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Quadmodal is the preferred style among male multimodal learners, whereas females have a variety of preferences. Left : of the female students who preferred three modes of information presentation, some students preferred V, R, and K (4.2%); some students preferred V, A, and K (4.2%); and some students preferred A, R, and K (4.2%). Of the female students who preferred two modes of information presentation, some students preferred V and K (4.2%), some students preferred A and K (4.2%), and some students preferred R and K (4.2%). Of the students who preferred four modes of information presentation, all students preferred V, A, R, and K (20.8%). Right : of the male students who preferred three modes of information presentation, equal percentages preferred V, R, and K (4.2%); V, A, and K (4.2%); and A, R, and K (4.2%). Of the male students who preferred two modes of information presentation, 8.3% preferred V and K, while equal percentages preferred A and R (4.2%) and R and K (4.2%). Of the students who preferred four modes of information presentation, all students preferred V, A, R, and K (58.3%). n ϭ 48 respondents. 

Quadmodal is the preferred style among male multimodal learners, whereas females have a variety of preferences. Left : of the female students who preferred three modes of information presentation, some students preferred V, R, and K (4.2%); some students preferred V, A, and K (4.2%); and some students preferred A, R, and K (4.2%). Of the female students who preferred two modes of information presentation, some students preferred V and K (4.2%), some students preferred A and K (4.2%), and some students preferred R and K (4.2%). Of the students who preferred four modes of information presentation, all students preferred V, A, R, and K (20.8%). Right : of the male students who preferred three modes of information presentation, equal percentages preferred V, R, and K (4.2%); V, A, and K (4.2%); and A, R, and K (4.2%). Of the male students who preferred two modes of information presentation, 8.3% preferred V and K, while equal percentages preferred A and R (4.2%) and R and K (4.2%). Of the students who preferred four modes of information presentation, all students preferred V, A, R, and K (58.3%). n ϭ 48 respondents. 

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Students have individual learning style preferences including visual (V; learning from graphs, charts, and flow diagrams), auditory (A; learning from speech), read-write (R; learning from reading and writing), and kinesthetic (K; learning from touch, hearing, smell, taste, and sight). These preferences can be assessed using the VARK questionnaire....

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Context 1
... As instructors, we need to find ways to improve instruction at all levels of education to improve student learning, retention, and motivation. One way to improve student motivation and performance is to adapt teaching approaches to meet the different learning style preferences of our students (21). Learning style preferences are the manner in which, and the conditions under which, learners most efficiently and effectively perceive, process, store, and recall what they are attempting to learn (16). Although it is known that students have a variety of learning style preferences (20), it is unknown if gender differences in learning style preferences exists among undergraduate physiology students. Knowing the students’ learning style preferences will aide in the development of the most effective teaching approaches (25). There are many methods available for assessing learning styles, with each method offering a distinctly different view of learning style preferences. The method used in this study defines the preference in learning style based on the sensory modality in which a student prefers to take in new information. The three major sensory modalities are defined by the neural system that is preferred when receiving information: visual (V), aural (A), and kinesthetic (K), collectively known as VAK. In other words, VAK categorizes student learning based on the sensory preference of the individual. This classification system was recently expanded by Fleming (11) to VARK to include another category: read-write (R, a mixed sensory modality that is not assessed under VAK). Students with a V preference learn best by seeing or observ- ing (drawings, pictures, diagrams, demonstrations, etc). Learners that prefer A are best suited to learn by listening to or recording lectures, discussing material, and talking through material with themselves or others. R-type learners learn through interactions with textual materials. K-style learners perform best by using physical experiences: touching, perform- ing an activity, moving, lessons that emphasize doing, and manipulation of objects. Student learners are capable of using all of these sensory modes of learning; however, each individual has a unique preference, or set of preferences, in which one mode is often dominant (8). Learners with a single learning style preference are referred to as unimodal, whereas others preferring a variety of styles are known as multimodal. Of the multimodal learners, there are subclassifications for bi-, tri-, and quadmodal learners, who prefer to use two, three, or four styles, respectively. We were interested in assessing the preferred learning styles of physiology undergraduate majors to determine if males and females have similar learning styles. Having this information may assist in the development and implementation of gender- specific teaching approaches that would maximize student motivation and learning by tailoring instruction to student needs. To achieve these aims, we tested the hypothesis that males and females have different learning style preferences. Fleming’s (12) VARK inventory tool for assessing individual learning style preferences was administered to our undergraduate physiology majors. Figure 1 shows the percentages of female and male students who preferred unimodal versus multimodal information presentation. Females preferred unimodal learning, whereas males preferred multimodal learning. Specifically, 54.2% of females and only 12.5% of males preferred a single mode of information presentation. Of the females who preferred multiple modes of information presentation (45.8%), 12.5% of the students preferred two modes (bimodal), 12.5% of the students preferred three modes (trimodal), and 20.8% of the students preferred four modes (quadmodal). Of the males who preferred multiple modes of information presentation (87.5%), some preferred two modes (bimodal, 16.7%), three modes (trimodal, 12.5%), or four modes (quadmodal, 58.3%). Of the female unimodal learners, 4.2% of the students preferred V, 0% of the students preferred A, 16.7% of the students preferred R, and 33.3% of the students preferred K (Fig. 2, left ). In contrast, males were evenly distributed in unimodal preference with 4.2% of the students preferring A, R, or K, whereas 0% of the students preferred V (Fig. 2, right ). Quadmodal was the preferred style among male multimodal learners, whereas females had a variety of preferences. Of the female students who preferred three modes of information presentation, some students preferred V, R, and K (4.2%), some students preferred V, A, and K (4.2%), and some students preferred A, R, and K (4.2%). Of the female students who preferred two modes of information presentation, some stu- dents preferred V and K (4.2%), some students preferred A and K (4.2%), and some students preferred R and K (4.2%). Of the students who preferred four modes of information presentation, all students preferred V, A, R, and K (20.8%; Fig. 3, left ). Of the male students who preferred three modes of information presentation, equal percentages preferred V, R, and K (4.2%); V, A, and K (4.2%); and A, R, and K (4.2%). Of the male students who preferred two modes of information presentation, 8.3% preferred V and K, while equal percentages preferred A and R (4.2%), and R and K (4.2%). Of the students who preferred four modes of information presentation, all students preferred V, A, R, and K (58.3%; Fig. 3, right ). The purpose of the study was to assess gender differences in learning style preferences among undergraduate physiology students. This study was performed as a followup to Lujan and DiCarlo’s assessment of learning styles preferences among first-year medical students, which showed that among medical students, only 36.1% of the students preferred a single mode of information presentation. In contrast, most students (63.8%) preferred multiple modes of information presentation (20). In that study, the authors suggested that gender differences in learning preferences be assessed. To address this important issue, we administered the VARK questionnaire to physiology undergraduate students enrolled in a capstone laboratory course and asked students to voluntarily provide gender information. The responses were tallied and assessed for gender differences in learning style preferences. Importantly, 87.5% of males but only 45.8% of females preferred multiple modes of presentation. Thus, in contrast to females, the majority of males preferred multiple modes of information presentation. Male students may adjust to the different teaching styles faced in a day or they may opt in and out of alternative strategies, such as being visual in cardiovascular physiology and reading/ writing in respiratory physiology, for example (11). In contrast, the majority of female students (54.2%) preferred a single mode of information presentation, either V, A, R, or K. Unlike male students, females preferred information to be presented in a single mode. Although female learners can use all of the sensory modes in learning, one mode is dominant and preferred. Finally, only 12.5% of males preferred a single mode of information presentation. Some students, male or female, may prefer one of the modalities over the others so strongly that they struggle to understand the subject matter unless special care is taken to present it in their preference mode. The knowledge of student preferred learning styles is vital if we, as educators, are to provide tailored strategies for individual students (11). Knowing students’ preferred learning style also helps to overcome the predisposition of many educators to treat all students in a similar way (11) as well as motivate teachers to move from their preferred mode(s) to using others. In so doing, they can reach more students because of the better match between teacher and learner styles (1, 2, 9, 13, 17, 18, 21, 22, 24, 26). For example, there is a clear trend in university teaching to instruct all students in the same way (i.e., a straight lecture format). Educators use this lecture format because of the relative ease of information passing, the need to cover the content, a long history of traditional lecturing, and perhaps due to their own preferences in learning. The results of the VARK questionnaire should convince teachers to use multiple modes of information presentation. This may require instructors to stray from their own preferred mode(s) of teaching and learn to using a variety of styles, which will positively affect learning. By using a variety of teaching approaches, teachers will reach more students because of the better match between teacher and learner styles. In some cases, it may be difficult to tailor coursework to the individual learning styles of each student. However, in these situations, by being aware of their learning style, the students may contribute to their academic success by promoting self- awareness and their use of learning strategies that work for their learning style (25). It is essential that an instructor’s teaching style provide access for students with different learn- ing styles during the experiences of a course. The key to retaining a broad swath of students interested in science is differentiated instruction, a teaching style that derives from multiple pedagogical approaches and not a singular approach (25). There is a large body of literature available on gender differences in learning, and providing a comprehensive review of this topic is beyond the scope of this paper. Briefly, a gender-based preference in learning style is only one area in which males and females are unique. It has been reported that males have a preference for rational evaluation and logic, whereas females use “elaborative” processing in which they tend to seek personal relevance or individual connections with the material being taught (19). In addition, males tend to be more achievement oriented, whereas females ...
Context 2
... what they are attempting to learn (16). Although it is known that students have a variety of learning style preferences (20), it is unknown if gender differences in learning style preferences exists among undergraduate physiology students. Knowing the students’ learning style preferences will aide in the development of the most effective teaching approaches (25). There are many methods available for assessing learning styles, with each method offering a distinctly different view of learning style preferences. The method used in this study defines the preference in learning style based on the sensory modality in which a student prefers to take in new information. The three major sensory modalities are defined by the neural system that is preferred when receiving information: visual (V), aural (A), and kinesthetic (K), collectively known as VAK. In other words, VAK categorizes student learning based on the sensory preference of the individual. This classification system was recently expanded by Fleming (11) to VARK to include another category: read-write (R, a mixed sensory modality that is not assessed under VAK). Students with a V preference learn best by seeing or observ- ing (drawings, pictures, diagrams, demonstrations, etc). Learners that prefer A are best suited to learn by listening to or recording lectures, discussing material, and talking through material with themselves or others. R-type learners learn through interactions with textual materials. K-style learners perform best by using physical experiences: touching, perform- ing an activity, moving, lessons that emphasize doing, and manipulation of objects. Student learners are capable of using all of these sensory modes of learning; however, each individual has a unique preference, or set of preferences, in which one mode is often dominant (8). Learners with a single learning style preference are referred to as unimodal, whereas others preferring a variety of styles are known as multimodal. Of the multimodal learners, there are subclassifications for bi-, tri-, and quadmodal learners, who prefer to use two, three, or four styles, respectively. We were interested in assessing the preferred learning styles of physiology undergraduate majors to determine if males and females have similar learning styles. Having this information may assist in the development and implementation of gender- specific teaching approaches that would maximize student motivation and learning by tailoring instruction to student needs. To achieve these aims, we tested the hypothesis that males and females have different learning style preferences. Fleming’s (12) VARK inventory tool for assessing individual learning style preferences was administered to our undergraduate physiology majors. Figure 1 shows the percentages of female and male students who preferred unimodal versus multimodal information presentation. Females preferred unimodal learning, whereas males preferred multimodal learning. Specifically, 54.2% of females and only 12.5% of males preferred a single mode of information presentation. Of the females who preferred multiple modes of information presentation (45.8%), 12.5% of the students preferred two modes (bimodal), 12.5% of the students preferred three modes (trimodal), and 20.8% of the students preferred four modes (quadmodal). Of the males who preferred multiple modes of information presentation (87.5%), some preferred two modes (bimodal, 16.7%), three modes (trimodal, 12.5%), or four modes (quadmodal, 58.3%). Of the female unimodal learners, 4.2% of the students preferred V, 0% of the students preferred A, 16.7% of the students preferred R, and 33.3% of the students preferred K (Fig. 2, left ). In contrast, males were evenly distributed in unimodal preference with 4.2% of the students preferring A, R, or K, whereas 0% of the students preferred V (Fig. 2, right ). Quadmodal was the preferred style among male multimodal learners, whereas females had a variety of preferences. Of the female students who preferred three modes of information presentation, some students preferred V, R, and K (4.2%), some students preferred V, A, and K (4.2%), and some students preferred A, R, and K (4.2%). Of the female students who preferred two modes of information presentation, some stu- dents preferred V and K (4.2%), some students preferred A and K (4.2%), and some students preferred R and K (4.2%). Of the students who preferred four modes of information presentation, all students preferred V, A, R, and K (20.8%; Fig. 3, left ). Of the male students who preferred three modes of information presentation, equal percentages preferred V, R, and K (4.2%); V, A, and K (4.2%); and A, R, and K (4.2%). Of the male students who preferred two modes of information presentation, 8.3% preferred V and K, while equal percentages preferred A and R (4.2%), and R and K (4.2%). Of the students who preferred four modes of information presentation, all students preferred V, A, R, and K (58.3%; Fig. 3, right ). The purpose of the study was to assess gender differences in learning style preferences among undergraduate physiology students. This study was performed as a followup to Lujan and DiCarlo’s assessment of learning styles preferences among first-year medical students, which showed that among medical students, only 36.1% of the students preferred a single mode of information presentation. In contrast, most students (63.8%) preferred multiple modes of information presentation (20). In that study, the authors suggested that gender differences in learning preferences be assessed. To address this important issue, we administered the VARK questionnaire to physiology undergraduate students enrolled in a capstone laboratory course and asked students to voluntarily provide gender information. The responses were tallied and assessed for gender differences in learning style preferences. Importantly, 87.5% of males but only 45.8% of females preferred multiple modes of presentation. Thus, in contrast to females, the majority of males preferred multiple modes of information presentation. Male students may adjust to the different teaching styles faced in a day or they may opt in and out of alternative strategies, such as being visual in cardiovascular physiology and reading/ writing in respiratory physiology, for example (11). In contrast, the majority of female students (54.2%) preferred a single mode of information presentation, either V, A, R, or K. Unlike male students, females preferred information to be presented in a single mode. Although female learners can use all of the sensory modes in learning, one mode is dominant and preferred. Finally, only 12.5% of males preferred a single mode of information presentation. Some students, male or female, may prefer one of the modalities over the others so strongly that they struggle to understand the subject matter unless special care is taken to present it in their preference mode. The knowledge of student preferred learning styles is vital if we, as educators, are to provide tailored strategies for individual students (11). Knowing students’ preferred learning style also helps to overcome the predisposition of many educators to treat all students in a similar way (11) as well as motivate teachers to move from their preferred mode(s) to using others. In so doing, they can reach more students because of the better match between teacher and learner styles (1, 2, 9, 13, 17, 18, 21, 22, 24, 26). For example, there is a clear trend in university teaching to instruct all students in the same way (i.e., a straight lecture format). Educators use this lecture format because of the relative ease of information passing, the need to cover the content, a long history of traditional lecturing, and perhaps due to their own preferences in learning. The results of the VARK questionnaire should convince teachers to use multiple modes of information presentation. This may require instructors to stray from their own preferred mode(s) of teaching and learn to using a variety of styles, which will positively affect learning. By using a variety of teaching approaches, teachers will reach more students because of the better match between teacher and learner styles. In some cases, it may be difficult to tailor coursework to the individual learning styles of each student. However, in these situations, by being aware of their learning style, the students may contribute to their academic success by promoting self- awareness and their use of learning strategies that work for their learning style (25). It is essential that an instructor’s teaching style provide access for students with different learn- ing styles during the experiences of a course. The key to retaining a broad swath of students interested in science is differentiated instruction, a teaching style that derives from multiple pedagogical approaches and not a singular approach (25). There is a large body of literature available on gender differences in learning, and providing a comprehensive review of this topic is beyond the scope of this paper. Briefly, a gender-based preference in learning style is only one area in which males and females are unique. It has been reported that males have a preference for rational evaluation and logic, whereas females use “elaborative” processing in which they tend to seek personal relevance or individual connections with the material being taught (19). In addition, males tend to be more achievement oriented, whereas females are more socially and performance oriented (7). The genders also differ in their beliefs about what is most important to student learning, with females ranking social interaction with other students and self-confidence as higher than males (3). Furthermore, males are likely to attribute their success in the classroom to external causes, such as teaching, whereas females generally see their success are being directly related to their efforts in the classroom (15). ...

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... Chanlin (1999Chanlin ( , 2001 and Luik (2011) in their research have reported that males held a more positive attitude towards the use of computers. Wehrwein et al. (2007) reported that in their study the female participants preferred unimodal learning whereas male subjects preferred multimodal learning. By contrast, in the study undertaken by Bollinger and Supanakorn (2011), found that the females appeared to prefer more multimodal learning than the males. ...
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Human anatomy is an essential component of the medical curricula. Anatomy education has been significantly affected during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to explore student’s perceptions on a blended learning approach using Checklist-based Active Learning in Anatomy Demonstration Sessions (CALADS) as a method in comparison to the two previously used methods; namely face-to-face Structured Problem-Related Anatomy Demonstrations (SPRAD) and online anatomy learning. A comparative, cross-sectional, survey-based study was conducted. The survey was composed of 13 questions that explored preference of learning anatomy in demonstration sessions of 4th year pre-clerkship students who have had their anatomy learning through face-to-face SPRAD in year 2 (before the COVID-19 pandemic), online in year 3 (during the COVID-19 pandemic), and CALADS method in year 4. Descriptive statistics were used, and the level of significance was set at p < 0.05. The survey exhibited high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.953). Validity of the survey was established through exploratory factor analysis. The preferred method for more than half of the students was the CALADS method. Face-to-face SPRAD came next and lastly came the online method. However, more students preferred the online method in comparison to face-to-face method for “learning radiological anatomy”. There were no statistically significant differences between male and female students regarding any of the survey questions. CALADS method, as a hybrid, student-centered, interactive learning method of learning practical anatomy, was preferred by pre-clerkship students as a more effective method in understanding anatomy than face-to-face and online learning methods.
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... We believe information about the undergraduates' learning styles may also yield similar benefits. It is indispensable for undergraduates to be self-aware about their learning preferences in order to modify their study techniques accordingly (Wehrwein et al., 2007). Moreover, recognising their learning styles is inevitably vital from a pedagogical point of view (Afshan, 2019). ...
... Although both genders preferred multimodal learning, there was a higher preference for multimodal learning among males when compared to female Gen Z undergraduates. This finding was the same as the previous studies among undergraduates (Afshan, 2019;Veena & Shastri, 2013;Wehrwein et al., 2007). It is unclear regarding the reasons for the same. ...
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A new generation (Generation Z) of learners has entered universities/colleges. They were raised in an environment full of technology and high access to the online world which well affected their preferences for receiving information. It is indispensable to know their preferred learning style, which could aid in enhanced content delivery. The main aim of this study was to infer the Gen Z undergraduates’ learning preferences. In this cross-sectional study, convenience sampling was applied. The VARK questionnaire link was forwarded through the student WhatsApp groups. Descriptive and group comparisons were inferred using the chi-square test with p < 0.05 as level of significance. Three hundred Gen Z undergraduates from University of Cyberjaya participated in this study. There is a statistically significant higher preference for multimodal learning (75.7%) with higher preference among male Gen Z undergraduates. There is a statistically significant difference in the preference for various learning styles among the undergraduates who preferred unimodal learning style. Gen Z undergraduates at the University of Cyberjaya preferred the multimodal form of learning while the kinaesthetic mode of learning was highly preferred by both unimodal and multimodal learners.
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The German healthcare system is facing a major transformation towards digitalized medicine. The aim was to find out the attitude and the degree of preparation of upcoming medical professionals for digital medicine. By means of an online survey, medical students from 38 German faculties were asked about different topics concerning digitalization. Most students (70.0%) indicated that they had not had any university courses on digital topics. Thus, only 22.2% feel prepared for the technical reality of digitalized medicine. Most fear losing patient contact because of digital-ized medicine and assume that the medical profession will not be endangered by digitalization. Security systems, data protection, infrastructure and inadequate training are cited as the top problems of digitalization in medicine. Medical students have major concerns about incorrect decisions and the consecutive medicolegal aspects of using digital support as part their treatment plans. Dig-italization in medicine is progressing faster than it can currently be implemented in the practical work. The generations involved have different understandings of technology, and there is a lack of curricular training in medical schools. There must be a significant improvement in training in digital medical skills so that the current and future healthcare professionals are better prepared for digital-ized medicine.
... Learning strategy provides English teachers and students with the tools they need to develop their knowledge of the English language in the classroom, making it an essential component of English language teaching (Khansir et al., 2021). Similarly, adapting teaching approaches to meet students' various learning style preferences is one way to improve student motivation and performance (Wehrwein et al., 2007). English as an international language is becoming increasingly important to learn because it is required for communication and success in education or the workplace. ...
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This research investigates the learning strategies used by English as a foreign language (EFL) students and gender differences in the strategy inventory for language learning (SILL) in Indonesia. To gather the data, this study employed quantitative descriptive methods with a Google form-based questionnaire involving 110 college students, and the data were analysed using SPSS 25. The fifty items of the questionnaire were divided into six strategies: memory strategy, cognitive strategy, metacognitive strategy, compensation strategy, emotion strategy, and social strategy. Findings of the study indicate that the students use all the strategies in learning English, and all these strategies are in a high level of use except for memory strategy which is in a moderate level. Gender differences data show that most male students preferred the social strategy (36%), whereas most female students preferred metacognitive strategy (56.47%) suggesting that male and female students have different learning styles. The results of this research shed light on the importance of raising teachers’ awareness of their students’ diversity in learning strategies. Thus, teachers should improve their repertoire of teaching techniques and strategies to meet students’ different learning styles in the classroom. ABSTRAKPenelitian ini menyelidiki strategi pembelajaran yang digunakan oleh siswa bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa asing (EFL) dan perbedaan gender dalam inventarisasi strategi untuk pembelajaran bahasa (SILL) di Indonesia. Untuk mengumpulkan data, penelitian ini menggunakan metode kuantitatif dengan kuesioner berbasis Google form yang melibatkan 110 mahasiswa, dan data dianalisis menggunakan SPSS 25. Lima puluh item kuesioner dibagi menjadi enam strategi: strategi memori, strategi kognitif, strategi metakognitif. strategi, strategi kompensasi, strategi emosi, dan strategi sosial. Temuan penelitian menunjukkan bahwa siswa menggunakan semua strategi dalam belajar bahasa Inggris, dan semua jenis strategi berada di tingkat tinggi kecuali strategi memori yang berada di tingkat sedang. Data perbedaan gender menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar siswa laki-laki lebih menyukai strategi sosial (36%), sedangkan sebagian besar siswa perempuan lebih menyukai strategi metakognitif (56,47%) menunjukkan bahwa siswa laki-laki dan perempuan memiliki gaya belajar yang berbeda secara signifikan. Hasil penelitian ini menyoroti pentingnya meningkatkan kesadaran guru tentang keragaman siswa mereka dalam strategi pembelajaran. Dengan demikian, guru harus meningkatkan repertoar teknik dan strategi pengajaran mereka untuk memenuhi gaya belajar siswa yang berbeda di kelas.
... Among all these studies there was no association of the gender with any preferred learning style while the findings regarding gender association were quite different in a study conducted by Wehrwein EA, Lujan HL, DiCarlo SE. where male students predominantly preferred quad modal instruction, while the majority of female students opted for the unimodal instruction with a preference 16 for Kinesthetic mode. Hence showing that male and female students have significantly different learning styles. ...
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Objective: To determine the most preferred learning styles of the medical undergraduates and to emphasize upon its utility in student centered teaching. Results: Out of 85 students who took part amongst 100, 29% were males while 71% were females. The mean age of participants was 18.3 years. About 63% students preferred multimodal learning style while among the students preferred unimodal learning style, the predominant learning style identified was kinesthetic (34%), followed by auditory (15%) and visual (12%) and lastly read-write (8%). Conclusion: The students prefer to use a combination of learning styles rather than sticking to one style predominantly. The cognizance of educators for learning styles of the students and planning of teaching activities accordingly optimizes their learning.