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Relevant Fatty Acid Composition of Virgin Olive, Sunflower, and Fish Oils Administered to Each Group of Animals

Relevant Fatty Acid Composition of Virgin Olive, Sunflower, and Fish Oils Administered to Each Group of Animals

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An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. We aimed to study the effect of oil consumption on pancreas histology in order to find aging-related signs. To this end, three groups of rats were fed an isocaloric diet for 2 years, where...

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Context 1
... replaced this oil by virgin olive oil (virgin olive oil-fed group [VOOF]), sunflower oil (SOF), or fish oil (fish oil-fed group [FOF]) to formulate the experimental diets and groups. Table 1 shows a summary of the fatty acid profile of experimental oils (total fatty acid profile of dietary fat sources is pre- sented as Supplementary Material). Diets were prepared weekly and stored in darkness at 4°C to avoid lipid peroxi- dation. ...
Context 2
... this context, the oils provided to each experimental group presented particular characteristics. Although fish oil contains the highest amounts of saturated fatty acids (Table 1), this is not a key point because the circulating sat- urated fatty acid profiles reached in the three experimental groups after long-term consumption were similar (Table 4). Therefore, we can assume that the distinctive feature of the different oils concerns other types of fatty acids. ...

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An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between...

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... This and the high content in bioactive compounds confer a high antioxidant capacity to VOO, improving health status, reducing age-related conditions, even increasing lifespan (Badillo-Carrasco et al. 2022;Foscolou et al. 2019;López-Miranda et al. 2010;Ramirez-Tortosa et al. 2020). Studies in which rats were fed lifelong on highly monounsaturated VOO instead of highly unsaturated sunflower oil (SO) (4% (w/w)) led to lower protein carbonyls in mitochondrial membranes of liver (Varela-Lopez et al. 2018) and pancreas (Roche et al. 2014). Similar results were found regarding gum (Bullon et al. 2013) and liver mitochondria TBARS (Quiles et al. 2006). ...
... Treatment with VOO counteracted the increased levels of TNF-α mRNA in gingival tissue (Bullon et al. 2013) and in pancreas (Roche et al. 2014) compared with SO and FO, respectively, in aged rats. In the cerebral cortex, both GFAP and COX-2 proteins significantly decreased at end of treatment in mice fed from middle age to senescence with 10% extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) enriched in phenols compared with the phenol-deprived EVOO treatment (Pitozzi et al. 2012). ...
Article
As the number of older people has grown in recent decades, the search for new approaches to manage or delay aging is also growing. Among the modifiable factors, diet plays a crucial role in healthy aging and in the prevention of age-related diseases. Thus, the interest in the use of foods, which are rich in bioactive compounds such as functional foods with anti-aging effects is a growing market. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of action of foods considered as functional foods in aging, namely berries, curcumin, and virgin olive oil. Moreover, honey is also analyzed as a food with well-known healthy benefits, but which has not been deeply evaluated from the point of view of aging. The effects of these foods on aging are analyzed from the point of view of molecular mechanisms including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, genomic stability, telomere attrition, cellular senescence, and deregulated nutrient-sensing. A comprehensive study of the scientific literature shows that the aforementioned foods have demonstrated positive effects on certain aspects of aging, which might justify their use as functional foods in elderly. However, more research is needed, especially in humans, designed to understand in depth the mechanisms of action through which they act.
... Dietary fat is an important part of human diet, and its nutritional value depends on a large extent on the composition of fatty acids, which is closely related to human health (Roche et al. 2014). Different dietary fats have different compositions of fatty acids, lard and SO are commonly used edible oils for Chinese residents, and FO is the most studied health oil: SL is obtained by simmering pork belly in low heat for a long time to extract fat, which compared with RL, the saturated fatty acid (SFA) of SL decreased, and the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) increased, and the content of other fatty acids also changed accordingly; RL has a high content of SFA and MUFA; FO is rich in n-3 PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid) such as EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid) and DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid), and SO is rich in n-6 PUFA. ...
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Dietary fat is an important part of human diet and has a close relationship with human health. However, it is still unclear how gut microbiota in adolescent responds to dietary fats at a normal dose. In this study, fat-free group (BC) was used as blank control group, we explored blood index and gut microbiota structure in growing rat(aged 1 months) after feeding a normal dose of 16.9% stewed lard(SL), refined lard(RL), fish oil(FO) and soybean oil(SO) for 6 weeks, respectively. The results showed that compared with RL group, SL group showed reduced fasting blood sugar and blood lipid levels and improved nutrient absorption capacity of the intestine. The blood indexes of glucose (Glu), total cholesterol (TC) and total triglyceride (TG) in FO treatment group were relatively low. The abundance of Bacteroidetes in the BC group decreased, and the abundance of Firmicutes increased. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio of the FO group was relatively low, and the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio of the SL group and the SO group was lower than that of the RL group. The abundance of Bacteroidaceae in the SL group was increased. Research results showed that fat-free diets will increase the risk of obesity to a certain extent; compared with refined lard, stewed lard, soybean oil and fish oil can reduce the risk of obesity to a certain extent. The present study could find that the addition and types of dietary fat will affect the abundance and diversity of rat intestinal flora, and provide some information for nutritional evaluation about these dietary lipids.
... Fish oil is rich in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and has anti-inflammatory properties (8)(9)(10)(11)(12); therefore, it has been recommended as a dietary supplement for the general population to prevent certain pathologies, especially cardiovascular diseases (13). The sunflower seed oil, containing both anti-inflammatory (oleic acid, vitamin E, antioxidants, etc.) and pro-inflammatory (linoleic acid) components (14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20), has lower anti-inflammatory properties than fish oil (21). Although the anti-or pro-inflammatory effect of sunflower seed oil is still a debate, accumulating evidence suggests that it has anti-inflammatory properties (14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20). ...
... The sunflower seed oil, containing both anti-inflammatory (oleic acid, vitamin E, antioxidants, etc.) and pro-inflammatory (linoleic acid) components (14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20), has lower anti-inflammatory properties than fish oil (21). Although the anti-or pro-inflammatory effect of sunflower seed oil is still a debate, accumulating evidence suggests that it has anti-inflammatory properties (14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20). However, as sunflower seed oil is a widely used cooking oil (14), its effects on sepsis are worth exploring. ...
... These include anti-inflammatory properties due to the presence of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, resulting in a higher proportion of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the cell membrane and a lower proportion of arachidonic acid, thereby inhibiting the synthesis of inflammatory eicosanoids and reducing the production of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 (8)(9)(10)(11). The sunflower seed oil was chosen based on its composition and the fact that it is recognized as a nutritional and healthy food (14)(15)(16)(17)(18); however, it is still not used as a dietary supplement like fish oil. Sunflower is one of the main crops used for edible oil production in several countries. ...
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Sepsis causes platelet activation, systemic inflammation, organ dysfunction, and mortality. Endotoxins play an important role in the manifestation of the symptoms of septic shock. As fish oil exert well known anti-inflammatory effects and sunflower seed oil exert less anti-inflammatory properties than fish oil, both oils are widely used. We aimed to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation of these two oils before endotoxemia modulates the consequences of illness. Nine- to ten-week-old male Wistar rats (N = 55) were divided into four groups: group A (N = 6), control; group B (N = 17), saline + lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin); group C (N = 17), fish oil + lipopolysaccharide; and group D (N = 15), sunflower seed oil + lipopolysaccharide. After 28 days of feeding the designated diet, the rats in all groups were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide. After 24 h, survival rate, endotoxemia severity, levels of platelet activation markers, organ function and biochemical variables were evaluated. Platelet-leukocyte aggregation was significantly high in group C (p = 0.005), and platelet-monocyte aggregation was significantly high in groups C (p = 0.003) and D (p = 0.016) than in group B. The survival rate, endotoxemia severity, expression of platelet P-selectin, CD40L, and TLR4, pulmonary function, renal function, liver function, or biochemical variables did not significantly differ among groups B, C, and D. Instead of an anti-inflammatory effect, the dietary supplementation of fish and sunflower seed oils exerted a pro-inflammatory effect, especially via platelet-monocyte aggregation, suggesting a rebound effect of the dietary supplementation of the oils. The oils did not affect other inflammatory platelet markers or improve the outcome of endotoxemic rats. However, further studies are required to understand the underlying mechanisms of such effects and to elaborate the clinical significance of these findings.
... Dietary fat is an important part of human diet, and its nutritional value depends to a large extent on the composition of fatty acids, which is closely related to human health (Roche et al., 2014). At present, epidemiological studies mainly focus on the side effects of saturated fat and the positive effects of unsaturated fatty acids. ...
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The effect of different oil-based diets on the blood index and the gut microbiota of rats was investigated. Rats in sample treatment groups were fed with stewed lard, refined lard, fish oil and soybean oil at a normal dose of 16.9% for 6 weeks. Compared with refined lard group, stewed lard treatment group showed reduced fasting blood sugar and blood lipid levels and improved nutrient absorption capacity of the intestine. The blood indexes of glucose (Glu), total cholesterol (TC) and total triglyceride (TG) in fish oil treatment group were relatively low. The abundance of Bacteroidetes in the fat-free group decreased, and the abundance of Firmicutes increased. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio of the fish oil group was relatively low, and the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio of the stewed lard group and the soybean oil group was lower than that of the refined lard group. The abundance of Bacteroidaceae in the stewed pork fat group was increased. Research results show that fat-free diets will increase the risk of obesity to a certain extent; compared with refined lard, stewed lard, soybean oil and fish oil can reduce the risk of obesity to a certain extent; the addition and types of dietary fat will affect the abundance and diversity of rat intestinal flora.
... This is consistent with previous studies in mice [38] and rats [20]. Also, we have previously reported in the same animals from the present study a fat accumulation in different organs such as the pancreas, where fat infiltrations were observed [39] and in the liver, with higher fat depots after fish oil feeding [34]. Thus, the increase in body weight promoted by fish oil intake could be due to the fat accumulation in specific organs, although the hearts did not manifest different weights and the content of subcutaneous fat was not measured. ...
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Diet plays a decisive role in heart physiology, with lipids having especial importance in pathology prevention and development. This study aimed to investigate how dietary lipids varying in lipid profile (virgin olive oil, sunflower oil or fish oil) affected the heart of rats during aging. Heart histopathology, mitochondrial morphometry, and oxidative status were assessed. Typical histopathological features associated with aging, such as valvular lesions, endomyocardical hyperplasia, or papillary muscle calcification, were found at a low extent in all the experimental groups. The most relevant finding was that inflammation registered by fish oil group was lower compared to the other treatments. At the ultrastructural level, heart mitochondrial area, perimeter, and aspect ratio were higher in fish oil-fed rats than in those fed on sunflower oil. Concerning oxidative stress markers, there were differences only in coenzyme Q levels and catalase activity, lower in sunflower oil-fed animals compared with those fed on fish oil. In summary, dietary intake for a long period on dietary fats with different fatty acids profile led to differences in some aspects associated with the aging process at the heart. Fish oil seems to be the fat most protective of heart during aging.
... The proposed hypothesis is that dietary fats primarily modify the fatty acid composition of the cell membrane, thereby altering cellular functions related to insulin sensitivity 5 . Some studies have shown that feeding rats with different dietary fats affect endocrine pancreas structure and function 6,7 . Regarding pancreatic β-cells, the lipotoxicity hypothesis states that an excess of free fatty acids (FFAs) affects β-cell survival and insulin secretory functions 8 . ...
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Article
Dietary composition plays an important role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Monounsaturated fatty acid consumption has been positively associated with improved insulin sensitivity and β-cell function. We examined whether an extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) high fat diet (HFD) can improve glucose homeostasis. C57BL/6J mice were fed a standard diet or a lard-based HFD to induce type 2 diabetes. Then, HFD mice were fed with three different based HFD (lard, EVOO and EVOO rich in phenolic compounds) for 24 weeks. HFD-EVOO diets significantly improved glycemia, insulinemia, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and insulin degradation. Moreover, EVOO diets reduced β-cell apoptosis, increased β-cell number and normalized islet glucose metabolism and glucose induced insulin secretion. No additional effects were observed by higher levels of phenolic compounds. Thus, EVOO intake regulated glucose homeostasis by improving insulin sensitivity and pancreatic β-cell function, in a type 2 diabetes HFD animal model.
... Similarly, animals fed on sunflower oil led to higher amounts of linoleic acid and the other n6PUFA; meanwhile, n3PUFA were found to be higher in fish oil-fed animals. Similar to that happening, in the present study the plasma, liver, heart, and muscle mitochondria have shown similar adaptations to lipid profile in the past [34][35][36]. In the present study, and because the small amount of available tissue it was not possible to evaluate fatty acid profile in gingival tissue. ...
Full-text available
Article
This study investigated the effects of feeding rats for 24 months on different unsaturated fats (virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil) on gingival mitochondrial ultrastructure and expression of genes related to mitochondrial biology as well as the amount of circulating fatty acids in the plasma. Results show that sunflower oil led to a higher mitochondrial area, perimeter, and area:perimeter ratio, markers of swelling, and increased age. Sunflower oil also led to increased gene expression associated to biogenesis, autophagy, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Genes related to mitochondrial electron chain did not result affected by treatments. As old rats lifelong fed on sunflower oil have previously showed higher alveolar bone resorption, a major feature of periodontitis, we could conclude that age-related alveolar bone resorption associated with n6PUFA would be, at least in part, mediated by changes in mitochondrial ultrastructure and gene expression at the gingival tissue.
... Oxidative damage markers at hepatic (42), pancreatic (46), gingival (47) and systemic levels (26) in old rats fed diets with sunflower oil were higher than in rats fed diets with virgin olive oil as the unique dietary fat. In another experiment with similar diets but with a high amount of fat (8%), virgin olive oil-rich diets led to lower accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions at Complex I gene in rat heart (27). ...
... In spite of the benefits on health of fish oil over sunflower oil, feeding on diets based on virgin olive oil have shown better results than fish oil regarding some alterations associated with aging. In particular, a higher degree of acinar fibrosis and macrophage infiltrates in peri-insular regions were found in the exocrine pancreas of 24-month-old rats fed fish oil compared to rats fed a diet based in virgin olive oil (46). Similarly, a higher age-related alveolar bone loss has been found (47). ...
... Similarly, a higher age-related alveolar bone loss has been found (47). Moreover, lower levels of oxidative damage at liver (42) and pancreas (46) have been evidenced in rats fed on virgin olive oil compared to those fed on fish oil. It seems that mortality is not influenced by all these differences, although they might affect quality of life. ...
Article
Extending life by delaying the aging process have proven to be the most effective way to fight multiple chronic diseases in elderly adults. Evidence suggests that longevity is inversely related to unsaturation of membrane phospholipids. The present study investigated how different unsaturated dietary fats affect lifespan and cause death in male Wistar rats fed diets based on virgin olive oil (V), sunflower oil (S) or fish oil (F), which were supplemented or not with Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ 10). Previous results suggest that individual longevity and survival probability at different ages may be modulated by an appropriate dietary fat treatment. Lifelong feeding with V or F diets would reduce death probability compared to feeding with S diet at certain ages, although the effects of V diet would be maintained for most of life. Furthermore, the addition of lower amounts of CoQ 10 reduced mortality associated with S diet, but CoQ 10 had no effect on survival when combined with virgin olive oil or fish oil. Supplementation with low doses of CoQ 10 failed to increase the maximum lifespan potential of rats fed a V or F diet. No clear evidence showing that MUFA, n-3 PUFA or CoQ 10 exerted the observed effects by modulating the rate of aging has been found.
... The Mediterranean diet, which is rich in olive oil, is associated with the reduction in mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer risk and skin wrinkling [47,48]. In addition, aged rats fed lifelong with olive oil present the lowest number of histological, molecular and biochemical alterations in heart, liver and pancreas throughout the ageing process [49][50][51]. These studies indicate that oral administration of olive oil may be the better option to attenuate the signs of skin ageing. ...
Article
Objective Chronic stress‐induced oxidative damage and protease synthesis cause a loss of extracellular matrix components promoting human skin aging. The administration of antioxidant compounds, such as those observed in olive oil, may attenuate stress‐induced aging signs in human skin. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of olive oil administration in ex vivo stressed human skin. Methods Explants of human skin were treated with high levels of epinephrine (as observed in stressed patients) and olive oil in medium for 13 days. Cultures treated with medium alone were used as controls. Results Olive oil reversed the high epinephrine level‐induced reduction in epidermis and dermis thickness and collagen fiber content in ex vivo human skin. The increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde levels (an index of lipid peroxidation) promoted by high levels of epinephrine were also attenuated by olive oil in ex vivo human skin. Moreover, olive oil was able to reverse the high epinephrine level‐induced increase in extracellular signal‐related kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and c‐JUN (a major component of transcription factor AP‐1) phosphorylation and protein matrix metalloproteinase‐2 (MMP‐2) expression in ex vivo human skin. Conclusion Olive oil attenuates stress‐induced aging signs (thinner dermis and collagen fiber loss) in ex vivo human skin by reducing MMP‐2 expression, ROS production, and ERK 1/2 and c‐JUN phosphorylation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The "healthy" properties of OO might result useful in that sense. For instance, a VOO-rich diet has been shown to prevent the age-associated increase in the number of b cells in rat pancreas compared to a n-6 PUFA-rich diet based on sunflower oil, which led to increased insulin pancreatic contents and hyperleptinemia (Roche et al., 2014). Similarly, oleuropein supplementation prevented liver steatosis in male C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice fed with a caf e diet (Lepore et al., 2015). ...
... Aging is associated with higher oxidative damage, as well as with pro-inflammatory states; thus, elevated age could be considered a risk factor for CVD. Similarly, some diets are -#b cells in rat pancreas Roche et al., 2014 considered less healthy such as saturated fatty acid (SFA)rich diets. Although these have not been observed in specific risks for CVD, an elevated intake of VOO or a predominant use of it in the diet could prevent to a certain degree some oxidative damage accumulation when animals get old (Ochoa et al., 2011). ...
Article
The traditional Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is a well-known dietary pattern associated with longevity and improvement of life quality as it reduces the risk of the most common chronic pathologies, such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), that represent the principal cause of death worldwide. One of the most characteristic foods of MedDiet is olive oil, a very complex matrix, which constitutes the main source of fats and is used in the preparation of foods, both raw as an ingredient in recipes, and in cooking. Similarly, strawberries and raspberries are tasty and powerful foods which are commonly consumed in the Mediterranean area in fresh and processed forms and have attracted the scientific and consumer attention worldwide for their beneficial properties for human health. Besides olive oil and berries, honey has lately been introduced in the MedDiet thanks to its relevant nutritional, phytochemical and antioxidant profile. It is a sweet substance that has recently been classified as a functional food. The aim of this review is to present and discuss the recent evidence, obtained from in vitro, in vivo and epidemiological studies, on the potential roles exerted by these foods in the prevention and progression of different types of cancer and CVDs.