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Relative growth rate based on time (RGR) and temperature (RGRf) for three plant species in mono-cultures.

Relative growth rate based on time (RGR) and temperature (RGRf) for three plant species in mono-cultures.

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A field experiment was carried out on inter-cropping of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.). Treatments from combinations of either single, double or triple (row: crop) proportions were arranged in the standard replacement series at Grdarasha experimental farm (36.2º N, 44.1º E, and el...

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A field experiment was conducted at Grdarasha Experimental Farm / College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences / Salahaddin University-Erbil, located at (36.2 o N, 44.1 o E and elevation 470 m) during the winter season of (2016-2017) to study the performance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and wild mustard (Sinapis ar...

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... To fulfill the increasing demand for food due to the non-stop expansion of the world's population, various crop nutrition techniques are being explored by farmers because demand for agricultural products is increasing constantly. Enhancing crop production, retaining a secured environment is one of the major challenges in front of the farmers in the present century (Dizayee & Maaroof, 2019;Karagodin et al., 2020;Nosheen, et al., 2021). Modern agriculture continuously applies chemical fertilizers and pesticides increase the world's food production, as these serve as a fast-food for plants causing them to grow more efficiently and rapidly (Sneha et al., 2018) Continuous application of chemical fertilizers causes soil quality decay and fertility, degradation of soil structure, pollution of the soil, generally not absorbed and can interfere with both underground and surface water (Ajmal et al., 2018). ...
... al., 2014;Kubík Ľ et. al., 2017;Dizayee & Maaroof, 2019), thermo physical (Božiková et. al., 2010;Glicerina et. ...
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This article is focused on evaluating the rheological properties of tomato ketchup. The purpose of the paper was to show the importance of knowledge about the rheological properties of ketchup and to find new more adequate equations of the temperature-viscosity dependence. All measurements were performed under the same temperature conditions at approximately 25 °C and shear velocities between 5.46 and 700.41 s-1. Ketchup is a non-Newtonian material, so the apparent viscosity was measured. We found out that the apparent viscosity decreased exponentially with increasing temperature, so the Arrhenius equation is valid. Ketchup fluidity increases exponentially with temperature, which leads us to propose an original logarithmic expression correlating the shear stress and the square root of shear rate with only two adjustable parameters with some physical significance. The model is compared with some previous ones showing that the calculated rheological characteristics can be used to design the technological equipment or containers for the distribution of the product to the end-users. A comparison between parameter values of different fluids can contribute to the knowledge of the flow behavior is also important for the development of new recipes and the direct qualitative evaluation of the products.