Range of Mechanisms M1 and M2 and of Their Overlap Zone

Range of Mechanisms M1 and M2 and of Their Overlap Zone

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This study, focused on the laryngeal source level, introduces the concept of laryngeal vibratory mechanism. Human phonation is characterized by the use of four laryngeal mechanisms, labeled M0-M3, as evidenced by the electroglottographic (EGG) study of the transition phenomena between mechanisms with a population of men and women, trained and untra...

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... The range of each mechanism and the range of the overlap phenomenon have been studied on database DB2. As illustrated in Figure 4 and Table 3, the overlap zone of the mechanisms is considerable (one octave on average). It occurs at the same fre- quencies for both genders, which means that in this zone of the vocal range, female and male voices have the same possibilities of choice of production mechanism. ...

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... Arousal was also shown to bring most of the acoustic changes in a voice in [19] study. S3 appears to mostly rely on M1 vibration mechanism (modal), while S6 uses a M2 voice register (falsetto), with higher pitch (on registers: [39], [40]). ...
... The phonatory stability of vocal fold oscillation has mostly been investigated in regard of voluntary changes in vibratory mode by adjusting muscles, as they occur for instance during professional singing when switching between registers [9][10][11][12]. However, there are also spontaneous changes in vocal fold vibratory mode that can lead to frequency drops or jumps. ...
... That, in the mode prior to each transition, the following is observed: (a) a relatively high fundamental frequency (usually around 400 Hz), (b) relatively weak harmonics, and (c) a roughly equal OD and CD. These are characteristics generally associated with the falsetto register in the human singing voice [9][10][11][12]. On the other hand, in the mode subsequent to each transition, the following is observed: (a) a relatively low fundamental frequency (usually around 200 Hz,), (b) relatively strong harmonics, (c) a CD which is much longer than the OD. ...
... On the other hand, in the mode subsequent to each transition, the following is observed: (a) a relatively low fundamental frequency (usually around 200 Hz,), (b) relatively strong harmonics, (c) a CD which is much longer than the OD. These are characteristics generally associated with the chest register in the human singing voice [10][11][12]. Thus, the spontaneous jumps we have observed in the study appear to be consistent with the falsetto-to-chest register transition frequently observed in the human singing voice. ...
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Investigations of neuromuscular control of voice production have primarily focused on the roles of muscle activation levels, posture, and stiffness at phonation onset. However, little work has been done investigating the stability of the phonation process in regards to spontaneous changes in vibratory mode of vocal fold oscillation as a function of neuromuscular activation. We evaluated 320 phonatory conditions representing combinations of superior and recurrent laryngeal nerve (SLN and RLN) activations in an in vivo canine model of phonation. At each combination of neuromuscular input, airflow was increased linearly to reach phonation onset and beyond from 300 to 1400 mL/s. High-speed video and acoustic data were recorded during phonation, and spectrograms and glottal-area-based parameters were calculated. Vibratory mode changes were detected based on sudden increases or drops of local fundamental frequency. Mode changes occurred only when SLNs were concurrently stimulated and were more frequent for higher, less asymmetric RLN stimulation. A slight increase in amplitude and cycle length perturbation usually preceded the changes in the vibratory mode. However, no inherent differences between signals with mode changes and signals without were found.
... Despite those characteristics, these two registers are assumed to be associated mostly with different laryngeal adjustments, which produce different vocal fold vibratory patterns. 4 Such laryngeal adjustments are sometimes referred to as "laryngeal mechanisms" and numbered from low pitch to high pitch (M0, M1, M2 and M3), 5 where M1 and M2 are usually associated with the chest and the head registers, respectively. In order to observe the activity of the laryngeal muscles when using different registers, Hirano et al, 6 performed electromyographic (EMG) measurements. ...
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Voice registers are assumed to be related to different laryngeal adjustments, but objective evidence has been insufficient. While chest register is usually associated with the lower pitch range, and head register with the higher pitch range, here we investigated a professional singer who claimed an ability to produce both these registers at every pitch, throughout her entire singing range. The singer performed separated phonations alternating between the two registers (further called chest-like and head-like) at all pitches from C3 (131 Hz) to C6 (1047 Hz). We monitored the vocal fold vibrations using high-speed video endoscopy and electroglottography. The microphone sound was recorded and used for blind listening tests performed by the three authors (insiders) and by six “naive” participants (outsiders). The outsiders correctly identified the registers in 64% of the cases, and the insiders in 89% of the cases. Objective analysis revealed larger closed quotient and vertical phase differences for the chest-like register within the lower range below G4 (<392 Hz), and also a larger closed quotient at the membranous glottis within the higher range above Bb4 (>466 Hz), but not between Ab4-A4 (415-440 Hz). The normalized amplitude quotient was consistently lower in the chest-like register throughout the entire range. The results indicate that that the singer employed subtle laryngeal control mechanisms for the chest-like and head-like phonations on top of the traditionally recognized low-pitched chest and high-pitched head register phenomena. Across all pitches, the chest-like register was produced with more rapid glottal closure that was usually, but not necessarily, accompanied also by stronger adduction of membranous glottis. These register changes were not always easily perceivable by listeners, however.
... The loudness is mostly controlled by the lung pressure and the glottal resistance. The different registers are believed to originate from the different vibratory patterns of the vocal folds (also referred to laryngeal mechanisms, [Henrich, 2006;Roubeau et al., 2009]. This is evidenced by experiments with excised larynges where voice of two registers can be produced without the vocal tract (e.g., [Alipour and Scherer, 2007;Baer, 1969;Van den Berg, 1963;Müller and Baly, 1848]). ...
... [ Roubeau et al., 2009] introduced the concept of laryngeal vibratory mechanism based on electroglottographic study of the transition phenomena between registers. The transition from one mechanism to another of higher rank is characterized by a jump in frequency, a reduction of EGG amplitude, and a change in the shape of the derivative of the EGG, indicating a change of vibratory mechanism. ...
Article
While many may take it for granted, the human voice is an incredible feat. An average person can produce a great variety of voices and change voice characteristics agilely even without formal training. Last several decades of research has established that the production of voice is largely a mechanical process: i.e., the sustained vibration of the vocal folds driven by the glottal air flow. Since one only has a single pair of vocal folds, the versatility comes with the ability to change the mechanical status of the vocal folds, including vocal fold length and thickness, tension, and level of adduction, through activation of the laryngeal muscles. However, the relationship between laryngeal muscle activity and the characteristics of voice is not well understood due to limitations in experimental observation and simplifications in modelling and simulations. The science is still far behind the art. The current research aims to investigate first the relationship between laryngeal muscle activation and the posture of the vocal folds and second the relationship between voice source characteristics and vocal fold mechanical status using more comprehensive numerical models and simulations, thus improving the understanding of the roles of each laryngeal muscle in voice control. To do so, (1) the mechanics involved in vocal fold posturing and vibration, especially muscle contraction; (2) the realistic anatomical structure of the larynx must be considered properly. To achieve this goal, a numerical model of the larynx as realistic as possible was built. The geometry of the laryngeal components was reconstructed from high resolution MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) data of an excised canine larynx, which makes more accurate the representation of the muscles and their sub-compartments, cartilages, and other important anatomical features of the larynx. A previously proposed muscle activation model was implemented in a 3D finite element package and applied to the larynx model to simulate the action of laryngeal muscles. After validation of the numerical model against experimental data, extensive parametric studies involving different combination of muscle activations were conducted to investigate how the voice source is controlled with laryngeal muscles. In the course of this study, some work was done to couple the same finite element tool with a Genetic Algorithm program to inversely determine model parameters in biomechanical models. The method was applied in a collaborated study on shape changes of a fish fin during swimming. This study is presented as a separate chapter at the end of this thesis. The method has potential application in determining parameters in vocal fold models and optimizing clinical vocal fold procedures. This thesis is essentially an assembly of the papers published by the author during the doctoral study, with the addition of an introductory chapter. Chapter 1 reviews the overall principles of voice production, the biomechanical basis of voice control, and past studies on voice control with a focus on the fundamental frequency. Chapter 2 describes the major numerical methods employed in this research with an emphasis on the finite element method. The muscle activation model is also described in this chapter. Chapter 3 describes the building of the larynx model from MRI data and its partial validation. Chapter 4 presents the application of the larynx model to posturing studies, including parametric activation of muscle groups and specific topics related to vocal fold posturing. Chapter 5 describes the change of vocal fold vibration dynamics under the influence of the interaction of the cricothyroid muscle and the thyroarytenoid muscle. The Flow-structure interaction simulations was realized by coupling the larynx model to a simple Bernoulli flow model and a two-stage simulation technique. Chapter 6 concludes the current thesis study. Suggestions for future studies are proposed. Chapter 7 is an independent study that is not related to voice control. It describes a numerical framework that inversely determines and validates model parameters of biomechanical models. The application of the proposed framework to a finite element model of a fish fin is presented.
... cycles. This case undeniably has to be considered as creak (phonation mechanism zero in terms of the classification of Roubeau, Henrich, and Castellengo (2009)). Overall, this example can be described as an extreme sample of clear lapse into creaky voice, with the lowest possible f 0 dEGG and O q dEGG , but still with a single pulse per cycle. ...
... The most obvious feature of double-pulsed creak is the alternation of short and long cycles (the starting cycle can be either a % short or a long cycle) in a great change of fundamental frequency. This characteristic has been broadly recognized by numerous previous works such as: "double pulsation" in (Paul Moore and Leden, 1958), "double glottic pulses" in (Hollien and Ronald W. Wendahl, 1968) and (Hedelin and Huber, 1990), (Roubeau, Henrich, and Castellengo, 2009), etc. The other also mentioned the possibilities of triplet cycles (Blomgren et al., 1998) or higher multiples (Keating, Garellek, and Kreiman, 2015). ...
... The retained values are lower than 30% and can reach extremely low values: below 15% in some speakers. These values offer telltale evidence of the presence of creaky voice (phonation mechanism zero according to the classification ofRoubeau, Henrich, and Castellengo 2009). ...
Thesis
All languages in the Vietic subbranch of Austroasiatic have at least one glottalized tone. This thesis zooms in on one of these languages: Muong (in Vietnamese orthography: Mường, endonym: /mon³/), spoken in Kim Thuong (Phu Tho, Vietnam). Twenty speakers recorded twelve tonal minimal sets of the five tones of smooth syllables, plus three tonal minimal pairs of the two tones of checked syllables, under two conditions: in isolation and in a carrier sentence. Acoustic and electroglottographic recordings allow for estimating fundamental frequency, glottal open quotient and duration. These parameters are compared across tones, experimental conditions and speakers, in order to contribute to a better understanding of glottalization as a feature of linguistic tones. First, allotones of the phonologically glottalized tone in Muong (Tone 4) are classified on a phonetic basis, confirming the consistent presence of creak. It is tempting to contrast it with the glottally constricted tones of Northern Vietnamese (with which Muong is in sustained language contact). However, the phonological discussion emphasizes that analysis of Tone 4 as a prototypical "creaky tone" would be a pitfall. Tone 4 behaves in key respects like the other tones in the system: it is not defined solely by phonation type. Moreover, the range of phonetic (allotonic) variation of Tone 4 includes cases of glottal constriction. Use of a phonetic nomenclature for types of glottalization serves as a basis for describing the interaction of glottalization with intonation.
... This leads to the incorrect understanding of the vocal fold contact operation [46,70,78,79]. Research studies often use non-normalized dEGG or EGG parameters for quantitative analysis [80,81]. The importance of the overall amplitude of the unfiltered EGG signal was discussed in [82] where signal elements below the vibration level of the vocal fold could, in theory, be used to track this function of the vocal fold alteration, that is, systemic changes of the general amplitude may occur in the signal acquired without the AGC. ...
Chapter
Speech is the simplest mode of expression, and any alteration of the vocal cord disrupts its smooth flow. Speech disorders increase vocal exhaustion, pressure, dysphonia, roughness, glottal attack, sore throat, etc. Disruption of a smooth voice in most situations leads to a wide range of psychiatric disorders resulting from stigmatization from peers and the community. It can have detrimental effects in the search for jobs, as well as on social and academic terms. Speech disability also results from brain damage, hearing loss, stroke, and developmental delay. A variety of aspects of voice pathology research are the subject of the present chapter. Applications for the Internet of Things (IoT) and related research work are analyzed in depth. Detailed background information on electroglottography is highlighted, which includes its development, production of vocal folded tone, glottal closure and instant opening, quantitative analysis in terms of frequency and amplitude. Information on some of the most common datasets among researchers are also highlighted. Finally, two separate parts dealing with several important acoustic feature extraction techniques, along with significant pathological voice analysis and identification techniques, are also discussed in great detail.
... Ce qui implique que plusieurs registres peuvent être produits par un même mécanisme laryngé. Il est possible de répertorier les termes qui désignent des registres dans la littérature et de les classer d'après le mécanisme de production (Roubeau, 2009 Dans la littérature, il n'existe que très peu de travaux portant sur les mécanismes laryngés chez l'enfant. Selon certains auteurs, l'enfant émettrait sa voix quotidiennement en M2. ...
Article
"Rééducation Orthophonique" est une revue scientifique trimestrielle, réalisée par la Fédération Nationale des Orthophonistes. Chaque numéro est thématique.
... There are four laryngeal vibratory mechanisms: M0-M3 whose ranges often overlap each other. [4] describes laryngeal vibratory patterns. According to this we used following definitions to distinguish laryngeal vibratory mechanisms in this work: ...
... One of the main tasks of vocal training is to eliminate that vocal breaks during register transitions. It causes structural changes in the glottis and the vibratory characteristics of vocal folds inaudible [4][5][6]. [8] describes singers' strategies to achieve this aim. As mentioned above skilled singers can smooth transitions to make the structural changes of vocal folds vibrations way inaudible. ...
Preprint
In the last few years, researchers have paid increasing attention to singing voice evaluations.In their studies, they observed changes in the vibrations of the vocal folds during the transi-tion of registers. Additionally, they also found that these changes are less visible and audiblein the case of skilled singers. In order to confirm this theory we defined a new parameter,the Passaggio Peak Coefficient (PPC), obtained from an EGG signal to analyse pitch andopen quotient jump characteristics during the transition of vocal registers among 21 femaleand male choir members with different singing skills. The Kruskal-Wallis test proved thatit is possible to distinguish vocal skills, based on the ability to smoothen transitions amongfemale singers at a 5% significance level.
... 15 Different vocal registers can be classified based on the electroglottography (EGG) waveforms and VF vibration mechanisms. 16 M1 and M2 mechanisms are often used when speaking and singing. In M1, the VFs' deep layers vibrate. ...
... Falsetto and female head and middle voices are produced by the M2 mechanism. 16,17 Vocal registers produced by M1 are heavier than those produced by M2. Males have heavier vocal registers and thicker VFs than females during phonation. ...
... Males have heavier vocal registers and thicker VFs than females during phonation. 16 Mclassical singers may use M1 most intensively because falsetto is rarely used during male opera performances; the head voice of male opera singers is produced by M1. Fclassical singers mainly use light vocal registers such as head voice, whereas popular music singers, such as those in the rock genre, mainly use the modal voice. ...
Article
Objectives/Hypothesis Vertical locations of vocal fold mucosal lesions (VFMLs) vary along the free edge. As the vertical contact area of vocal folds (VFs) depends on the vocal register, lesions may occur in the contact area of more frequently used vocal registers. This study investigated the cause of location variations by comparing the vertical sites of VFMLs in singers of both sexes with different music genres. Study Design Retrospective review. Methods Sixty professional classical and rock singers (11 male classical [M‐classical], 22 male rock [M‐rock], 13 female classical [F‐classical], and 14 female rock [F‐rock] singers) who underwent microlaryngeal surgery for VF polyps and nodules and their 108 lesions were enrolled. The VF free edge was vertically divided into three equal parts and classified into the following four lesion sites: upper, middle, lower, and multiple sites. Results Upper lesions were most common among F‐classical singers (73.9%), whereas lower lesions were most common among M‐classical (90.0%) and M‐rock (60.6%) singers. Among lesions localized to a single site, lower lesions were most common among F‐rock singers (37.0%). F‐classical singers had significantly more upper lesions than the other groups (P < .001). M‐classical singers had significantly more lower lesions than female singers of any genre (P < .001). Conclusion Upper lesions were most common among F‐classical singers who mostly used the head voice. Lower lesions were most common among singers who mainly used the modal voice. This study suggests that sex, the dominant vocal register used for singing, and mechanical stress on VFs influence the vertical site of VFMLs. Level of Evidence 4 Laryngoscope, 2021
... Clinicians could evaluate the laryngeal capacity through vocal range and flexibility with ascending/ descending glissandos. 58 Auditory-perceptual assessment Regarding perceptual voice evaluation, although there is still insufficient evidence on instrumentation in telepractice, the following is recommended: ...