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Relative front squat (a) and back squat strength (b) comparison between control subjects (2 years of soccer training only; mean and standard deviation [SD]), strength-trained subjects (2 years soccer and strength training; mean and SD), and young elite weightlifters (mean only). Values for the weightlifters represent predicted one-repetition maximum (1RM) of the front squat and back squat based on their 5RM strength testing of the weight classes closest to that of the soccer players in each age group [281]. Notes: Weightlifters were tested with full depth squats and all soccer players (control- and strength-trained) were tested with parallel depth squats. Lines are drawn at the recommended standards of strength for young elite athletes with long-term training (a training age commensurate with appropriate resistance training from 7 or 8 years of age). Figure created by the authors from data in Keiner et al. [248]

Relative front squat (a) and back squat strength (b) comparison between control subjects (2 years of soccer training only; mean and standard deviation [SD]), strength-trained subjects (2 years soccer and strength training; mean and SD), and young elite weightlifters (mean only). Values for the weightlifters represent predicted one-repetition maximum (1RM) of the front squat and back squat based on their 5RM strength testing of the weight classes closest to that of the soccer players in each age group [281]. Notes: Weightlifters were tested with full depth squats and all soccer players (control- and strength-trained) were tested with parallel depth squats. Lines are drawn at the recommended standards of strength for young elite athletes with long-term training (a training age commensurate with appropriate resistance training from 7 or 8 years of age). Figure created by the authors from data in Keiner et al. [248]

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This review article discusses previous literature that has examined the influence of muscular strength on various factors associated with athletic performance and the benefits of achieving greater muscular strength. Greater muscular strength is strongly associated with improved force-time characteristics that contribute to an athlete’s overall perf...

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... The ability to produce high amounts of upper-and lowerbody power contributes to successful performance(s) across numerous sporting contexts. 1 Indeed, higher mean, peak, and relative power output often separate elite from sub-elite athletes, [2][3][4] or even starters from nonstarters within various team sports. [5][6][7][8] In Judo specifically, we have recently shown that superior lower body absolute and relative powergenerating capabilities differentiate elite-level junior medal winners from non-medalists. 9 Thus, training strategies that optimize neuromuscular power qualities appear to be an important factor in the success of Judoka athletes. ...
... After the power training mesocycle, the two-factor mixed ANOVA's revealed significant large main effects of time for the bench press 1RM (F (1,20) No time × group interactions were observed for the peak concentric 1RM bench press velocity (F (1,20) = 0.163, p = 0.737, η p 2 = 0.006) or the peak concentric 1RM squat velocity (F (1,20) = 163, p = 0.691, η p 2 = 0.008), which indicated that athletes across both training groups were consistently reaching their true 1RM during pre-and post-testing within the power mesocycle. ...
... After the power training mesocycle, the two-factor mixed ANOVA's revealed significant large main effects of time for the bench press 1RM (F (1,20) No time × group interactions were observed for the peak concentric 1RM bench press velocity (F (1,20) = 0.163, p = 0.737, η p 2 = 0.006) or the peak concentric 1RM squat velocity (F (1,20) = 163, p = 0.691, η p 2 = 0.008), which indicated that athletes across both training groups were consistently reaching their true 1RM during pre-and post-testing within the power mesocycle. ...
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... The development of strength and power capabilities through resistance training is central to many strength and conditioning programs. 1,2 To enhance strength and power outcomes, coaches often manipulate or monitor training intensity by utilizing a variety of mechanical outputs (ie, force, velocity, and power) or rate of perceived exertion (RPE) during resistance training. [3][4][5][6] Specifically, the manipulation of mechanical outputs during resistance training has received a lot of attention: weight releasers with traditional resistance training 7 and different moments of inertia with flywheel training. ...
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... There is a plethora of research to demonstrate the efficacy of resistance training female athlete populations to enhance performance and reduce injury risk factors (71,121). Furthermore, increased muscular strength for athletic performance has been advocated by Suchomel et al. (144,145), who suggest that strength correlated with the rate of force development (RFD), mechanical power output, and sports-specific movements (running, jumping, and striking) as well as increased ability to perform on-field sports-specific skills. ...
... It was also demonstrated in male club level GF that players with a higher level of lower-body strength could tolerate higher mechanical loads during match play and had reduced postmatch muscle damage (38). Therefore, greater muscular strength can contribute to athletes' superior performance during sports-specific tasks and reduce the risk of injury (144,145). Strength training programs for LGF players, which include weightlifting, ballistic, complex training, and plyometric movements, would likely enhance neural drive, neural activation rates, and intermuscular coordination (42). The possible adaptations of using strength training modalities include the individual ability to increase RFD by enabling the female athlete to generate more force in less time (28,61). ...
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... Maximum strength development is critical for improving force-time characteristics, and thereby, various athletic performances [1], including but not limited to jumping [2,3], sprinting [4], changing direction [5], and even specific sports skills [1]. Furthermore, greater strength is positively associated with the structural strength of ligaments, tendons, tendons/ligaments to bone junctions, joint cartilage, and connective tissue sheaths within the muscle, which can further reduce sports risks [6]. ...
... Maximum strength development is critical for improving force-time characteristics, and thereby, various athletic performances [1], including but not limited to jumping [2,3], sprinting [4], changing direction [5], and even specific sports skills [1]. Furthermore, greater strength is positively associated with the structural strength of ligaments, tendons, tendons/ligaments to bone junctions, joint cartilage, and connective tissue sheaths within the muscle, which can further reduce sports risks [6]. ...
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... Plyometric training (PLT), which follows the form of human movement, uses the principle of the "stretch-shortening cycle" (SSC) to transform the elastic potential energy in the eccentric contraction stage into kinetic energy in the concentric contraction stage . It has a significant effect on the improvement of explosive power, but the low-load characteristic limits the improvement of maximum strength, and then the maximum force further limits the development of explosive power (Suchomel et al., 2016). Therefore, PLT may not be conducive to the long-term development of explosive power. ...
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Introduction: Explosive power is considered an important factor in competitive events. Thus, strategies such as complex training (CT) and plyometric training (PLT) are effective at improving explosive power. However, it is still not clear which of the two strategies can enable greater improvements on the explosive power. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to compare the effects of PLT and CT on the explosive power of the lower limbs. Methods: The Review Manager and GraphPad Prism programs were used to analyze the synthetic and time effects (effects over training time) on explosive power (i.e., jump ability, sprint ability) and maximum strength. Our research identified 87 studies comprising 1,355 subjects aged 10–26.4 years. Results: The results suggested the following: 1) Synthetic effects on jump ability (Hedges’ g ): .79 ( p < .001) for unloaded PLT, 1.35 ( p < .001) for loaded PLT and .85 ( p < .001) for CT; 2) Synthetic effects on sprint ability: .83 ( p < .001) for unloaded PLT, −2.11 ( p < .001) for loaded PLT and −.78 ( p < .001) for CT; 3) Synthetic effects on maximum strength: .84 ( p < .001) for loaded PLT and 1.53 ( p < .001) for CT; 4) The time effects of unloaded PLT and CT on explosive power were similar, but the time effects of CT on maximum strength were obviously above that of PLT. Discussion: In conclusion, unloaded PLT and CT have a similar effect on explosive performance in the short term but loaded PLT has a better effect. The improvement of the maximum strength caused by CT was greater than that induced by PLT. In addition, more than 10 weeks of training may be more beneficial for the improvement of power. Therefore, for explosive power training, we suggest adopting unloaded or light-loaded PLT during a short season and applying CT during an annual or long training cycle.
... For players to successfully execute these intense actions, they need to rapidly apply very large forces to the playing surface (ground); an ability associated with maximal strength (Delaney et . The ability to generate these large forces rapidly is a quality commonly described as 'Impulse' and is calculated as a product of both applied force (Newtons) and the time taken to apply it (Suchomel et al., 2016). Reflecting the importance of these onfield abilities, the development of maximal strength, impulse, and velocity are common targets in athletic development programs seeking to support sporting performance (Schuster et al., 2018). ...
... Whilst evidence supports the adoption of sophisticated, extensive, and specialized strength and conditioning assessments (Schuster et al., 2018; Vilar, Araújo, Davids, & Button, 2012), the use of and access to such monitoring and testing can be problematic in terms of injury risk as well as logistical and economic issues. Strength testing procedures involving measurements of one repetition maximum (1RM) (e.g., Suchomel et al., 2016) can present increased injury risks (Svensson, Alricsson, Olausson, & Werner, 2018). Extensive testing sessions can also interfere with training and preparation routines and programs (Howatson, Brandon, & Hunter, 2016). ...
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Purpose: In response to the need for a single low cost, relatively quick, minimally invasive test of strength, power, and velocity for elite development standard female football and rugby players requiring minimal staff expertise and sophisticated equipment, with benchmark standards, this study had two aims. Firstly, how countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) tests associate with commonly used football and rugby strength and velocity tests. Secondly, to propose benchmark standards for elite development level female football and rugby players. Methods: Participants were 60 elite development level female football and rugby players. Data were collected as part of the participants’ elite pathway development academy programs. Measures included absolute lower body strength (ALS) assessed using three repetition maximum (3RM) trap bar deadlift, relative lower body strength (ALS / body weight), CMJ and SJ using bodyweight only, and running sprint velocities over 10 m and 40 m. Results: For the football sample, CMJ and SJ had significant relationships with RLS (r=0.496, p<0.01 and r=0.499, p<.01 respectively) and 10 m sprint velocity (r=0.579, p<0.001 and r=0.481, p<0.01 respectively), but not with ALS nor 40 m sprint velocity. For the rugby sample, CMJ and SJ also had significant associations with RLS (r=0.539, p<0.01 and r=0.449, p<.05 respectively) and 10 m sprint velocity (r=0.742, p<0.001 and r=0.797, p<0.001 respectively), as well as with 40 m sprint velocity (r=0.598, p<0.01 and r=0.651, p<0.001 respectively). Conclusion: CMJ and SJ represent low cost, relatively quick, minimally invasive tests of strength, power, and velocity suitable for elite development standard female football and rugby players’ performance assessment, benchmarking, and monitoring.
... The dynamic strength index provides relevant information concerning how strong the individual is and how much of that strength can be used during dynamic high-speed movements [49]. Greater dynamic strength index values are associated with an enhanced ability to perform general sports skills, such as jumping, sprinting and directional changes [50]. A heightened dynamic strength index has also been associated with an overall improvement in motor performance and reduced risk of injury [50]. ...
... Greater dynamic strength index values are associated with an enhanced ability to perform general sports skills, such as jumping, sprinting and directional changes [50]. A heightened dynamic strength index has also been associated with an overall improvement in motor performance and reduced risk of injury [50]. However, it should be emphasized that, since both these variables (the peak force and dynamic strength index of the thrown bench press exercise) remained similar between conditions at the post-training time point, the practical relevance of our findings in the context of sports training is most likely weak. ...
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This study examined the effects of four weeks of resistance training combined with time-restricted eating (TRE) vs. habitual diet on fat and fat-free mass as well as maximum and explosive force production in healthy, trained participants (18 males, aged 23.7 ± 2.6 years). The order of dieting was randomized and counterbalanced, and the participants served as their own controls. TRE involved an 8-h eating window and non-TRE involved a habitual meal pattern. Participants completed performance strength tests and body composition scans at baseline and post-intervention. The participants followed a structured training routine during each dietary intervention (four sets of maximum repetitions at 85% 1RM in five dynamic exercises, three times/week). Both interventions elicited deceases in fat mass (p < 0.05) but not in fat-free mass. After training (controlling for baseline values as covariates), non-TRE was compatible with better lower body jump performance than TRE (p < 0.05). Conversely, training with TRE elicited higher values in terms of peak force and dynamic strength index at the level of the upper body (p < 0.05). Thus, it can be concluded that there were no differences in fat mass and fat-free mass changes between interventions in already trained young males. Additionally, while the combination of TRE and resistance training might be beneficial for individuals focusing on developing high-speed strength performance at the upper body level, this is not applicable to those focusing on training the lower body.
... Strength capacity is of paramount importance in various health-and performance-related settings, with benefits for daily life, good health, and longevity (Cooper et al., 2010;Westcott, 2012;Williams et al., 2017), rehabilitation (Stevens et al., 2004;Maestroni et al., 2020), and performance level in recreational-and elite sports (Styles et al., 2016;Suchomel et al., 2016). ...
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Introduction: If the aim is to increase maximal strength (MSt) and muscle mass, resistance training (RT) is primarily used to achieve these outcomes. However, research indicates that long-duration stretching sessions of up to 2 h per day can also provide sufficient stimuli to induce muscle growth. In RT literature, sex-related differences in adaptations are widely discussed, however, there is a lack of evidence addressing the sex-related effects on MSt and muscle thickness (MTh) of longer duration stretch training. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of 6 weeks of daily (1 h) unilateral static stretch training of the plantar flexors using a calf-muscle stretching device. Methods: Fifty-five healthy (m = 28, f = 27), active participants joined the study. MSt and range of motion (ROM) were measured with extended and flexed knee joint, and MTh was investigated in the medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius. Results: Statistically significant increases in MSt of 6%–15% ( p < .001–.049, d = 0.45–1.09), ROM of 6%–21% ( p < .001–.037, d = 0.47–1.38) and MTh of 4%–14% ( p < .001–.005, d = 0.46–0.72) from pre-to post-test were observed, considering both sexes and both legs. Furthermore, there was a significant higher increase in MSt, MTh and ROM in male participants. In both groups, participants showed more pronounced adaptations in MSt and ROM with an extended knee joint as well as MTh in the medial head of the gastrocnemius ( p < .001–.047). Results for relative MSt increases showed a similar result ( p < .001–.036, d = 0.48–1.03). Discussion: Results are in accordance with previous studies pointing out significant increases of MSt, MTh and ROM due to long duration static stretch training. Both sexes showed significant increases in listed parameters however, male participants showed superior increases.