weeks using adapted and personally administered questionnaires. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used for data analysis. Results revealed a significant negative OJ-OC relationship. Moderation results and graphs being plotted using slope tests confirmed the moderating role of IWE among OJ-OC. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed.
... It suggests that work could likewise be righteousness considering an individual's needs, and ought to be a need for setting up balance in one's individual and public activity (Ali, 1992). Islamic working environment morals consider work to be a wellspring of Halal income and individuals who trust Islamic work esteems are more distant to negative practices and more slanted towards pro-social practices (Hussain, Shahzad, Khan, and Ahmad, 2018). Like Allah accentuates in Qur'ān stanzas about the persistence, resilience, and tolerant to foul practices from partners and chiefs (Tufail et al., 2019). ...
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The Dark Triad in the Workplace Research is an underinvestigated avenue of research. This conceptual study proposes the supervisors’ dark triad personality as an antecedent to their abusive supervision. The study suggests that the supervisor’s abusive behavior would trigger burnout and counterproductive work behaviors among the employees that are caused by negative personality traits i.e. dark triad. The study further proposes that Islamic Work Ethics may play a critical role to cope up with these negative workplace behaviors due to its nature of a buffering agent. Finally, the study concludes with important implications of Islamic Work Ethics towards new avenues of research in Dark Triad personality and its hazardous effects in the workplace.
... Ethics, in Islam are defined as moral norms, while Islamic work ethics are the principles of doing right or wrong while on job (Husin & Kernain, 2019). Islam puts great emphasis to practice good and positive gestures and the managers who follow IWE demonstrate cooperative work behavior (Hussain, Shahzad, Khan, & Ahmad, 2018). IWE enforce the employees to show dedication towards the work and support towards the employees as well as the organization (Ali, 1992). ...
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The current study is a contribution in a research area of paternalistic leadership. It examines the relationship between paternalistic leadership and employees’ psychological safety with the moderating role of Islamic work ethics. A sample of 359 employees was selected to collect the data from the banking sector of Pakistan by using convenient sampling technique. Time lag design was used to get the data to reduce the common method bias. The results of the study confirmed the positive main effects of paternalistic leadership style and Islamic work ethics on employee psychological safety. However, no support was found for the interactive effects of Islamic work ethics in relationship between paternalistic leadership and psychological safety. Study limitations have also been discussed along with future research directions. In addition, this study includes some useful theoretical as well as practical implications.