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Range of melamine levels detected in various food products. 

Range of melamine levels detected in various food products. 

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A major food safety incident in China was made public in September 2008. Kidney and urinary tract effects, including kidney stones, affected about 300,000 Chinese infants and young children, with six reported deaths. Melamine had been deliberately added at milk-collecting stations to diluted raw milk ostensibly to boost its protein content. Subsequ...

Citations

... Listeria monocytogenes struck South Africa in 2017, poisoning 1060 people and killing 216; new toxigenic strain E. coli O104:H4 caused 53 deaths and serious illness of more than 3950 people in Europe in 2011; aflatoxin contamination of maize in Kenya resulted in 317 cases of hepatic failure and 125 deaths in 2004 [1,2]. In terms of chemical contamination, a significant incident occurred in China in 2008, when infant milk formula was contaminated with melamine, resulting in 294,000 affected babies, 6 of whom died [3]. ...
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Toxic ingredients in food can lead to serious food-related diseases. Such compounds are bacterial toxins (Shiga-toxin, listeriolysin, Botulinum toxin), mycotoxins (aflatoxin, ochratoxin, zearalenone, fumonisin), pesticides of different classes (organochlorine, organophosphate, synthetic pyrethroids), heavy metals, and natural antinutrients such as phytates, oxalates, and cyanide-generating glycosides. The generally regarded safe (GRAS) status and long history of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as essential ingredients of fermented foods and probiotics make them a major biological tool against a great variety of food-related toxins. This state-of-the-art review aims to summarize and discuss the data revealing the involvement of LAB in the detoxification of foods from hazardous agents of microbial and chemical nature. It is focused on the specific properties that allow LAB to counteract toxins and destroy them, as well as on the mechanisms of microbial antagonism toward toxigenic producers. Toxins of microbial origin are either adsorbed or degraded, toxic chemicals are hydrolyzed and then used as a carbon source, while heavy metals are bound and accumulated. Based on these comprehensive data, the prospects for developing new combinations of probiotic starters for food detoxification are considered.
... However, it manifests within a local context that must be better understood to detect and thus prevent it. High profile food fraud incidents frequently reported in the literature include the addition of melamine to milk products in China, the 'horsemeat scandal' first detected in British and Irish markets, and dilution of extra virgin olive oil across Europe (Gossner et al., 2009;O'Mahoney, 2013;Taylor, 2019a). However, less is known about the nature and scale of food fraud in Africa. ...
Article
Background Food fraud describes deceptive acts that occur at all stages of the food supply chain for economic gain. The COVID-19 pandemic has had devasting impacts on individuals, institutions, and economies. Disruptions in supply chains and regulatory oversight have led to concerns about potential increases in food fraud-related incidents. In addition, the pandemic further exacerbated the issue of widespread and severe food insecurity in Africa, providing optimal conditions for fraudulent agents in the supply chain to perpetrate fraud. However, little is known about how food fraud manifests on the continent. Scope and approach This review explores food fraud in the African context, emphasising the impact of COVID-19. The study provides examples of food fraud and challenges of critical stakeholders in the supply chain, including consumers, industry, and regulators in combating food fraud. It also discusses recommendations for researchers and policymakers to reduce fraud and improve the quality and safety of food along the supply chain. Key Findings and Conclusions: There is consensus that the pandemic has created an environment that makes consumers more vulnerable to food fraud. However, there are significant data gaps on the incidence of food fraud, making statistical comparisons difficult. The monitoring of food fraud incidents, especially in Africa, remains in its early stages, limiting food fraud prevention efforts. Improved data collection and significant investments in testing infrastructure and technical know-how are required for developing evidence-based action plans to combat fraud at both national and intra-continent levels to safeguard consumer health.
... Besides developing detection methodology, just recently food fraud issue became of greater importance for scholars, consumers, regulators (and all the other actors) (Charlebois, Schwab, Henn & Huck, 2016;Kendall et al., 2019). Some problems with food fraud strongly affect the confidence and trust of consumers (Grunert, 2005;Verbeke & Ward, 2006;Gossner et al., 2009;Moyer, DeVries & Spink, 2017), with different implications across the globe, varying from social, health to economic and environmental ones (Li, Zang, Zhang, Zhang & Wang, 2020;Sadiku, Ashaolu & Musa, 2020) (Table 1). It is obvious that food fraud is a multifaceted and complex concept that encompasses different issues such as food safety, food quality, food authenticity, food provenance, traceability, information asymmetry and trust. ...
Chapter
According to Conijn et al. (2018) current consumption or degradation of most of the food-related resources (e.g., land, freshwater, fossil energy, and nutrients) exceed their global regeneration rate. At the same time, along the food supply chain, 30% of total production is lost. The majority, 46% to 65% of total food waste is generated on the consumer level (Annosi et al. 2021). The main drivers behind waste generations are overproduction due to market uncertainties and consumer behavior. Those drivers reflect the inadequate structure, power distribution, and management of food supply chains, shaped by the fragmented, altered, and slow flow of information needed to make decisions aiming for improving efficiency and effectiveness of the value chains. There is an urgent need for food system/food value chain transformation to keep food production under the planetary boundaries. The different technology known under the common name Industry 4.0 is seen as a promising solution, enabler of a needed transformation of food value chains. Although the benefit of this technology is well known in practice, the rate of its adoption is very low, especially in emerging and transitional economies. Both researchers and experts are focused on technological and technical solutions, profitability, and fragmented application on one chain entry point (e.g., logistic), while neglecting research and deeper discussion about new business opportunities opened up by the Industry 4.0 ability to provide mass customization and ability to support resilience and trust (quality and safety), needed in time of crisis such as COVID-19 pandemic. The main objectives of this discussion are to bridge this gap and to underlay technological ability to promote short value chains development through global, distributed chain networks as a frame in which each food chain will act as an individual and as a part of longer (even global) food chain.
... Melamine (MEL) and its derivatives, including cyanuric acid (CYA), ammelide (AMD) and ammeline (AMN), have received global attention due to the 2007-2008 adulteration incidences in pet food and infant milk formula, which resulted in renal damage and failure or even death among infants and pets (Gossner et al., 2009). Thereafter, MEL and CYA were under scrutiny in many countries worldwide. ...
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Melamine (MEL) and its derivatives are increasingly applied as nitrogenous flame retardants in consumer products. Nevertheless, limited information is available on their environmental occurrence and subsequent human exposure via multiple exposure pathways. In this study, we analysed MEL and its derivatives in dust (indication of the dust ingestion route) and hand wipe samples (indication of the hand-to-mouth route) collected in various microenvironments. The levels of ∑MELs in both dust (median: 24,100 ng/g) and participant hand samples (803 ng/m²) collected in e-waste dismantling workshops were significantly higher than those in samples collected in homes (15,600 ng/g and 196 ng/m², respectively), dormitories (13,100 ng/g and 227 ng/m², respectively) and hotel rooms (11,800 ng/g and 154 ng/m², respectively). Generally, MEL dominated in dust samples collected in e-waste dismantling workshops, whereas cyanuric acid dominated in hand wipe samples. This may occur partly because the latter is an ingredient in disinfection products, which are more frequently employed in daily lives during the COVID-19 pandemic. Exposure assessment suggests that dust ingestion is an important exposure pathway among dismantling workers and the general population, whereas hand-to-mouth contact could not be overlooked in certain populations, such as children and dismantling workers not wear gloves at work.
... Traditionally, regulatory food contaminant monitoring relies on targeted analysis and quantification of a defined set of known contaminants. However, various unexpected food safety challenges arise and may lead to permanent damage to people; one example was the unexpected melamine adulteration crisis (Gossner et al. 2009); another example was polyfluoroalkyl contamination (Xiao 2017). These events showed the presence of unrevealed food contaminants and the urgent need for analytical methods for unknown food contaminant screening. ...
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For centuries, herbal medicines have been used to treat humans and animals. Veterinary medicines are well-regulated; inspectors monitor milk and associated dairy products to screen for unacceptable contaminants. However, few scholars have discussed how the by-products of veterinary herbal medicine can be found in food products. In this paper, we applied nontargeted profiling of the UHPLC–ESI–TOF platform to screen possible by-products originating from veterinary herbal medicine in commercial milk samples. These tentatively identified alkaloids showed high consistency with the plant extract of Holarrhena antidysenterica (L.) Wall. ex A. DC., which indicated the possibility that dairy farmers had used plants from genus Holarrhena as veterinary herbal medicine. This is the first report showing the presence of by-products originating from veterinary herbal medicine in commercial milk. This finding could help authorities to evaluate the use of veterinary herbal medicine in farm animals.
... People and infants consumed milk adulterated with melamine in this period, resulting in numerous illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths due to renal failures. The adulterant was added to diluted raw milk to falsely increase the protein content of the milk and boost the seller's profit [8,9]. ...
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Internet of Things (IoT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) are two of the emerging techniques used in creating more significant opportunities in smart dairy farming (SDF). Currently, the demand for milk is continuously increasing due to the world's growing population. Thus, some suppliers are inclined towards adopting fraudulent practices such as introducing adulterants into milk to eliminate the demand and supply gap. Conventional detection techniques require specific chemicals and equipment to determine the presence of adulterants in milk. Though effective, this technique has the downsides of producing qualitative results that are laborious, time-consuming and the same milk sample cannot be further analyzed for other adulterants. Hence, this paper presents an IoT-based solution to detect adulterants in milk by measuring its pH and electrical conductivity (EC) parameters. To achieve this, a fuzzy logic system was designed in MATLAB® using the Fuzzy Logic Toolbox™ and implemented on an Arduino Mega microcontroller to analyze the impurities present in milk samples through hardware implemented. This research revealed that milk's pH and EC values with no adulteration range from 6.45 to 6.67 and 4.65 mS/cm to 5.26 mS/cm, respectively. Finally, the collected data is stored in the cloud using the ThingSpeak™ web platform, interconnected with an IoT (ESP8266 Wi-Fi module).
... Milk is one of the most commonly consumed beverages globally. However, there have historically been major scandals of significant amounts of milk supply which have been adulterated [19]. Being able to track the adulteration status of milk in a contactless manner with an accessible device like a smartphone instead of using chemical reagents is important for creating an accessible screening tool given the widespread consumption of milk. ...
Preprint
We present the first system to determine fluid properties using the LiDAR sensors present on modern smartphones. Traditional methods of measuring properties like viscosity require expensive laboratory equipment or a relatively large amount of fluid. In contrast, our smartphone-based method is accessible, contactless and works with just a single drop of liquid. Our design works by targeting a coherent LiDAR beam from the phone onto the liquid. Using the phone's camera, we capture the characteristic laser speckle pattern that is formed by the interference of light reflecting from light-scattering particles. By correlating the fluctuations in speckle intensity over time, we can characterize the Brownian motion within the liquid which is correlated with its viscosity. The speckle pattern can be captured on a range of phone cameras and does not require external magnifiers. Our results show that we can distinguish between different fat contents as well as identify adulterated milk. Further, algorithms can classify between ten different liquids using the smartphone LiDAR speckle patterns. Finally, we conducted a clinical study with whole blood samples across 30 patients showing that our approach can distinguish between coagulated and uncoagulated blood using a single drop of blood.
... Notably, products manufactured in China were also described as sourced from the same latitude of European countries and/or used images of Caucasian infants and scientists. The popular use of "premiumization" appeal can be partially explained by the 2008 China infant formula contamination incident (Gossner et al., 2009), where melamine was found to be added to some infant formula milk and led to the development of kidney stones and renal failures among many infants. Ever since the scandal, there has been increasing market demand for imported milk formulas among Chinese consumers. ...
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China has the largest and fastest-growing breast milk substitutes (BMSs) market and a disproportionately low exclusive breastfeeding rate. Many BMS manufacturers have established Chinese e-commerce stores. This marketing is of concern as it is likely to undermine breastfeeding. This study aimed to identify: (1) the marketing themes and strategies used to promote BMSs on the Chinese BMSs e-commerce websites; (2) if and how digital BMSs marketing may deviate from the World Health Organization Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes (the Code) recommendations. Content analysis was conducted on the flagship websites of 10 BMSs companies on the Chinese e-commerce platform "TMall" in July 2019. The main landing page (n = 10) of the flagship TMall website and the product description page (n = 113) of all individual formulas (Stages 1-3) within each company's TMall website were examined. The content was analysed and coded using an iterative thematic analysis approach. Emphasis on Premiumization and Science & Nutrition was the most commonly used marketing approaches. A total of 27.4% of the product description pages sampled used images of infants (<12 months), 33.6% made favourable comparisons of BMSs to breast milk, and only 34.5% included probreastfeeding statements. Marketing strategies were often inconsistent with the Code, and companies used "creative" ways to target mothers, often circumventing the Code recommendations. Unsubstantiated information was commonplace and of concern, because the e-commerce platform provided easy opportunities for bulk purchases. National regulatory actions are urgently needed to monitor online BMS marketing and the undermining of breastfeeding in China.
... All 51,900 cases reported were hospitalized and among that number, 51,039 were discharged after hospitalization, 154 were in serious condition following hospitalization, 861 cases were still in the hospital, six died, and 74 children were hospitalized with renal failure or renal stones. With such recent events, health officials and professionals realized that many cases of kidney stones have been underreported and the number of cases might be increasing with better testing and thorough studies (Gossner, et al., 2009). To ensure that the food supply is not affected by melamine adulterated products, several countries and organizations take proactive steps by increasing sampling and testing of locally produced and imported milk-derived ingredients and finished products. ...
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In this research melamine transportation from cups manufactured from melamine to heated milk was studied through two experimental designs. The first experimental design was conducted in the way where milk samples were heated to a specified temperature (100°C, 80°C, 60°C, 40°C, and 25°C) in a separate stainless steel container and poured in the melamine cups and left to cool to 25°C for 15 minutes and then subjected to melamine transportation analysis using HPLC with isocratic elution mode. For the second experimental design milk samples were heated in the cups for the same specified temperature(100°C, 80°C, 60°C, 40°C and 25°C) and kept at these temperatures for two hours and analyzed after that. the results confirmed the transportation of melamine from melamine cups to milk although the concentration did not exceed the specific migration rate of (30mg/kg food). The research concluded that melamine cups should not be used for babies and young children and the specific migration level of melamine should be reexamined globally as it is (30mg/kg food)where the maximum residue limit for melamine is 2.5 mg/kg in milk. Keywords: "Effect of temperature on the transport of melamine, Infant milk containers, Spectro-photometer and Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic.
... They can be easily added to a variety of protein raw materials, such as milk powder, as an illegal additive, thereby increasing the apparent protein content. 2 Studies have shown that the long-term consumption of high nitrogen compounds such as melamine causes kidney damage and increases the risk of malignant tumors in the bladder and urethra, 3,4 as encountered in the infamous "melamine contaminated milk powder incident" in China. 5 Other nonprotein nitrogen adulterants can also harm health such as cyanuric acid is nephrotoxic 6 and thiourea leads to chronic goitrogenic and other glandular difficulties in the human. 7 At present, for nonprotein nitrogen adulterants, the detection limit of cyanuric acid in China is 25 μg/kg, 8 and the detection limit of cyanuric acid is 50 μg/kg by the relevant internal detection methods of the FDA. 9 The EU's limit value for cyromazine in milk is 0.01 mg/kg. ...
Article
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To develop a rapid detection method for nonprotein nitrogen adulterants, this experiment sets up a set of point-scan Raman hyperspectral imaging systems to qualitatively distinguish and quantitatively and positionally analyze samples spiked with a single nonprotein nitrogen adulterant and samples spiked with a mixture of nine nonprotein nitrogen adulterants at different concentrations (5 × 10–3 to 2.000%, w/w). The results showed that for samples spiked with single nonprotein nitrogen adulterants, the number of pixels corresponding to the adulterant in the region of interest increased linearly with an increase in the analyte concentration, the average coefficient of determination (R²) was above 0.99, the minimum detection concentration of nonprotein nitrogen adulterants reached 0.010%, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the predicted concentration was less than 6%. For the sample spiked with a mixture of nine nonprotein nitrogen adulterants, the standard curve could be used to accurately predict the additive concentration when the additive concentration was greater than 1.200%. The detection method established in this study has good accuracy, high sensitivity, and strong stability. It provides a method for technical implementation of real-time and rapid detection of adulterants in milk powder at the port site and has good application and promotion prospects.