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... from our clinical experiences and seminal work on mindfulness (Langer, 1989;Siegel, 2007), we have come to conceptualize DEX on a continuum that ranges from more mind- less exercise to more mindful exercise (see Table 25.1). These opposing dimensions of exercise capture the variety of labels, definitions, and qualities of exercise described in the extant liter- ature, while offering healthier, positive practices to replace DEX. ...

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... To the best our knowledge, the development and implementation of a mindfulness-based exercise intervention programme aiming to decrease body image concerns and disordered eating for healthy female university students is paradoxically rare. However, an intervention to decrease dysfunctional exercise and increase mindfulness in exercising was implemented for clinical samples or patients with eating disorders and depression [52,53,62]. The results of those studies suggest that mindful exercising might help to decrease negative body image in patients with eating disorders. ...
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PurposeThe aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an 8-week classroom education and mindfulness-based physical activity intervention for the promotion of positive body image in female students.MethodsA quasi-experimental study was carried out with 110 Lithuanian female students (mean age 21.5 ± 3.5, range 19–35 years). Thirty students voluntarily participated in the intervention programme and 80 students volunteered in the assessment-only control group. The intervention comprised five cognitive behavioural therapy classroom education sessions and mindfulness-based exercise (one exercise workout per week). The intervention group was evaluated with a pre-test and post-test and the control group completed measures at parallel times.ResultsCompared with the control group participants, the intervention group participants reported greater improvements in positive body image and a reduction in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness and internalisation of stereotyped beauty ideals, with medium to large effects. There were significant time × group interactions for pre-test to post-test changes in internalisation of beauty ideals, body area satisfaction, body dissatisfaction and body appreciation. In all cases, the interaction reflected greater pre-test to post-test changes in the intervention group compared with the control group, whose scores remained stable. A decrease in appearance orientation, overweight preoccupation, disordered eating and physical activity was observed in the control group, but the effect sizes were low.Conclusion The preliminary findings of this study support the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy methods and mindfulness-based exercise intervention aimed to promote positive body image in student-aged women. Future studies should test the efficacy of the introduced programme in larger randomised samples of young women.Level IVEvidence obtained from multiple time series with or without an intervention.
... Prevalence rates range between 31 and 81% [13][14][15][16] in patients with AN and 20-66% [17][18][19] in patients with BN. However, only over the past years the importance of integrating healthy exercise in ED treatment was recognized [20][21][22] and three comprehensive treatment approaches were developed [23][24][25]. As pointed out repeatedly, progress in research on CE will remain limited as long as no consensus framework for definition and assessment of CE exists, because results cannot be compared across clinical studies [26][27][28]. ...
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Background Compulsive exercise has been recognized as a highly prevalent symptom in eating disorders (ED) for over 100 years and is associated with poor short-term and long-term treatment outcome. Progress in understanding and treatment of compulsive exercise will remain limited as long as no consensus framework for definition and assessment of compulsive exercise exists, as results cannot be compared across clinical studies. Based on existing literature, it was our aim to propose a transdiagnostic definition and a clinical assessment for compulsive exercise, that can be applied to adolescent and adult patients with ED. Method During a series of meetings of experienced clinicians at a highly specialized hospital for eating disorders, we elaborated a transdiagnostic definition of compulsive exercise in ED. Additionally, we derived a clinical interview for the assessment of compulsive exercise and its different subtypes. Results The core criterion when defining and assessing compulsive exercise is a pathologically increased exercise pattern characterized by 1) excessive exercise that a patient feels driven to perform in response to an obsession or according to rules that must be applied rigidly, and 2) exercise that is aimed at preventing or reducing distress or at preventing some dreaded consequence. A second necessary criterion is the physical or psychological burden caused by compulsive exercise, i.e., that it is time-consuming, significantly interferes with the patient’s daily routine, occupational functioning or social relationships or is continued despite medical injury, illness, or lack of enjoyment. Insight that compulsive exercise is excessive or unreasonable was added as an optional criterion. Compulsive exercise manifests itself in three different subtypes: 1) vigorous exercise, 2) marked increase in daily movement, or 3) motor restlessness. The above criteria must be met during the past 6 months, together with one of the three subtypes of compulsive exercise. Conclusions The proposed criteria aim to foster the discussion around definition and assessment of compulsive exercise with the goal of reaching an international consensus in the near future. Providing a consistent framework for researchers and clinicians would considerably advance understanding and treatment of compulsive exercise in ED patients.
... While there may be an emerging consensus on the multidimensionality of excessive exercise, there have been several different definitions and labels assigned to this construct. Excessive exercise has been described as obligatory exercise (Pasman & Thompson, 1988), compulsive exercise (Yates, 1991), exercise dependence (Ogden, Veale, & Summers, 1997), exercise addiction (Terry, Szabo, & Griffiths, 2004), and dysfunctional exercise (Calogero & Pedrotty-Stump, 2010). Since a universal definition and underlying cause have not yet been determined, the more general term excessive exercise will be used in this article whenever possible. ...
... Importantly, the adoption of process-focused exercise diminishes the " obligatory " emotional element of exercise (Calogero & Pedrotty, 2004). Programs aimed at the prevention or treatment of eating disorders may benefit from the inclusion of mindful exercise (i.e., positive mindset toward exercise) that is associated with improved psychopathology (Calogero & Pedrotty-Stump, 2010). This study has several limitations to its design and the external validity of its findings. ...
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This study examined associations among eating disorder characteristics, excessive exercise, and selected psychological attributes in college students (N = 499). Male and female participants were recruited from university psychology courses and administered the Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire (OEQ), Mental Health Inventory, Eating Self-Efficacy Scale, Revised Restraint Scale, and Eating Disorder Inventory. Results confirmed the multidimensionality of excessive exercise for both males and females. Profiles of male and female exercisers were developed based on the clustering of scores on the OEQ’s factor analytically derived subscales. Specific qualitative aspects of exercise (e.g., emotionality and obsession), rather than the quantity of exercise, were found to be associated with eating disorder traits and, for some groups, psychological distress (PD). For other groups, such as female excessive exercisers, exercise seems to act as a coping mechanism, thereby lessening PD and enhancing well-being.
... Consistent with the novel prediction of our study, self-surveillance predicted more guilt about bodily appearance, which in turn predicted unique variance in eating restraint. These findings are consistent with prior scholarship demonstrating the predictive value of objectification theory for explaining women's subjective bodily experiences (Calogero, Tantleff-Dunn, et al., 2010; Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997; Moradi & Huang, 2008 ...
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Two studies investigated body guilt (i.e., feeling regret and remorse over how the body looks and a desire for reparative action to “fix” the body) within the framework of objectification theory among predominantly White British undergraduate women. In Study 1 (N = 225), participants completed self-report measures of interpersonal sexual objectification, self-surveillance, body shame, body guilt, and eating restraint. Path analyses indicated support for the inclusion of body guilt in the objectification model, with body shame and body guilt fully mediating the relationship between self-surveillance and eating restraint. In Study 2 (N = 85), participants reported higher body guilt, self-surveillance, body shame, and eating restraint when self-objectification was situationally activated, compared to the activation of body empowerment or a neutral condition. Path analyses in the second study replicated the objectification model from Study 1 with a state measure of self-objectification. These findings suggest that women also feel guilt (in addition to shame) about their bodies when attention is directed toward their physical appearance and wish to “correct” their body via disordered eating. Acknowledging women’s feelings of guilt in relation to not meeting restrictive beauty standards furthers our understanding of women’s experience of objectification and provides an additional target for reducing women’s mental health risks.
Article
Full-text available
Two studies investigated body guilt (i.e., feeling regret and remorse over how the body looks and a desire for reparative actionto ‘‘fix’’ the body) within the framework of objectification theory among predominantly White British undergraduate women.In Study 1 (N¼225), participants completed self-report measures of interpersonal sexual objectification, self-surveillance,body shame, body guilt, and eating restraint. Path analyses indicated support for the inclusion of body guilt in the objectificationmodel, with body shame and body guilt fully mediating the relationship between self-surveillance and eating restraint. In Study 2(N¼85), participants reported higher body guilt, self-surveillance, body shame, and eating restraint when self-objectificationwas situationally activated, compared to the activation of body empowerment or a neutral condition. Path analyses in the sec-ond study replicated the objectification model from Study 1 with a state measure of self-objectification. These findings suggestthat women also feel guilt (in addition to shame) about their bodies when attention is directed toward their physical appear-ance and wish to ‘‘correct’’ their body via disordered eating. Acknowledging women’s feelings of guilt in relation to not meet-ing restrictive beauty standards furthers our understanding of women’s experience of objectification and provides anadditional target for reducing women’s mental health risks.