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Regional differences in age-adjusted anthropometry (mean ^ standard deviation) and the prevalences of overweight (body mass index (BMI) 25.0-29.9 kg m 22 ), obesity (BMI .30 kg m 22 ), hypertension (HT) and diabetes mellitus (DM) in Mexican men and women aged 20-69 years from the National Health Survey, 2000

Regional differences in age-adjusted anthropometry (mean ^ standard deviation) and the prevalences of overweight (body mass index (BMI) 25.0-29.9 kg m 22 ), obesity (BMI .30 kg m 22 ), hypertension (HT) and diabetes mellitus (DM) in Mexican men and women aged 20-69 years from the National Health Survey, 2000

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Objectives To determine the prevalences of overweight, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HT) in the Mexican population and compare them with those of a previous Mexican urban survey and an American survey. Design A structured, randomised, nationally representative Mexican sample was compared with a 1993 Mexican urban survey...

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... analyses (Table 5) showed that adults in the northern region were taller and heavier with higher obesity rate and greater prevalence of HT than adults in the south-east region, whereas the centre and metropo- litan regions had intermediate values; there were no consistent differences in the prevalence of DM, however. The table also includes urban/rural differences, where again the anthropometric indices other than WC were greater in the urban areas as were the overweight and obesity rates. ...

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... This seemingly special Asian propensity to abdominal obesity and diabetes was then shown to be a more general feature when analyses of the 2006 national survey of Mexican adults found the same features -both a greater propensity to abdominal obesity and a greater prevalence of diabetes and hypertension at each increment of abdominal expansion [35] as shown in Figure 1.2. Furthermore, US studies showed that when ethnic differences were considered, Japanese Americans, as well as Hispanic Americans, were both more likely to have abdominal obesity and greater rates of diabetes at each increment of abdominal expansion than American Whites [36]. ...
... The conditions amongst the working class in England at that time had already been documented as nutritionally The prevalences of obesity in men and women in cohorts with over 263,000 adults either from Asia or from Australasia and Iran (depicted as Caucasians) [30]. Superimposed on this graph are data from the Mexican national survey in 2000 [35]. The Mexican study compared the national survey data with nationally representative data for US non-Hispanic Whites, but these data are not shown in this graph as they were almost identical to those of the Australasian/Iranian data from the Asian study. ...
Chapter
It is commonly perceived that obesity has only recently been recognized as a public health issue and its potential impact on population health is still yet to be completely acknowledged. Chinese and Indian medicine also dealt with obesity as a problem condition, and the particular propensities for Asians and the people of the Middle East to display ill health on weight gain are discussed. Subsequently, because of the intense concern of many Asian physicians about the burden of ill health, especially diabetes, that arose within the supposedly acceptable body mass index (BMI) range of 20–25, a WHO meeting was convened in Singapore. China, however, undertook their own extensive analyses when their Chinese obesity collaboration was formed and then concluded that an upper limit of BMI 24 should be suitable for the Chinese, but this judgment, as well as the Singapore conclusion about Asians, was geared more to morbidity relationships than to mortality data.
... These findings led to the discussion that this anthropometric disproportion could have a genetic cause [33] . Other authors, however, have suggested [35] that this disproportion favoring abdominal weight gain and/or trunk size is due to programming in early life, although the physiological and hormonal mechanisms that regulate this adaptation are still not understood. Thus, the finding in our study of the significant decrease in total T3 concentrations in the short stature group can have only one possible explanation for the higher waist-to-height found in these women. ...
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Background: Short stature that results from undernourishment during perinatal period is associated with an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood, particularly in poor populations. The present study investigated changes on anthropometric and metabolic parameters of socially vulnerable women with short stature. Methods: A prospective study with 48 women (19-45 years) who were mothers of undernourished children was conducted. Twenty-five of them were short (height ≤150 cm), and 23 were not short, to serve as a control (height >159 cm). Biochemical, anthropometric and dietary intake data were collected, before and after 4 years of follow-up. A mixed within-between analysis of covariance was used to assess the interaction between 'group' and 'time'. Results: Waist-to-height ratio increased only in the short stature group, with significant interaction (+0.03 ± 0.03 in short group vs. +0.01 ± 0.03 in control; p for interaction = 0.04). The short stature group showed a significant decrease in the plasma triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations, without significant interaction (-0.16 ± 0.23 ng/ml in short group vs. -0.04 ± 0.29 ng/ml in control; p for interaction = 0.20). Conclusion: Women of short stature presented an increase in waist-to-height ratio, with a simultaneous decrease in total plasma T3. These alterations may lead them to increased risk of comorbidities.
... Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by a prolonged imbalance between energy intake and expenditure , which is expressed as increased fat accumulation, including increases in the cell number and/or cell size in adipose tissue and elevated lipid concentrations in the blood (Hirsch and Batchelor 1976; Spiegelman and Flier 1996; Prins and O'Rahilly 1997). It is one of the main public health issues because of its potential relation to increased risk of chronic diseases such as type II diabetes, coronary heart disease, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension and hyperlipidemia, as well as other health problems (Kopelman 2000; Sedova et al. 2004; Sanchez-Castillo et al. 2005). Therefore, the prevention and treatment of obesity are important for health. ...
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... It is experiencing a dramatic decrease in mortality from infectious diseases and a sustained increase in mortality from chronicdegenerative diseases (Rivera et al., 2002). National statistics show that the primary cause of general mortality in Mexico is heart disease (Sanchez-Castillo et al., 2005 ). These nationally representative surveys are reflected in the regions within the country. ...
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he prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is rising rapidly and in Mexicans is ∼19%. T2D is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. Although specific genes have been implicated in T2D risk few of these findings are confirmed in studies of Mexican subjects. Our aim was to replicate associations of 39 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 10 genes with T2D-related phenotypes in a community-based Mexican cohort. Unrelated individuals (n = 259) living in southeastern Mexico were enrolled in the study based at the University of Yucatan School of Medicine in Merida. Phenotypes measured included anthropometric measurements, circulating levels of adipose tissue endocrine factors (leptin, adiponectin, pro-inflammatory cytokines), and insulin, glucose, and blood pressure. Association analyses were conducted by measured genotype analysis implemented in SOLAR, adapted for unrelated individuals. SNP Minor allele frequencies ranged from 2.2 to 48.6%. Nominal associations were found for CNR1, SLC30A8, GCK, and PCSK1 SNPs with systolic blood pressure, insulin and glucose, and for CNR1, SLC30A8, KCNJ11, and PCSK1 SNPs with adiponectin and leptin (p < 0.05). P-values greater than 0.0014 were considered significant. Association of SNPs rs10485170 of CNR1 and rs5215 of KCNJ11 with adiponectin and leptin, respectively, reached near significance (p = 0.002). Significant association (p = 0.001) was observed between plasma leptin and rs5219 of KCNJ11.
... The look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Trial of patients with T2DM demonstrated adipose tissue distribution that was significantly altered, with more visceral adipose tissue and intermuscular adipose tissue, depots known to exacerbate insulin resistance, and less subcutaneous adipose tissue in people with diabetes than in healthy control subjects [53]. A high prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity in Mexicans is associated with a markedly increased incidence of diabetes and hypertension [54] . Visceral adiposity is considered a risk factor for insulin resistance metabolic syndrome [55] and T2DM in adults [56], as well as in first degree relatives of patients with T2DM with normal glucose levels [57]. ...
... Additional evidence suggests that the health status of the population varies by SES and density of residential area. For example, about 16% of Mexicans aged 50 years and above were estimated to have diabetes at the beginning of the 21 st century with a higher prevalence in urban than rural areas (Sanchez-Castillo, Velasquez-Monroy, Lara-Esqueda, Berber, Sepulveda, Tapia-Conyer, et al., 2004). The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the poor in Mexico in turn was estimated to be over 50% (Fernald, Gutierrez, Neufeld, Olaiz, Bertozzi, Snyder, et al., 2004). ...
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... In fact, some of the therapeutic BPlowering actions of AT1-receptor blockers and angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) have been attributed to NAD(P)H oxidase inhibition and decreased ROS production [26], [27]. Obesity is associated with diabetes and elevated blood pressure [28]. This chronic condition reflects over-nutrition and is associated with important oxidative stress, as shown by the increased indexes of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and oxidative damage of amino acids, respectively [29]. ...
... Overweight and obesity are most closely related to non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or Type 2 diabetes (Ishikawa-Takata et al., 2002; Ko et al., 1999; McKeigue et al., 1991). Overweight and obesity have also been closely associated with ischemic heart disease (Silventoinen et al., 2009; WHO, 2002; Lerman-Garber et al., 1999), hypertension (Colín Ramírez et al., 2009; Mishra et al., 2006; Kotsis et al., 2005; Sanchez-Castillo et al., 2005; Nanchahal et al., 2005; Adair, 2004; Hu et al., 2004; Liu et al., 2004; Niskanen et al., 2004; Lee et al., 2004; Venkatramana and Reddy, 2002) and dyslipidaemia (Barzi et al., 2009; Ishikawa Takata et al., 2002; Misra et al., 2001; Ko et al., 1999). WHO estimates that approximately 58% of diabetes mellitius, 21% of ischemic heart disease, and 8–42% of certain cancers can be attributed to BMI above 21 kg/m 2 (WHO, 2002). ...
... The findings about a strong positive association between obesity and various markers of CVD risk are consistent with previous research in Central Asia (Mishra et al., 2006; Jafar, 2006; Kadyrova and Salkhanov, 1990) and elsewhere (Nanchahal et al., 2005; Kotsis et al., 2005; Sanchez-Castillo et al., 2005; Venkatramana and Reddy, 2002). Strong gender differential observed in the prevalence of CVD markers and in the association between obesity and CVD risk could be due to differences in biological factors, fat distribution, and certain risk factors not measured adequately in this study. ...
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Objective:This study examines the epidemiology of obesity and markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adult men and women in Tashkent City, Uzbekistan. The study also examines the association between obesity and the markers of CVD. Method: The analysis uses data from the 2002 Uzbekistan Health Examination Survey, which included a representative sample of 778 men age 15–59 years and 843 women age 15–49 years residing in Tashkent City. The survey measured height, weight, and markers of CVD, such as high blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, diabetes, and high blood pressure. The survey also asked questions on physical activity, dietary habits, tobacco smoking, alcohol use, and other characteristics. The analysis was conducted using binomial and multinomial logistic regression methods, separately for men and women. Results: Consumption of animal source protein among women and tobacco smoking in the past among men were positively associated with obesity, but there were no consistent associations with other dietary indicators, physical activity level, or alcohol use. Obese men were more than 10 times as likely to have CVD as those with a normal BMI, whereas obese women were two and half times as likely to have CVD (aOR=10.34 for men and 2.48 for women), after controlling for physical activity level, dietary habits, tobacco smoking, and other factors. Conclusions: The study found a strong positive association between obesity and markers of CVD in adult men and women in Tashkent City, Uzbekistan. The relationship between obesity Effects of Obesity on the Markers of Cardiovascular Disease in Tashkent City, Uzbekistan: Evidence from a Population-Based Health Examination Survey. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237488694_Effects_of_Obesity_on_the_Markers_of_Cardiovascular_Disease_in_Tashkent_City_Uzbekistan_Evidence_from_a_Population-Based_Health_Examination_Survey [accessed May 24, 2016].
... Los datos de sobrepeso y obesidad no concuerdan con los estudios en la que la obesidad se define por un IMC 27 aconsejada por la Norma Oficial Mexicana, 30 porque consideramos que la definición de obesidad a partir del valor del IMC, 30 aceptado por diversos documentos internacionales, 31,32 es más correcta, sobre todo a la luz de las recientes observaciones hechas en nuestra población. 33,34 El análisis de los datos también señala, cuando se comparan los resultados con otras fuentes, la heterogeneidad de la población mexicana y la dificultad de las encuestas de representar en toda su diversidad, la compleja transición epidemiológica del país. ...
... aceptado por diversos documentos internacionales, 31,32 es más correcta, sobre todo a la luz de las recientes observaciones hechas en nuestra población. 33,34 El análisis de los datos también indica, cuando se comparan los resultados con otras fuentes, la heterogeneidad de la población mexicana y la dificultad de representar, por medio de una encuesta, la compleja transición epidemiológica del país. ...
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Background: The fast epidemiological transition that occurred in Mexico for several decades has increased the importance of the chronicdegenerative diseases, particularly, those of cardiovascular origin. Factors as the systemic arterial hypertension, hypercolesterolemia, smoking, disglucemic condition and obesity are determinants of cardiovascular illness. Objective: To know the cardiovascular risk factors, obesity, hypertension arterial, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia of the Mexican women. Participants and methods: 164,656 female patients recruited in a growing epidemiological survey, aged 20-80, were studied. The sample was formed by 140,017 individuals, aged 44 ± 13 years and with a gender distribution of 42% men and 58% women, from six Mexican cities (Mexico City, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Leon and Tijuana). The frequencies of obesity, hypertension, smoking, total cholesterol and glucose in capillary blood, were estimated. Results: Obesity or overweight was found in 71.9% of the participants. Hypertension was found in 26.5% of them, and the proportions of awareness, treatment and control for this disease were 49.3, 73 and 36%, respectively. Prevalence of hypertension increased with age, it was higher in men younger than 60 years old, but in more aged individuals was higher in women. Hypercholesterolemia was found in 40% of the persons, and cholesterolemia ≥240 mg/dL was significantly higher in women; 35.5% of men and 18.1% of women smoked. In 10.4% of participants was found diabetes mellitus type 2. There were significant Pearson's correlations between body mass index and blood pressure; hypertension and glucose levels, and hypertension and total cholesterol concentrations. Conclusion: It is concluded that this population faces a high cardiovascular risk profile, and a great probability of the occurrence of metabolic syndrome.