Reports of Vibrio cholerae from sea water samples.

Reports of Vibrio cholerae from sea water samples.

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Vibrio cholerae is a globally distributed water-borne pathogen that causes severe diarrheal disease and mortality, with current outbreaks as part of the seventh pandemic. Further understanding of the role of environmental factors in potential pathogen distribution and corresponding V. cholerae disease transmission over time and space is urgently ne...

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... As an example of the complexity of factors and their interaction that may result in further impacts, the combined impacts of increased CO 2 levels and water temperature may also boost the frequency of algal blooms, known to cause depletion of nutrients and increasing the presence of natural toxins (Fu et al., 2012), or the increase in temperature and chlorophyll that have been linked to a rise in Vibrio spp. (Escobar et al., 2015), a group of bacteria that has been shown capable of impacting essential physiological functions in elasmobranchs (Marancik et al., 2013). Finally, all of these environmental changes can influence how pollutants travel in the trophic chains and alter their toxicity once inside marine organisms (Alava et al., 2017). ...
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Bioindicator species are increasingly valuable in environmental pollution monitoring, and elasmobranch species include many suitable candidates for that role. By measuring contaminants and employing biomarkers of effect in relevant elasmobranch species, scientists may gain important insights about the impacts of pollution in marine ecosystems. This review compiles biomarkers applied in elasmobranchs to assess the effect of pollutants (e.g., metals, persistent organic pollutants, and plastics), and the environmental changes induced by anthropogenic activities (e.g., shifts in marine temperature, pH, and oxygenation). Over 30 biomarkers measured in more than 12 species were examined, including biotransformation biomarkers (e.g., cytochrome P450 1A), oxidative stress-related biomarkers (e.g., superoxide anion, lipid peroxidation, catalase, and vitamins), stress proteins (e.g., heat shock protein 70), reproductive and endocrine biomarkers (e.g., vitellogenin), osmoregulation biomarkers (e.g., trimethylamine N-oxide, Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase, and plasma ions), energetic and neurotoxic biomarkers (e.g., lactate dehydrogenase, lactate, and cholinesterases), and histopathological and morphologic biomarkers (e.g., tissue lesions and gross indices).
... persistence is often greater in neritic habitats than open ocean habitats (76), so green turtles may be 375 exposed to higher pathogen loads and diversity than leatherback turtles (77 almost all genes with a priori linkages to TSD pathways (80-82) occurred as single copy orthologs with 390 . CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license available under a (which was not certified by peer review) is the author/funder, who has granted bioRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. ...
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Sea turtles represent an ancient lineage of marine vertebrates that evolved from terrestrial ancestors over 100 MYA, yet the genomic basis of the unique physiological and ecological traits enabling these species to thrive in diverse marine habitats remain largely unknown. Additionally, many populations have declined drastically due to anthropogenic activities over the past two centuries, and their recovery is a high global conservation priority. We generated and analyzed high-quality reference genomes for green ( Chelonia mydas ) and leatherback ( Dermochelys coriacea ) turtles, representing the two extant sea turtle families (MRCA ∼60 MYA). These genomes are highly syntenic and homologous, but localized non-collinearity was associated with higher copy numbers of immune, zinc-finger, or olfactory receptor (OR) genes in green turtles, and ORs related to waterborne odorants were greatly expanded in green turtles. These findings suggest that divergent evolution of these key gene families may underlie immunological and sensory adaptations assisting navigation, occupancy of neritic versus pelagic environments, and diet specialization. Reduced collinearity was especially prevalent in microchromosomes, with greater gene content, heterozygosity, and genetic distances between species, supporting their critical role in vertebrate evolutionary adaptation. Finally, diversity and demographic histories starkly contrasted between species, indicating that leatherback turtles have had a low yet stable effective population size and extremely low diversity compared to other reptiles, and a higher proportion of deleterious variants, reinforcing concern over their persistence under future climate scenarios. These genomes provide invaluable resources for advancing our understanding of evolution and conservation best practices in an imperiled vertebrate lineage. Statement of significance Sea turtles represent a clade whose populations have undergone recent global declines. We analyzed de novo genomes for both extant sea turtle families through the Vertebrate Genomes Project to inform their conservation and evolutionary biology. The highly conserved genomes were largely differentiated by localized gene-rich regions of divergence, particularly in microchromosomes, suggesting that these overlooked genomic elements may play key functional roles in sea turtle evolution. We further demonstrate that dissimilar evolutionary histories impact standing genomic diversity and genetic load, and are critical to consider when using these metrics to assess adaptive potential and extinction risk. Examination of these relationships may be important to reveal drivers of adaptation and diversity in sea turtles and other vertebrates with conserved genome synteny.
... Cholera and other historical epidemics continue to be studied, highlighting the deficient health models. In the last decade, research on Vibrio cholerae includes spatio-temporal models (Mari et al., 2012), climatic conditions (Escobar et al., 2015), and environmental reservoirs using remote sensing (Recault et al., 2019), among others. The scenario for Health Systems is a more adverse one given the recent emergence of zoonotic origin epidemics, a factor previously limited in the human health history where sanitation and hygienism had a fundamental epidemic mitigation role ( Figure 1). ...
... Cólera y otras epidemias históricas continúan siendo motivo de estudio constatando los modelos de salud deficitarios. En la última década, investigaciones sobre Vibrio cholerae incluyen modelos espacio-temporales (Mari et al., 2012), condiciones climáticas (Escobar et al., 2015), reservorios ambientales utilizando sensores remotos (Recault et al., 2019), entre otros. El escenario para los Sistemas de Salud es una más adverso ante la emergencia reciente de epidemias de origen zoonótico, un factor limitado en la historia de la salud humana donde la salubridad y el higienismo tenia un rol fundamental en mitigación epidémica (Figura 1). ...
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Global retrospective human/plant epidemiology analysis exhibits a reactive cognitive development influenced by casuistic phenomena. Epidemic outbreaks of XXI century evidenced regression of the population-based approach to risk prevention and erosion of Public Health model, successful between 1950-1970. After 19 pandemics and 200 historical outbreaks, neither WHO nor public or private institutions, have not consolidated sustainable preventive models. Urban expansion and agricultural colonialism during the Industrial Revolution accelerated pandemic processes such as Black Death (Yersinia pestis), Cholera (Vibrio cholerae), Potato Blight (Phythopthora infestans) or Coffee Rust (Hemileia vastatrix). These factors contributed to the conception and application of the contagion and prevention principles by Snow/1854 or de Bary/1857, in the hygienism of Proust/1873, and the sanitation of Marshall/1882, before the etiological principle developed by Pasteur/1862 and Koch/1882. The contemporary scientific revolutions strengthened the reductionist hospital vision, with emphasis on cure as a principle, and on health privatization as a business strategy. The central epidemiology paradigm’s population is limited to the individual-patient or plant-damage. The COVID-19 cases curve (‘epidemic wave’) is not inherent to preventive epidemiology, ‘flattening’ lacks infectious basis, ‘healthy distance’ or ‘confinement’ are not sustainable mitigation strategies. The immunological emphasis did not generate the expected individual protection and ‘herd immunity’. Instead, it exacerbated the pharmaceutical-mercantilized vaccine ‘race’ to new variants; geopolitical protectionism; and unequal distribution of immunologicals. The SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic evidenced the rational epidemiological framework deterioration; the absence of Surveillance Systems that articulate clinical detection and viral variants with community risks follow-up, enhanced with genomic and digital technology; the systematic failure of Public Health Systems; and the absence of a pansystemic model to integrate regional preventive models. Maximum case-fatality reduction from 15.2% in 2020 to 2.5 world average 2021, suggests an endemic transitional process. Worldwide reproduction rates Rt > 1 are consistent with more transmissible variants, such as Delta and Omicron, as sublethal survival ability of the virus. The pandemic has not been successfully intervened and its momentum is determined by biological attributes inherent to SARS-CoV-2.
... Colombia is not exempt from possible cholera or vibriosis outbreaks due to its geographic location and the presence of the Atlantic and Pacific coasts [7]. Although V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus are the main reported pathogens, there is also concern regarding an increase in cases of infection by other Vibrio species and the emergence of epidemic lineages [8]. ...
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There is widespread concern about the increase in cases of human and animal infections caused by pathogenic Vibrio species due to the emergence of epidemic lineages. In Colombia, active surveillance by the National Institute of Health (INS) has confirmed the presence of Vibrio; however, in routine surveillance, these isolates are not genomically characterized. This study focused on the pangenome analysis of six Vibrio species: V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. alginolyticus, V. fluvialis, V. diabolicus and V. furnissii to determine the genetic architectures of potentially virulent and antimicrobial resistance traits. Isolates from environmental and clinical samples were genome sequenced, assembled and annotated. The most important species in public health were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing and phylogenomics. For V. parahaemolyticus, we found the virulent ST3 and ST120 genotypes. For V. vulnificus, we identified isolates belonging to lineages 1 and 2. Virulence gene homologues between species were found even in non-pathogenic species such as V. diabolicus. Annotations related to the mobilome, integrative mobile and conjugative elements and resistance genes were obtained from environmental and clinical isolates. This study contributes genomic information to the intensified surveillance program implemented by the INS to establish potential sources of vibriosis in Colombia.
... For example, climate models indicate that sea surface temperature increases will track with an increase in the abundance, geographic distribution, and duration of risk of Vibrio species infections, some of which have a mortality rate of up to 50%. [40][41][42][43] Infections with pathogenic Vibrio species, including V. cholerae, the bacterium responsible for the diarrheal disease, cholera, have been well-studied and infections have been linked to climate change and extreme weather events. 44,45 While all Vibrio species can cause severe illness resulting from a gastrointestinal infection via ingestion or wound infection via direct inoculation, different species have varying degrees of disease association. ...
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Climate change is increasingly recognized for its impacts on human health, including how biotic and abiotic factors are driving shifts in infectious disease. Changes in ecological conditions and processes due to temperature and precipitation fluctuations and intensified disturbance regimes are affecting infectious pathogen transmission, habitat, hosts, and the characteristics of pathogens themselves. Understanding the relationships between climate change and infectious diseases can help clinicians broaden the scope of differential diagnoses when interviewing, diagnosing, and treating patients presenting with infections lacking obvious agents or transmission pathways. Here, we highlight key examples of how the mechanisms of climate change affect infectious diseases associated with water, fire, land, insects, and human transmission pathways in the hope of expanding the analytical framework for infectious disease diagnoses. Increased awareness of these relationships can help prepare both clinical physicians and epidemiologists for continued impacts of climate change on infectious disease in the future.
... The near-surface concentration of Chlo-a is calculated using an empirical relationship derived from in situ measurements, and the implementation of the standard O'Reilly band ratio OCx (e.g., OC3M, for the MODIS sensor) algorithm merged with the color index algorithm of Hu et al. 30,31 . SST and Chlo-a have been crucial in studies to reconstruct environmental phenomena, such as Vibrio cholerae emergence 13,32,33 , algae blooms 29,34,35 , El Niño and La Niña dynamics 36 , and coral bleaching 37 . ...
... Remotely sensed environmental observations from the MODIS instrument, including SST and Chlo-a, have been validated profusely by the scientific community against a number of models and in situ measurements [51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58] and used in a diverse set of studies 13,14,19,[59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67] . For instance, validation of the SST observation uses accurate ship-based infrared radiometers and differing and moored buoys with thermometers a meter of depth 38,56,57 . ...
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Remote sensing satellite imagery has the potential to monitor and understand dynamic environmental phenomena by retrieving information about Earth’s surface. Marine ecosystems, however, have been studied with less intensity than terrestrial ecosystems due, in part, to data limitations. Data on sea surface temperature (SST) and Chlorophyll- a (Chlo- a ) can provide quantitative information of environmental conditions in coastal regions at a high spatial and temporal resolutions. Using the exclusive economic zone of coastal regions as the study area, we compiled monthly and annual statistics of SST and Chlo- a globally for 2003 to 2020. This ready-to-use dataset aims to reduce the computational time and costs for local-, regional-, continental-, and global-level studies of coastal areas. Data may be of interest to researchers in the areas of ecology, oceanography, biogeography, fisheries, and global change. Target applications of the database include environmental monitoring of biodiversity and marine microorganisms, and environmental anomalies.
... Det er beskrevet rundt 140 arter i slekten, over 20 av disse kan gi sykdom hos marine dyr og 12 kan gi infeksjoner hos mennesker. Forekomsten av sykdomsfremkallende Vibrio-bakterier ser ut til å vaere tett koplet til sjøvannstemperatur, og det er grunn til å følge med på utviklingen i lys av global oppvarming (224). Fra norske farvann har vi også sett dette for sårinfeksjoner og blodforgiftning etter bading i sjøen (225). ...
... Egenskapene til Vibrio-bakterier fra fisk, skjell og sjøvann i Norge er nylig publisert (226). Selv om det ble påvist at noen isolater viste resistens mot antibiotika og hadde gener for dette, var forekomsten av multiresistens lav (224). I en nylig avsluttet studie ble det videre undersøkt for resistens blant 350 Vibrio splendidus og 336 E. coli fra akvakulturområder med tungmetallforurensning, samt andre områder uten kjent forurensning. ...
Technical Report
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Antimicrobial resistance – knowledge gaps, challenges and relevant measures. Status 2020
... The incidence of cholera and the presence of its causative organism, V. cholerae, have been reported historically from coastal regions of the Indian Ocean [3,[30][31][32]. In the Vembanad Lake, the environmental V. cholerae was most abundant in the water column of the brackish water region during the monsoon (wet season), when the entire lake, including ...
... The incidence of cholera and the presence of its causative organism, V. cholerae, have been reported historically from coastal regions of the Indian Ocean [3,[30][31][32]. In the Vembanad Lake, the environmental V. cholerae was most abundant in the water column of the brackish water region during the monsoon (wet season), when the entire lake, including the brackish water region, turns limnetic. ...
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Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium responsible for the disease cholera, is a naturally-occurring bacterium, commonly found in many natural tropical water bodies. In the context of the U.N. Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) targets on health (Goal 3), water quality (Goal 6), life under water (Goal 14), and clean water and sanitation (Goal 6), which aim to “ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all”, we investigated the environmental reservoirs of V. cholerae in Vembanad Lake, the largest lake in Kerala (India), where cholera is endemic. The response of environmental reservoirs of V. cholerae to variability in essential climate variables may play a pivotal role in determining the quality of natural water resources, and whether they might be safe for human consumption or not. The hydrodynamics of Vembanad Lake, and the man-made barrier that divides the lake, resulted in spatial and temporal variability in salinity (1–32 psu) and temperature (23 to 36 °C). The higher ends of this salinity and temperature ranges fall outside the preferred growth conditions for V. cholerae reported in the literature. The bacteria were associated with filtered water as well as with phyto- and zooplankton in the lake. Their association with benthic organisms and sediments was poor to nil. The prevalence of high laminarinase and chitinase enzyme expression (more than 50 µgmL−1 min−1) among V. cholerae could underlie their high association with phyto- and zooplankton. Furthermore, the diversity in the phytoplankton community in the lake, with dominance of genera such as Skeletonema sp., Microcystis sp., Aulacoseira sp., and Anabaena sp., which changed with location and season, and associated changes in the zooplankton community, could also have affected the dynamics of the bacteria in the lake. The probability of presence or absence of V. cholerae could be expressed as a function of chlorophyll concentration in the water, which suggests that risk maps for the entire lake can be generated using satellite-derived chlorophyll data. In situ observations and satellite-based extrapolations suggest that the risks from environmental V. cholerae in the lake can be quite high (with probability in the range of 0.5 to 1) everywhere in the lake, but higher values are encountered more frequently in the southern part of the lake. Remote sensing has an important role to play in meeting SDG goals related to health, water quality and life under water, as demonstrated in this example related to cholera.
... An important development stage of an ML model utilizing a cross-ECV approach is the feature selection, and particularly the need to identify variables displaying collinearity, as they may be contributing similar information towards the model (e.g, [62]). In the present work, a high correlation is to be expected among ECVs related to the water cycle. ...
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Oceanic and coastal ecosystems have undergone complex environmental changes in recent years, amid a context of climate change. These changes are also reflected in the dynamics of water-borne diseases as some of the causative agents of these illnesses are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment and their survival rates are impacted by changes in climatic conditions. Previous studies have established strong relationships between essential climate variables and the coastal distribution and seasonal dynamics of the bacteria Vibrio cholerae, pathogenic types of which are responsible for human cholera disease. In this study we provide a novel exploration of the potential of a machine learning approach to forecast environmental cholera risk in coastal India, home to more than 200 million inhabitants, utilising atmospheric, terrestrial and oceanic satellite-derived essential climate variables. A Random Forest classifier model is developed, trained and tested on a cholera outbreak dataset over the period 2010–2018 for districts along coastal India. The random forest classifier model has an Accuracy of 0.99, an F1 Score of 0.942 and a Sensitivity score of 0.895, meaning that 89.5% of outbreaks are correctly identified. Spatio-temporal patterns emerged in terms of the model’s performance based on seasons and coastal locations. Further analysis of the specific contribution of each Essential Climate Variable to the model outputs shows that chlorophyll-a concentration, sea surface salinity and land surface temperature are the strongest predictors of the cholera outbreaks in the dataset used. The study reveals promising potential of the use of random forest classifiers and remotely-sensed essential climate variables for the development of environmental cholera-risk applications. Further exploration of the present random forest model and associated essential climate variables is encouraged on cholera surveillance datasets in other coastal areas affected by the disease to determine the model’s transferability potential and applicative value for cholera forecasting systems.
... Rising sea surface temperatures and increasing ocean pollution result in greater abundance and expanded geographic ranges of naturally occurring marine pathogens, such as Vibrio species, among them Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera [50,51] (Figure 2). The likely consequences will be increases in the frequency of Vibrioassociated illnesses and spread of these infections to new, previously unaffected areas. ...
... Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is the species of greatest concern. Vibrio species exhibit strong seasonality, and warmer water temperatures result in increased concentrations in estuarine and coastal waters [50,51,[404][405][406][407][408]. Further warming of coastal waters caused by climate change is likely to further increase abundance of Vibrio bacteria and expand their geographic range [409]. ...
... This trend is particularly well documented for the Baltic Sea, where the annual incidence of Vibrio infections is reported to almost double for every one-degree increase in sea surface temperature (Figure 12) [402,414]. Similar trends have been reported in the United States where incidence of infections by Vibrio species has increased by 115% in the past decade, especially along the Gulf, Northeast, and Pacific Northwest coasts [50,414,415]. ...
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Background: Pollution – unwanted waste released to air, water, and land by human activity – is the largest environmental cause of disease in the world today. It is responsible for an estimated nine million premature deaths per year, enormous economic losses, erosion of human capital, and degradation of ecosystems. Ocean pollution is an important, but insufficiently recognized and inadequately controlled component of global pollution. It poses serious threats to human health and well-being. The nature and magnitude of these impacts are only beginning to be understood. Goals: (1) Broadly examine the known and potential impacts of ocean pollution on human health. (2) Inform policy makers, government leaders, international organizations, civil society, and the global public of these threats. (3) Propose priorities for interventions to control and prevent pollution of the seas and safeguard human health. Methods: Topic-focused reviews that examine the effects of ocean pollution on human health, identify gaps in knowledge, project future trends, and offer evidence-based guidance for effective intervention. Environmental Findings: Pollution of the oceans is widespread, worsening, and in most countries poorly controlled. It is a complex mixture of toxic metals, plastics, manufactured chemicals, petroleum, urban and industrial wastes, pesticides, fertilizers, pharmaceutical chemicals, agricultural runoff, and sewage. More than 80% arises from land-based sources. It reaches the oceans through rivers, runoff, atmospheric deposition and direct discharges. It is often heaviest near the coasts and most highly concentrated along the coasts of low- and middle-income countries. Plastic is a rapidly increasing and highly visible component of ocean pollution, and an estimated 10 million metric tons of plastic waste enter the seas each year. Mercury is the metal pollutant of greatest concern in the oceans; it is released from two main sources – coal combustion and small-scale gold mining. Global spread of industrialized agriculture with increasing use of chemical fertilizer leads to extension of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) to previously unaffected regions. Chemical pollutants are ubiquitous and contaminate seas and marine organisms from the high Arctic to the abyssal depths. Ecosystem Findings: Ocean pollution has multiple negative impacts on marine ecosystems, and these impacts are exacerbated by global climate change. Petroleum-based pollutants reduce photosynthesis in marine microorganisms that generate oxygen. Increasing absorption of carbon dioxide into the seas causes ocean acidification, which destroys coral reefs, impairs shellfish development, dissolves calcium-containing microorganisms at the base of the marine food web, and increases the toxicity of some pollutants. Plastic pollution threatens marine mammals, fish, and seabirds and accumulates in large mid-ocean gyres. It breaks down into microplastic and nanoplastic particles containing multiple manufactured chemicals that can enter the tissues of marine organisms, including species consumed by humans. Industrial releases, runoff, and sewage increase frequency and severity of HABs, bacterial pollution, and anti-microbial resistance. Pollution and sea surface warming are triggering poleward migration of dangerous pathogens such as the Vibrio species. Industrial discharges, pharmaceutical wastes, pesticides, and sewage contribute to global declines in fish stocks. Human Health Findings: Methylmercury and PCBs are the ocean pollutants whose human health effects are best understood. Exposures of infants in utero to these pollutants through maternal consumption of contaminated seafood can damage developing brains, reduce IQ and increase children’s risks for autism, ADHD and learning disorders. Adult exposures to methylmercury increase risks for cardiovascular disease and dementia. Manufactured chemicals – phthalates, bisphenol A, flame retardants, and perfluorinated chemicals, many of them released into the seas from plastic waste – can disrupt endocrine signaling, reduce male fertility, damage the nervous system, and increase risk of cancer. HABs produce potent toxins that accumulate in fish and shellfish. When ingested, these toxins can cause severe neurological impairment and rapid death. HAB toxins can also become airborne and cause respiratory disease. Pathogenic marine bacteria cause gastrointestinal diseases and deep wound infections. With climate change and increasing pollution, risk is high that Vibrio infections, including cholera, will increase in frequency and extend to new areas. All of the health impacts of ocean pollution fall disproportionately on vulnerable populations in the Global South – environmental injustice on a planetary scale. Conclusions: Ocean pollution is a global problem. It arises from multiple sources and crosses national boundaries. It is the consequence of reckless, shortsighted, and unsustainable exploitation of the earth’s resources. It endangers marine ecosystems. It impedes the production of atmospheric oxygen. Its threats to human health are great and growing, but still incompletely understood. Its economic costs are only beginning to be counted. Ocean pollution can be prevented. Like all forms of pollution, ocean pollution can be controlled by deploying data-driven strategies based on law, policy, technology, and enforcement that target priority pollution sources. Many countries have used these tools to control air and water pollution and are now applying them to ocean pollution. Successes achieved to date demonstrate that broader control is feasible. Heavily polluted harbors have been cleaned, estuaries rejuvenated, and coral reefs restored. Prevention of ocean pollution creates many benefits. It boosts economies, increases tourism, helps restore fisheries, and improves human health and well-being. It advances the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). These benefits will last for centuries. Recommendations: World leaders who recognize the gravity of ocean pollution, acknowledge its growing dangers, engage civil society and the global public, and take bold, evidence-based action to stop pollution at source will be critical to preventing ocean pollution and safeguarding human health. Prevention of pollution from land-based sources is key. Eliminating coal combustion and banning all uses of mercury will reduce mercury pollution. Bans on single-use plastic and better management of plastic waste reduce plastic pollution. Bans on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have reduced pollution by PCBs and DDT. Control of industrial discharges, treatment of sewage, and reduced applications of fertilizers have mitigated coastal pollution and are reducing frequency of HABs. National, regional and international marine pollution control programs that are adequately funded and backed by strong enforcement have been shown to be effective. Robust monitoring is essential to track progress. Further interventions that hold great promise include wide-scale transition to renewable fuels; transition to a circular economy that creates little waste and focuses on equity rather than on endless growth; embracing the principles of green chemistry; and building scientific capacity in all countries. Designation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) will safeguard critical ecosystems, protect vulnerable fish stocks, and enhance human health and well-being. Creation of MPAs is an important manifestation of national and international commitment to protecting the health of the seas.