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Representation of public and private space in Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates. In the centre part of (b), the map shows a gap between public retail space and private space (indicated by red arrows). This gap is most likely the result of the experienced separation between public and private space, because the satellite imagery (a) does not reveal any spatial structure alike. Copyright of map data: (a) Google Earth, DigitalGlobe, (b) OpenStreetMap contributors (cf. www.openstreetmap.org/copyright)

Representation of public and private space in Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates. In the centre part of (b), the map shows a gap between public retail space and private space (indicated by red arrows). This gap is most likely the result of the experienced separation between public and private space, because the satellite imagery (a) does not reveal any spatial structure alike. Copyright of map data: (a) Google Earth, DigitalGlobe, (b) OpenStreetMap contributors (cf. www.openstreetmap.org/copyright)

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Conference Paper
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People perceive the environment in various idiosyncratic ways, letting them conceptualize places differently. Representation in a data set and communication about places, however, create the need to reach agreement in the place a symbol or word represents. People have thus to integrate their views about a place. In this paper, we discuss how idiosy...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... difference, often referred to as public/private space dichotomy, can be traced in OSM. In Figure 1, a part of the city Ras Al Khaimah in the United Arab Emirates is depicted. The blocks of houses are interrupted by streets. ...
Context 2
... blocks of houses are interrupted by streets. Within a block of houses, no systematic gaps are visible on the satellite imagery ( Figure 1a). The corresponding part of OSM, however, shows an elongated gap. ...
Context 3
... corresponding part of OSM, however, shows an elongated gap. The contributors have added a retail area that is received as public space and another area that is received as private space (Figure 1b). The public/private space dichotomy is a seemingly plausible explanation for the gap between these two areas, but the validity of this explanation cannot be proven in retrospect. ...

Citations

... As an alternative to media that aim to convey factual knowledge, more artistic approaches to Place representation have been examined by Smith et al. (2019) and Casey (2002). Finally, the possibilities opened up by Volunteered Geographic Information and User Generated Content have been explored by Mayer et al. (2020), Ballatore and De Sabbata (2020), and Calafiore et al. (2018). ...
... As part of the ongoing discourse, Tenbrink (2020) has outlined current opportunities and future prospects of linguistic platial cognition research. Finally, Mayer et al. (2020) have discussed the impact shared mental models have on how we represent places. ...
... Such a social nature is also common to many geometries (cf., e.g., Smith and Mark, 2003). Not only are more complex entities such as country borders socially constructed, but even the geometries of simple geographical entities such as buildings are to some extentsocial and cultural settings determine whether a geometry refers to the building footprint including cantilevered parts or to the area where the building connects to the ground, whether terraced houses are considered as a unit, and how the geometry representing the building is generalized (cf., e.g., Mayer et al., 2020). Despite this, there is a tendency among Geographical Information Science scholars to assume that geometries are an immediate representation of physical reality, which can be seen by the way these are represented in GISs. ...
Article
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Place is a concept that can hardly be formally captured at the moment, as it is unclear how instances of places can formally be represented and how conclusions about places can practically be drawn by technological means. Geographical Information Science scholars hence tend to use the term ‘Place’ even when, in fact, they presume a paradigm similar to the one assumed for Geometrical Space. As a result, Space and thematic information is mostly treated separately, and the richness and variety of Place descriptions in terms of identities, affective states, affordances, and further aspects that have been discussed in Geography since a long time are not (yet) reflected well in corresponding discussions in Geographical Information Science. This article reviews the ongoing debate and outlines directions of how to extend it much beyond the currently assumed spatial paradigm towards platial information. Thereby, possible approaches and future prospects as well as limitations of Theories of Platial Information and Platial Information Systems are explored. The agenda laid out and discussed in this article aims to set a frame of reference for a re-focussing of the ongoing discourse on platial information and stimulate future developments towards a Platial Information Science.
... As proposed by Mayer et al. (2020), OpenStreetMap data and the corresponding OpenStreetMap Wiki may also be used to examine shared mental models among contributors (Johnson-Laird, 2005;Johnson-Laird, 1980). Shared mental models concern the contribution process itself, comprising ideas of how to add a structure in a geometrically correct way and tag it appropriately. ...
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Big data are not yet commonly used in psychological research as they are often difficultto access and process. One source of behavioral data containing both spatial andthematic information is OpenStreetMap, a collaborative online project aiming to developa comprehensive world map. Besides spatial and thematic information about buildings,streets, and other geographical features, the collected data also contains informationabout the contribution process itself. Even though such data can be potentially useful forstudying individual judgments and group processes within a natural context, behavioraldata generated in OpenStreetMap have not yet been easily accessible for scholars inpsychology and the social sciences. To overcome this obstacle, we developed a softwarepackage which makes OpenSteetMap data more accessible and allows researchers toextract data sets from the OpenStreetMap database as CSV or JSON files. Furthermore,we show how to select relevant map sections in which contributor activity is high and howto model and predict the behavior of contributors in OpenStreetMap. Moreover, wediscuss opportunities and possible limitations of using behavioral data fromOpenStreetMap as a data source.
... OpenStreetMap data expose many of these characteristics as they encode all the information needed and related to the production of maps. In addition and because OSM is a VGI project and the corresponding dataset a GSDS, the data are the result of a social process, which also generates information about the contributions themselves (Mayer et al. 2020). The OSM history dataset accordingly contains detailed information about when OSM elements have been added, modified, or deleted. ...
Article
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Few laws about geographical information are known, partly because geographical information is inherently complex. Tobler’s first law of Geography and, to a lesser degree, also his second law are among the rare exceptions. In this article, we explore the validity of Benford’s law in the context of the example of OpenStreetMap. More specifically, we compare the distribution of several numerical features of geographical entities to the Benford distribution. It is demonstrated that the numerical features examined are in accordance with Benford’s law to a varying degree with little variation between the types of geographical entities. Spatial patterns in the deviation from Benford’s law are shown to be similar for some aspects but to strongly differ for other ones. We show that many aspects of the data tend to deviate more than average from the Benford distribution in Africa, Greenland, smaller island countries, and, to a lesser degree, in South America. Also, the scale-dependency of Benford’s law is explored. Motivated by the use of Benford’s law to detect indications for fraud in economic and other datasets, future prospects and limitations to systematically develop intrinsic data quality measures are discussed.
... Competing representations of geographical features can reduce the readability of a map, but they can also open up opportunities to draw conclusions about the underlaying mental model (Mayer et al., 2020). When the people involved in the map creation process have different mental representations of a geographical feature, the representations they create often differ. ...
... Despite this, the coexistence of different cartographic representations makes possible to draw conclusions about the way a feature has been conceptualized. The symbols in the map encode, accordingly, besides the intended information about the geographical features, also information about the mental models involved (Mayer et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Geographical features can be represented in different ways. Buildings, for instance, can be represented as areal features defined by polygonal lines or as point features in a map. While the type of representation chosen to represent a building strongly depends on the scale of the map, it seems common to represent points of interests (POIs) as point features. More complex examples exist. For example, the way buildings that are part of a mosque are conceptualized and thus labelled in a map strongly depends on how familiar we are with the Arabic culture. The same applies to the often perceived separation between public and private space in Arabic cultures, which can have an impact on geometrical aspects of map representations. Such coexisting representations of geographical features can, in particular, be observed in collaboratively created data sources (Mocnik et al., 2019), such as OpenStreetMap (OSM) data and maps generated from these.Competing representations of geographical features can reduce the readability of a map, but they can also open up opportunities to draw conclusions about the underlaying mental model (Mayer et al., 2020). When the people involved in the map creation process have different mental representations of a geographical feature, the representations they create often differ. This, in turn, impacts the readability, which refers to the process of transferring a map representation into a mental one, i.e., the process opposed to map creation, as there is often no clear and unambiguous correspondence between the symbols in the map and the represented geographical features (Scheider et al., 2009; Mocnik et al., 2018) Over time, these conceptualizations can mutually influence and lead to a convergence (Mocnik et al., 2017). Despite this, the coexistence of different cartographic representations makes possible to draw conclusions about the way a feature has been conceptualized. The symbols in the map encode, accordingly, besides the intended information about the geographical features, also information about the mental models involved (Mayer et al., 2020).The effect of mental models on the map representation often goes unnoticed because there is, in many cases, only very subtle variation between the map representations of one type of geographical features. If such variation would be much larger, it would even be impossible to interpret the symbols of a map. While the examples discussed above can be traced very well in individual cases, it is yet unclear how systematic the influence of mental models is. A systematic examination of such examples can investigate the influence statistically and at a larger scale. Further research might show the extent to which conclusions can practically be drawn about the conceptualization of geographical features and corresponding mental representations.The ability to trace mental models through maps is a suitable tool for exploring the conceptualization of geographies. For instance, future research might investigate in detail the impact culture has on the way we conceptualize. Likewise, it might investigate how people experience urban landscapes in different ways. By using maps and the data behind them as a source of information for mental models, maps gain a new purpose while the original one is put into the background. While such thinking is common for sketch maps, it also also applies, to a lesser degree, to Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), which can become a valuable data source for ethnologists, human geographers, psychologists, and cognitive scientists.In a similar way, a better understanding of how mental models relate to cartographic representations can help to improve the latter. The cartographic representation of idiosyncratically experienced geographies, for instance, still poses challenges. Also, stories are, in many cases, hard to convey through classical maps (Mocnik and Fairbairn, 2018). The same applies to places and corresponding cartographic representations, which often are characterized by subjective and idiosyncratic aspects (Westerholt et al., 2018; Westerholt et al., 2020). The empirical investigation of the effect mental models have on cartographic representations can be expected to also provide insights into the reverse process, thus leading to cartographic techniques that make it possible to convey idiosyncratic experience and, eventually, also emotions.
... Recently, some progress has been made, as is evident in a number of outlook and foresight articles (Goodchild, 2015;Sui and Goodchild, 2011) as well as review articles (Hamzei et al., 2020;Wagner et al., 2020;Purves et al., 2019;Merschdorf and Blaschke, 2018). First conceptual and methodical attempts to analytically assess place (Mayer et al., 2020;Scheider and Janowicz, 2014;Gao et al., 2013;Winter and Freksa, 2012) and develop corresponding visualisation approaches (Bleisch and Hollenstein, 2018;Mocnik and Fairbairn, 2018;Westerholt et al., 2018a). Yet, there is still a lack of a holistic consistent theory of how places can be characterised, represented and used in a formal way. ...
Article
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This editorial presents a special collection of papers addressing the concept of place and its use in geographical information science (GIScience). The concept of place is a topic of increasing interest among GIScience scholars. First attempts to formalize platial information have been made and it is increasingly held that user‐generated data sets in particular are often more platial than spatial in nature. At the same time, and especially when compared to geometric spatial concepts, the concept of place is ambiguous, complex and difficult to capture in formal and analytical terms, suggesting the need for interdisciplinary approaches. This collection presents articles covering a wide range of place‐related aspects, including both conceptual and more applied contributions. In the present editorial we summarize these and comment on their individual contributions, and hope that the readership of Transactions in GIS will find the special collection inspiring and informative.
Article
Urban environments constitute the habitats in which an increasing number of people live. Place-making forms part of this living, occurring in the context of specific urban assemblages made up of facilities that serve different purposes. For example, Soho in London is characterized by entertainment facilities, while large parts of the Ruhr area in Germany are dominated by industrial features. In this article, we explore possible links between exposure to certain urban facilities and sense of place in Lisbon, Portugal. To do so, we use a web mapping-based survey that allows respondents to map and rate meaningful areas. These areas and their assessments are related to points of interest extracted from Google Places in a structural equation model using PLS-SEM. The results show that exposure to everyday urban facilities such as grocery shops is negatively correlated with place identity, while those that represent leisure locations are negatively correlated with place attachment. Both findings suggest that the temporal rhythm of exposure to certain features is an important factor. Methodologically, our study shows that scales differ between place concepts and their associated spatial footprints – an important finding for future studies. We end the article by offering conclusions and policy recommendations. © 2021 Published by Elsevier Ltd.