Relationship between net-femoral arterial blood flow (FBF) and target workload during dynamic knee extensor exercise. The relationship between FBF and target workload was positive and linear at 30 cpm (r = 0.997, P < 0.01, n = 4) and 60 cpm (r = 0.999, P < 0.05, n = 3), respectively. The value of FBF for one subject was the average value of 60 samplings at each session. Furthermore, the target workload value in each individual subject was determined by averaging values of 60 samplings of the achieved workloads at each session. Both FBF and target workload were obtained from average values of all 9 subjects. Regression equations are indicated as follows: FBF (l/min) = 1.71 + 0.083 × target workload at 30 cpm (solid line): FBF (l/min) = 1.52 + 0.098 × target workload at 60 cpm (short dotted line). These data are in close agreement with the findings of Rådegran [6]: FBF (l/min) = 1.317 + 0.084 × target workload at 60 cpm, long dotted line. The difference in absolute FBF was approximately 0.5 l/min between the present FBF data and previous reports at 60 cpm by Rådegran [6]. This difference may be due to the subjects' characteristics, such as muscle strength variations and that they worked at different percentages of the maximum voluntary knee contraction force. However, the slope of the regression line in the present study is similar to previous findings. cpm, contractions per minute. Data are expressed as means  standard error. Figure adapted from Osada and Rådegran [32], reproduced with permission from John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 

Relationship between net-femoral arterial blood flow (FBF) and target workload during dynamic knee extensor exercise. The relationship between FBF and target workload was positive and linear at 30 cpm (r = 0.997, P < 0.01, n = 4) and 60 cpm (r = 0.999, P < 0.05, n = 3), respectively. The value of FBF for one subject was the average value of 60 samplings at each session. Furthermore, the target workload value in each individual subject was determined by averaging values of 60 samplings of the achieved workloads at each session. Both FBF and target workload were obtained from average values of all 9 subjects. Regression equations are indicated as follows: FBF (l/min) = 1.71 + 0.083 × target workload at 30 cpm (solid line): FBF (l/min) = 1.52 + 0.098 × target workload at 60 cpm (short dotted line). These data are in close agreement with the findings of Rådegran [6]: FBF (l/min) = 1.317 + 0.084 × target workload at 60 cpm, long dotted line. The difference in absolute FBF was approximately 0.5 l/min between the present FBF data and previous reports at 60 cpm by Rådegran [6]. This difference may be due to the subjects' characteristics, such as muscle strength variations and that they worked at different percentages of the maximum voluntary knee contraction force. However, the slope of the regression line in the present study is similar to previous findings. cpm, contractions per minute. Data are expressed as means  standard error. Figure adapted from Osada and Rådegran [32], reproduced with permission from John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 

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Given recent technological developments, ultrasound Doppler can provide valuable measurements of blood velocity/flow in the conduit artery with high temporal resolution. In human-applied science such as exercise physiology, hemodynamic measurements in the conduit artery is commonly performed by blood flow feeding the exercising muscle, as the incre...

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... Postischemic hyperemia may be achieved with voluntary masseter and temporal muscle contraction (Supporting Information Figure S2). 25 In the case of MXA and MMA, the muscles' constriction unavoidably narrows the acoustic window, causing the MMA, and sometimes even the MXA to become unavailable. Temporal region compression does not alter the flow in MXA or MMA, probably because they supply mainly the facial area. ...
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The cover image, by Toplica Lepić et al., is based on the RESEARCH ARTICLE Ultrasonographic assessment of the maxillary artery and middle meningeal artery in the infratemporal fossa. DOI: 10.1002/jcu.22773.
... Postischemic hyperemia may be achieved with voluntary masseter and temporal muscle contraction (Supporting Information Figure S2). 25 In the case of MXA and MMA, the muscles' constriction unavoidably narrows the acoustic window, causing the MMA, and sometimes even the MXA to become unavailable. Temporal region compression does not alter the flow in MXA or MMA, probably because they supply mainly the facial area. ...
Article
Purpose To investigate with Doppler ultrasonography the maxillary and middle meningeal arteries in the infratemporal fossa, and describe their hemodynamic characteristics. Methods We included 24 female and 11 male volunteers without vascular diseases, with a median age of 43 years. We used the acoustic window, enlarged by subjects half‐opening their mouth, located below the zygomatic arch, in front of temporo‐mandibular joint, to reach the maxillary and middle meningeal arteries. Results In the 35 subjects, 112 arteries were visualized successfully: 60 maxillary (85.7%), and 52 middle meningeal arteries (74.3%), at a depth of 2.40 and 2.50 cm, respectively. Their blood flow was directed anteriorly and away from the probe. While all the measured hemodynamic characteristics differed significantly between the maxillary and the middle meningeal artery (P < 0.001), there was no significant difference between male and female subjects, nor between the left or the right side. Conclusions The maxillary and middle meningeal arteries can be insonated in the infratemporal fossa through the easily accessible acoustic window below the zygomatic arch, when the patient holds his mouth half open. They can be differentiated by their ultrasonographic characteristics and blood flow features.
... It is indicated that AR recovery not only cannot slower SD, but it worsens the situation. Though it is indicated in researches that AR recovery can boost blood circulation [7], then the reason why it is not consistent with this research may be that continual active contraction after muscle injury cause ineffective rest for muscles of fatigue injury. It causes piling of Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 105 interstitial fluid over that eliminated, so the body cannot obtain fatigue recovery and negative effect is caused. ...
... In the knee extensor exercise model utilizing a relatively small thigh muscle mass, the local factors regulating BF are thought to be of most importance including the voluntary repeated muscle contractions. It has previously been discussed that muscle contraction-induced rapid alterations in the conduit arterial blood velocity profile may be closely related to the magnitude of intramuscular pressure variation (muscle mechanical factors) and superimposed influence of perfusion pressure variation (pulsatile hemodynamic factors) [10,11,[13][14][15][20][21][22]. During steady-state, high intramuscular pressure during muscle contractions Figure 5a adapted from Osada and Rådegran [12], reproduced with permission from Edizioni Minerva Medica. ...
... Moreover, external factors representing repeated voluntary muscle contraction force may also influence the magnitude of BF fluctuation due to spontaneous changes in muscle contraction workload. The content in this review has partially been discussed in our previous review articles 36,37) . ...
Article
Exercising muscle blood flow (BF) may be an indicator of oxygen supply change allowing increased muscle energy metabolism through the circulatory response between central and peripheral hemodynamics. During exercise an increase in cardiac output may represent the interplay of alterations in both blood pressure and vascular conductance. Dynamic muscle contractions lead to an increase in cardiac output and promote venous return at the onset of exercise, and concurrently lead to enhanced muscle vasodilatation (and thus increased muscle BF) due to metabolites, neurological responses and/or other mechanisms, causing exercise hyperaemia. Doppler ultrasound can non-invasively detect with high resolution the temporal pulsatile blood velocity profiles in the conduit artery at rest as well as during muscle contractions. Based on this technique, it has been shown that alterations in the physiological blood velocity profile related to cardiac systole-diastole and fluctuations in the beat-by-beat blood velocity profile are due to rapid changes in the blood velocity profile concurrent with muscle contraction and/or relaxation during exercise (dynamic/static) or respiratory cycle, in different states (muscle contraction time/frequency or workload), or of any other type of vasodilatation/vasoconstriction. Muscle contraction-induced alterations in the blood velocity profile may be due in general to the magnitude of intramuscular pressure variation (mechanical factors) and the superimposed influence of perfusion pressure variation (pulsatile hemodynamic factors). This review therefore focuses on methodological considerations for muscle contraction-induced blood velocity/flow variability in the leg conduit artery, which in turn influences the magnitude of exercising BF during dynamic knee extensor exercise.