Fig 2 - uploaded by Mostofa Kamal Nasir
Content may be subject to copyright.
Relation between fuel consumption to gear change of a manual driving car 

Relation between fuel consumption to gear change of a manual driving car 

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
Greenhouse gas emitted by the transport sector around the world is a serious issue of concern. To minimize such emission the automobile engineers have been working relentlessly. Researchers have been trying hard to switch fossil fuel to alternative fuels and attempting to various driving strategies to make traffic flow smooth and to reduce traffic...

Context in source publication

Context 1
... Fig. 2 shows how the fuel consumption varies according to gear change of a manual driving car. The best way to maintain the engine in low speed and high torque mode is to select the highest speed ratio. Engine consumes less fuel in 3rd gear than in 1st gear, and less in 5th gear than in 4th gear. The lower speed ratios are the most fue l guzzling because they ...

Citations

... A lowspeed (< 40 km/h) congested traffic has severe consequences on vehicular emissions ranging to about 20 to 50% higher values than at speed range of 75 km/h. Similarly, Huboyo et al. (2017) and Nasir et al. (2014) decrypted that speed range of 45 to 80 km/h is the most efficient operating conditions for functioning of conventional vehicles. Consequently, the observations in this study comprehend that the traffic speed and vehicular operations at both urban and suburban region is far beyond the optimum speed levels, resulting in curtailment of efficient performance of the vehicles. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study discusses on real-world operating scenario of widely accepted electric vehicles — electric two-wheelers and three-wheelers. Use of electric three-wheelers remains majorly restricted to developing regions, whereas electric two-wheelers have a widespread stakeholder base. However, the majority of these vehicles demonstrate maximum speed of 25 km/h, constrained by design specifications. Study revealed that electric two-wheelers and three-wheelers exhibited specific energy consumption of 28.67 Wh/pkm and 43.25 Wh/pkm, respectively, based on a case study for the state of West Bengal, India. Predominant charging regime of target vehicles from domestic source, powered by nationalized grid, leads to high use-phase emission, on a plant-to-wheel approach. Results on traffic dynamic behavior revealed that target electric variants pose to be potential candidates augmenting congestion effect on already running conventional traffic. Hence, two scenarios need to be addressed: (a) regulating the operation of low-speed electric vehicles and (b) optimizing the parameters governing use-phase emissions. Graphical abstract
... In addition, at higher engine speed, the air-fuel mixture gets a shorter time to complete combustion, resulting in a higher emission rate (Masum et al., 2013). Also, rich fuel-air mixture and incomplete combustions are the reasons for more elevated CO emissions at lower engine speed (Nasir et al., 2014;Palash et al., 2014). ...
Article
In this study, the emission factors of CO2 and CO for diesel auto-rickshaws were quantified on rural and urban roads in Sangareddy district of Telangana state, India, under real-world driving conditions. The measured emission rates were observed to be influenced by road type, speed, and acceleration. The CO2 and CO emission rates were higher at a speed range of 35–45 kmph, compared to a speed range of 5–10 kmph and 15–30 kmph. The average emission factors of CO2 and CO on urban roads were found to be 1.69 and 1.89 times higher than rural roads, respectively. The developed emission factors of CO were found to be approximately 10 times higher than that prescribed by both Bharat Stage III (BS III) and Bharat Stage VI (BS IV) emission standards. Insights from this study will help in understanding real-world emissions of diesel auto-rickshaws in urban and rural traffic and will act as a reference for policymakers to develop emission baselines.
... To determine the fuel consumption amount for accelerating, the consumption of different velocities should be known. Nasir et al. [28] showed the consumption difference based on different velocities and gears for a manual transmission passenger car. Considering that a standard driver tries to minimize fuel consumption, it can be assumed that the driver will shift gears at optimum timings. ...
Article
This study addresses the maximum queue length problem arises when the arriving traffic exceeds the sensors’ detection area, especially for the over-saturated condition. The paper presents an adaptive system working Monte Carlo based Signal Timing (MCaST) algorithm based on microscopic scale vehicle arrival. Since the algorithm works as an adaptive system, two new mathematical formulas for the delay and queue length calculations have been proposed instead for fixed time formulas. Based on both queue length and intersection delay, the intersection performance has been calculated and used as a slave method to optimize the cycle length. The suggested MCaST algorithm has been tested using real field data, and the delay is decreased by 30.2% less during peak hour traffic. Besides, the delay results from the algorithm have been compared with Webster’s and Highway Capacity Manual 2010 delay formulas and VISSIM software. Results of the numerical experiments show the MCaST algorithm’s validity.
... Fuel consumption is directly related to the gear and speed in which the car is driven. Fuel usage is highest in low gear and at low speeds (Nasir et al., 2014). Vehicles travel very slowly through the drive-through zone due to the queue of vehicles, stop-start movement at service points and narrow circulating lanes. ...
... Vehicles travel very slowly through the drive-through zone due to the queue of vehicles, stop-start movement at service points and narrow circulating lanes. Speeds of between 10 and 20 km/h in the drive-through zone are typical and cars will remain in first gear while in this space, resulting in an average fuel consumption of 14 L/100 km (Nasir et al., 2014). ...
Article
Fast-food drive-throughs are a common feature in our fast-paced lives where convenience and service access are highly prized. This convenience comes at a high environmental price: long queues of idling vehicles guzzle fuel and generate emissions linked to global warming and health concerns. Drive throughs also generate significant income for franchisees and reduce parking requirements at fast-food outlets. Fast-food and drive-throughs are becoming more prevalent in the developing world at a time when these countries are facing rapidly increasing traffic congestion, driven by a desire for private transport use. This study considers aspects of sustainability of drive-throughs according to the mobility paradigm in the developing world, where vehicle centric urban form and rapid development are contributing to a mobility crisis. The drive-through is a prime example of capitalist vehicle-centric urban form. This paper is intended as a starting point for discussion on drive-through appropriateness in developing countries. Only two aspects of drive-through operations are considered in this initial investigation: the cost of using a drive through (fuel cost and environmental cost, approximated by the emissions load), and the space saving benefit realized by eliminating parking. This research found that drive-throughs save substantial land area by reducing parking and stimulate higher profits, making it unlikely that drive-throughs will be phased out, even with the significant environmental impact of drive throughs quantified in this paper. Recommendations for improved operations of drive-throughs are therefore suggested to mitigate long idling times in drive-through queues, and a call for more sustainable land-use planning is proposed.
... These speed limits are mainly used on motorways [47] and ensure smooth traffic flow reducing traffic accidents, environmental conditions, etc. [44][45][46]. The study [48] describes ITS solution of dynamic traffic management -the green navigation system. It helps drivers save fuel as well as have a positive impact on the environment (reduce pollution). ...
Article
Full-text available
In our paper, we have analyzed and compared fixed and actuated control at a chosen intersection, where we pointed out the importance of actuated control and its benefits. We have used traffic data from sensors in the roadway. The intersection was modelled in Aimsun, where we performed simulations. The research focused mainly on the impact of actuated control on the basic characteristics of the traffic flow, delay time and emissions. The outputs of simulations showed positive results of actuated control in all compared values. The environmental pollution topic is up-to-date and road transport has a significant impact on it. Furthermore, we want to continue with our research to investigate the impact of speed changes on emission production and the smoothness of the traffic flow under fixed and actuated control.
... -8 a.m. and 3 p.m. -7 p.m., respectively. Authors [13] described the pattern of traffic flow in dependence with time of day (Fig. 3). A similar pattern can be found in the work [14], where typical dynamics of urban traffic speed is shown, with a significant decrease in speed in the morning and evening rush hours, the highest values at night, and obstructed movement during the day (Fig. 4). ...
... Typical traffic flow versus time of day[13] ...
... Dependence of fuel consumption on speed for an average car and a motorcycle with an engine capacity of 150-250 cm³ (based on[13]) ...
Article
Full-text available
Road transport is one of the most important elements of the functioning of a modern city. Maneuverability, mobility, speed of delivery of goods and other criteria have provided him with a special and leading place in urban logistics. However, along with the benefits of a developed transport network for society, its progress is accompanied by negative consequences for the environment and the population of the city. High rates of growth in the number of cars, especially in large cities, cause an increase in emissions of harmful products into the atmosphere, which, accordingly, negatively affects the health of the population. Consequently, the problem of environmental pollution in large cities from harmful emissions from vehicles requires an urgent solution. The increase in emissions of harmful substances is affected by an increase in the consumption of fuel materials due to a decrease in speed because of an increase in traffic density in the city. The frequency, duration, prevalence of congestion is increasing along with the urbanization of the population and the increase in the number of cars in cities. The dense development of the central historical districts of the city exacerbates the problem of unhindered passage of individual, public and freight vehicles. In addition, a decrease in the speed of city traffic affects the speed of delivery of goods, correspondence, etc., which negatively affects the speed of business processes, and ultimately worsens the level of logistics services for customers. The purpose of this study is to analyze the current situation in terms of the dynamics of the average speed of the city's traffic flow by hours of the day and to obtain a mathematical model of the dependence of the speed of movement on the consumption of fuel materials for various environmentally friendly means of urban delivery (car, motorcycle, bicycle and pedestrian courier). The research was carried out in two stages. At the first, the study of the dependence of the average speed of movement in the city on the time of day (for all means of city delivery) was carried out. At the second stage, the study of the dependence of the average consumption of fuel materials in the city (which, accordingly, is a function of the speed of movement) on the time of day for motorized urban delivery vehicles was done. In the course of the study, at each stage, an equation of the trend lines was obtained with a sufficient approximation accuracy. In conclusion, the study proposes an algorithm for determining the average speed and average amount of fuel consumption when delivering small consignments in an urban environment using four urban logistics means - a car, a motorcycle, a bicycle, and a pedestrian courier (with the possibility of using public transport). The proposed algorithm can be applied in any delivery conditions in the city.
... Fuel consumption per km presents on its own a very important indicator of influence towards the environment, and various efforts are made to improve that parameter, as previously analyzed by Watling [27], Nasir [28], and Fehrentz [29]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research includes the analysis and comparison of long-term values of key business parameters of profit-oriented companies in Serbia, which are engaged in road transport of cargo or passengers. This paper takes into account the decreasing emissions of CO2 and its relation to the size of business (in terms of transported cargo or number of passengers), and thus by the company’s business success (income, profit). In the empirical part of this research—ecological, operational, and business factors were analyzed on a sample of road carriers from Serbia, i.e., the most common type of organized transport of people or physical goods. Key difference was made between large and small companies engaged in transport activities, followed by difference between those companies which have business activities only in Serbia, or engage also in international activities in the Balkan region (or in the rest of world). The main goal of this paper is to determine statistically significant differences between transport companies in terms of key performance indicators, depending on whether they operate only domestically or abroad. In relation to company size, this paper examined the sustainability of operations in the case of the largest transport companies, which represent half of the total transport activity in the country (by number of people transported or the amount of transported cargo), compared to all small carriers with less than 50 employees. Future research involves extending this sample of road transport companies to all Balkan countries, which have not yet become a part of the European Union and including additional operational as well as environmental indicators that are not conventionally measured during vehicle inspections.
... For example, digital technologies can benefit public transport efficient operational and strategic planning; directly or indirectly reducing emissions (Davidsson et al., 2016). Other investigations tested or simulated AI applications and demonstrate decrease in air pollution (Nasir et al., 2014;Haass et al., 2015;Tunckaya and Koklukaya, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Both Industry 4.0 and sustainability have gained momentum in the academic, managerial and policy debate. Despite the relevance of the topics, the relation between Industry 4.0 and sustainability – revealed by many authors – is still unclear; literature is fragmented. This paper seeks to overcome this limit by developing a systematic literature review of 117 peer-reviewed journal articles. After descriptive and content analyses, the work presents a conceptualization and theoretical framework. The paper contributes to both theory and practice by advancing current understanding of Industry 4.0 and sustainability, especially the impact of Industry 4.0 technologies on sustainability practices and performance.
... The main concern of transportation industries has corresponded to a long-term environmental impact and health issues through toxic emissions such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), particulate matter (PM), hydrocarbon, and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) [70]. Considerable study has been done and is still ongoing in search for the reduction of environmental impact by introducing the intelligent transport system (ITS) [71] to track fuel consumption and emission estimation. However, fuel consumption is still primarily related to the type of vehicles used and the parameters of vehicles running on the road based on velocity, road condition, and volume of traffic and weather conditions [72]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The importance of energy demands that have increased exponentially over the past century has led to the sourcing of other ideal power solutions as the potential replacement alternative to the conventional fossil fuel. However, the utilisation of fossil fuel has created severe environmental issues. The identification of other renewable sources is beneficial to replace the energy utilisation globally. Biomass is a highly favourable sustainable alternative to renewable resources that can produce cleaner, cheaper, and readily available energy sources in the future. The palm oil industry is essentially ideal for the availability of abundant biomass resources, where the multifaceted residues are vital for energy production through the conversion of biomass waste into value-added products simultaneously. This article discusses the utilisation of palm oil and its residues in the energy and transportation sector. Assessment and evaluation on the feasibility of palm oil and its residues were made on the current valorisation methods such as thermochemical and biochemical techniques. Their potential as transportation fuels were concurrently reviewed. This is followed by a discussion on future challenges of palm oil industries that will take place globally, including the prospects from government and nongovernment organisations for the development of palm oil as a sustainable alternative replacement to fossil fuel. Hence, this review aims to provide further insight into the possibilities of palm oil and its residues towards sustainable development with reduced environmental-related issues.
... The red dashed lines are the 95 % confidence bounds on the model. Of note is the counterintuitive result that the fuel consumption decreases with increasing average speed, which is mostly caused by the lower traffic congestion with higher average speed Nasir et al. (2014), Zhang et al. (2011). The increase in fuel consumption with lower driver performance is caused by frequent or harsh acceleration or deceleration events Meseguer et al. (2015Meseguer et al. ( , 2017. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article investigates the effects of aerodynamic and lightweight double-deck semi-trailers on fuel consumption of Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs). The HGVs were evaluated using in-service data, and computer-based simulations with coefficients of aerodynamic drag and rolling resistance estimated from coast-down tests conducted on a test track. The coast-down tests showed that the aerodynamic features reduced the coefficient of aerodynamic drag by approximately 7.2% and the wide single tyres on the lightweight trailers reduced the coefficient of rolling resistance by approximately 10%. The in-service data showed that the aerodynamic features on the aerodynamic vehicles have a statistical significance on fuel consumption. Computer-based simulations showed that the aerodynamic-lightweight trailer reduces the HGV’s fuel consumption by approximately 20.2% for a long-haul drive cycle. As these improvements don’t have significant barrier to implementation, which is the case with electrification of HGVs, fleet operators can employ these improvements to reduce their carbon emissions.