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Relationship among aquaculture density and soil salinity.

Relationship among aquaculture density and soil salinity.

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Article
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Brackish water aquaculture has been debated severely for its environmental consequences. Mushrooming of such farms on reclaimed mangrove lands and converted agricultural land leads to salinisation of agricultural fields of vicinity. In this study around Bhitarkanika National Park of Orissa, significant correlation between aquaculture farming and hi...

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... generated salinity zonation suggests that the high salinity zones are situated mostly at the areas with higher density of aquaculture farms. While all the villages with more than 5 aquaculture farms per square kilometre have been found to fall in the high salinity zones, on the other hand only 6.25 per cent villages with an aquaculture density more than 3 per square kilometre represented low saline soil (Table 1). With reducing aquaculture density the percentage of high salinity villages decreased and subsequently the same for low salinity villages enhanced (Figure 1). ...

Citations

... Although natural processes such as mineral weathering, atmospheric deposition, and seawater intrusion all contribute with salt inputs into soils , anthropogenic activities are intensifying soil salinization worldwide (Litalien and Zeeb, 2020;Shadid et al., 2018). Agricultural irrigation practices (including with saline water; , overuse of fertilizers , de-icing of roads (mainly NaCl; Pecher et al., 2019), aquaculture (Mitra andSantra, 2011), and industrial activities such as steel production and oil extraction have steadily increased soil salinization over the last decades (Litalien and Zeeb, 2020). However, despite the importance and urgency in reducing this environmental problem, specific legislation and directives to prevent soil salinization are still scarce. ...
... It has been reported that the rapid expansion of coastal aquaculture in India is responsible for landscape transformation, such as mangrove deforestation and loss of agricultural land (Vadlapudi 2003;Hein 2000;Hossain et al. 2002;Rajitha et al. 2007). Recent studies revealed that the landuse/landcover along the coastal border of West Bengal is being changing rapidly mainly due to the mushrooming of aquaculture firms (Mitra and Santra 2011;Samanta and Hazra 2012). This trend of land conversion to brackish water aquaculture have been claimed to be major cause of soil salinization in the area. ...
... This trend of land conversion to brackish water aquaculture have been claimed to be major cause of soil salinization in the area. The aquaculture farms are intermittently situated with agricultural lands causing seepage of saltwater through leakage from aquaculture boundary wall, overflow and leaching from sludge pile during rainfall (Mitra and Santra 2011). ...
... Number and area of brackish water fisheries inContai-III block (2006-2011 ...
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The present study seeks to identify the landuse changes occurring due to haphazard growth of brackish water fisheries along the coastal areas of West Bengal through remote sensing and GIS techniques. High resolution multi-temporal Google Earth images were used for detecting spatio-temporal changes of two blocks of Contai sub-division located in Midnapore district of West Bengal. Also, the area was surveyed with GPS and the digitized maps were verified using the information collected from the aquaculture farm owners. It is evident from change detection analysis that a significant amount of area under agricultural land has been converted into aquaculture farm and also a large number of pre-existing ponds have been converted into brackish water fisheries. Remote sensing derived statistical information on inland fisheries of Contai II and III blocks reveals that area under brackish water fisheries has increased about 2950 acres within the period 2006 to 2011.
... But, soil salinity tests even with the samples from direst months, did not report such trend. Only 5.7% soil samples from the Sagar island falls under minimum salinity regime, i.e. an ECe value of 1.9dSm -1 or more (Mitra & Santra 2011). In a few specific areas where already specifically, salinity problems were identified (due to vicinity of aquafarms and regular sea water intrusion) ...
Conference Paper
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Disaster management in recent years experienced a paradigm shift from the disaster response to disaster preparedness approach. Assessment of sustainability in this aspect became contextual especially for slow onset disasters, those makes a region more vulnerable promoting an event to become disaster. The coastal zones seek maximum attention of being disaster prone especially out of its vulnerability to global warming and climate change related disasters. Fallout of sea level rise, cyclonic surges and embankment failures, land loss due to erosion, salinisation of soil and water etc. are discussed and being addressed. On the other hand, slow degradation of soil fertility (due to causes other than salinisation), ionic imbalance in groundwater, non-sustainable shifting of professional activities, infrastructural ill-development and disaster perceptions of inhabitants jeopardizing the management efforts are overlooked in most of the cases. This present study unearths some of these factors for a coastal area. Sagar, Mousuni and Ghoramana-three islands at the western boundary of the Sundarban were chosen as study area. The Sagar island being the largest among them shares better infrastructural facilities and holds a population of nearly 2.12 lac (Census, 2011), whereas, the population density is maximum at Mousuni, which is not even having electricity in the island. Such socioeconomic and infrastructural discrepancies help in universality revalidation of the results. Soil and water quality assessment reveals not salinity but, imbalance of other factors are predominant in pockets, leading to lower productivity. On the other hand, lack of disaster perceptions, warning system and infrastructural facilities are found weakening the adaptive capacity of the region. Even the existing disaster management facilities are not being spread among people for proper execution. It seems that the disaster management system is existing, but with improper orientation, which frequently leads under-preparedness.
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The coastal plain of Odisha in the northeastern region of India is designated the “rice bowl” of the state and is vulnerable to the impact of brackishwater shrimp farming, a prominent livelihood in southeastern Asia. Shrimp farming is highly profitable. However, owing to plentiful resources, shrimp farming has encroached on several rice-growing areas and a decline in the quality of natural resources in the coastal neighborhood has since been reported. This paper aims to study the effects of the unplanned expansion of brackishwater shrimp farming on natural resources and to provide a pathway to suitable utilization in order to improve the livelihood security of marginal shrimp farming communities in coastal Odisha, India. The practice of brackishwater shrimp farming has been determined to induce salt stress at 341–9387 ppt ha⁻¹ crop⁻¹ with a soil EC ranging from 0.3 to 3.4 and 0.5 to 9.5 dSm⁻¹ under the Scientific Extensive Traditional (SET) method and 0.1 to 1.4 and 0.2 to 3.6 dSm⁻¹ under the Traditional/Improved Traditional (IT) practice during post– and pre–farming periods, respectively. Soil with ≥35% clay content underwent a severe loss of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), and soil with a low exchangeable sodium percentage (6.09–8.03%) showed more susceptibility towards Na saturation than did soil with a high exchangeable sodium percentage (>10%) after brackishwater shrimp farming. Growing salt-tolerant rice in shrimp ponds during non–farming periods was observed to reduce soil Ks by only 1.2–1.3-fold compared to a reduction of 22–40-fold under shrimp farming. The paper concludes that by promoting salt washing and alleviating salinity hazards, the shrimp–rice sequence has shown promise to restore soil quality, reduce vulnerability, enhance resilience in brackishwater shrimp farming where the farms interface with rice-growing coastal areas, and provide support to conserve the coastal environment.