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Protein yields of modern varieties and breeding lines, varieties bred for organic farming and landraces or very old varieties in an environment with high and low average protein yield, respectively . The latter group have relatively high protein yields in the lowyielding environments, but low performance in the high-yielding environments . Results of a linear regression analysis on 70 genotypes in 9 environments; see Baresel et al. (2005) for details.  

Protein yields of modern varieties and breeding lines, varieties bred for organic farming and landraces or very old varieties in an environment with high and low average protein yield, respectively . The latter group have relatively high protein yields in the lowyielding environments, but low performance in the high-yielding environments . Results of a linear regression analysis on 70 genotypes in 9 environments; see Baresel et al. (2005) for details.  

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Modern agriculture and conventional breeding and the liberal use of high inputs has resulted in the loss of genetic diversity and the stagnation of yields in cereals in less favourable areas. Increasingly landraces are being replaced by modern cultivars which are less resilient to pests, diseases and abiotic stresses and thereby losing a valuable s...

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Modern agriculture and conventional breeding and the liberal use of high inputs has resulted in the loss of genetic diversity and the stagnation of yields in cereals in less favourable areas. Increasingly landraces are being replaced by modern cultivars which are less resilient to pests, diseases and abiotic stresses and thereby losing a valuable s...

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... We also found that 32 landraces from Southern-Central China have multiple agronomically desirable traits and have undergone improvement by humans for at least 200 years; these materials should be considered for use as elite parents in rice bean breeding programs. Historically, elite landraces of other crops have been hugely beneficial to modern breeding 26,102,103 , for example with Taiwanese landraces in rice 104 : the so-called "miracle rice" IR8 with high yield supported the Green Revolution in Asia, and this line harbored a semi-dwarf allele from the Taiwanese landrace Dee-Geo-Woo-Gen 105 . Although QTLs for stem determinacy and seed yield-related traits were detected by our GWAS analyses in one and two environments respectively, further efforts should be made to investigate the robustness of these QTLs in more different environments. ...
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... As reported in Zeven [14], the term landrace designates a variety characterized by high yield stability and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress conditions, capable of giving intermediate production yields under low agronomic input. Some outcomes of the transition from landraces to improved varieties have been a decrease in the protein percentage of the caryopsis [15] along with an increased gluten content [16] and genetic homogeneity among genotypes [17]. Significant differences are reported comparing the agronomic characteristics between old and modern varieties, the former presenting generally a lower yield [18], higher plant height and hectoliter weight [19] and increased 1000 kernel weight [20]. ...
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... However, cereal landraces are still considered important in agricultural production, particularly in marginal lands and mountain areas where hybrids lose their competitive advantage [16][17][18]. In fact, the adaptability of landraces to unfavourable conditions contributes to yield stability [19] and to abiotic and biotic stress tolerance [20,21]. In this context, the selection for specific adaptation to each target environment is particularly important in crops that are grown in unfavourable conditions, e.g., mountain areas, because unfavourable environments can be very different from each other, whereas favourable environments tend to be similar [22]. ...
... Landraces are one of the most threatened components of agrobiodiversity worldwide, facing the risk of genetic erosion [15]. Despite their progressive abandonment, cereal landraces still continue to be important in agricultural production, mainly in marginal lands and mountain areas where modern hybrids lose their competitive advantage [18]: their adaptability to unfavourable conditions contributes to yield stability [19] and to abiotic and biotic stress tolerance [20,21,32]. ...
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... Recent advancements in genotyping have allowed for the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the use of marker assisted breeding (Mano and Takeda, 1997;Tavakkoli et al., 2010;Zhou et al., 2012;Ashraf and Foolad, 2013). These tools have the potential to identify regions associated with salinity tolerance from sources such as tolerant landraces (Newton et al., 2010;Allel et al., 2016;Dwivedi et al., 2016). For example, QTLs were found in a Chinese landrace by Xu et al. (2012), as well as the potential loci found in wild varieties of barley (Nevo and Chen, 2010), both showing associations with increased salinity tolerance in barley. ...
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... The greatest genetic diversity of the species is concentrated in the centers of the origin and diversification of maize, and this specie continues to evolve under domestication, commonly classified phenotypically in native populations, landraces, or races. These landraces and races are highly heterogeneous and phenotypically share common morpho-agronomic biochemical characteristics and are adapted to certain geographic regions (Vielle-Calzada and Padilla, 2009;Newton et al., 2010). The biochemical composition of the grain is the product of selection by farmers in their cultivation plots and storage places (Hoogendoom et al., 2018) to satisfy their family nutritional needs and of adaptation to agroecological crop conditions and is a research hotspot for the landraces of blue, red, yellow, purple and variegated grains as sources of secondary metabolites, minerals, protein and starch and their interaction with abiotic factors and crop conditions (Domínguez-Hernández et al., 2022). ...
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... Barley landraces represent a wide genetic variation for desirable agronomic characteristics , and successful transfer of desired agronomical traits with specific genes to new varieties of crops is possible (Newton et al., 2010). In addition, emphasis on the collection of those genetic resources from their natural range or habitat and also their conservation should be undertaken (Frankel and Hawkes, 1975). ...
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Seedling stage reactions of thirty-eight 2-rowed barley landraces representing different areas of Turkey obtained from Osman Tosun Gene Bank to two Pyrenophora teres f. teres isolates were evaluated. In addition, barley cultivars Bülbül 89 and Avcı 2002 were included. Landraces exhibited different reactions to the disease and their reactions ranged from resistant- moderately resistant to susceptible. Landrace number 33 obtained from Diyarbakır was found the most resistant to the disease compared to all other landraces whereas landrace number 10 obtained from Bilecik-Söğüt, and cultivar Bülbül 89 were the most susceptible. The majority of the landraces were classified between the Moderately Resistant-Moderately Susceptible to Moderately Susceptible-Susceptible. Landrace number 33 exhibited Resistant-Moderately Resistant reactions to both isolates. This landrace from Diyarbakır could be used as the seed source and in the breeding studies for obtaining barley cultivars resistant to the net form of net blotch disease.
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... La topographie complexe et l'hétérogénéité environnementale du pays couplées avec l'histoire de longue date et la diversité culturelle de sa population ont favorisé l'évolution et l'existence d'un large éventail de populations locales d'orge (Birouk et al., 1995;Amri et al., 1997, Amri et al., 2005, Jensen et al., 2013. Du fait de leur adaptation ancienne à des conditions environnementales très variables et à des pratiques agronomiques locales, les populations traditionnelles d'orge ont accumulé une vaste gamme de variabilité génétique, ce qui rend leur conservation, caractérisation et utilisation importantes (Newton et al., 2010;Comadran et al., 2011;Yahiaoui et al., 2014;Dwivedi et al., 2017, Piechota et al., 2019. À cet effet, plusieurs populations locales d'orge issues de différentes régions du Maroc sont conservées dans la banque de gènes de l'INRA. ...
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... As the chilli is a highly cross-pollinating crop, the major challenges are to stop genetic erosion that is expected to be higher due to mixing its genetic constituents with foreign hybrid varieties as well as other local landraces of chilli. Detailed information on the pattern and structure of agro morphological diversity of Akabarechilli is still lacking, thus accurate phenotyping is of paramount importance for identifying useful traits (Newton et al., 2010). It is very important to assess the existing Akabarechilli diversity for its better utilization in the breeding programs. ...
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Capsicum (Solanaceae), comprising of sweet and hot chilli pepper, is a globally known spice crop. This genus is well known for its huge genetic diversity at intra-and inter-species level. Diversity among Akabarechilli landraces, a unique Capsicum from Nepal, has not been studied so far. The present study characterized thirty accessions of Akabarechilli using 26 qualitative and 21 quantitative agro-morphological markers at the experimental plots of National Genebank, Khumaltar, Nepal during the summer season of 2018/019. Using principal component analysis, the first-principal components with eigen-values more than 1 contributed 25% of the variability among accessions for quantitative traits, whereas the first principal components with eigen-values more than 1 contributed 22.2% of the variability among accessions for qualitative traits. These findings suggested a wide range of morphological variations among the tested accessions. Based on qualitative and quantitative traits, 30 accessions were grouped into 6 distinct clusters by Euclidian distance and average method. Accessions CO-11048 and CO-11050 under cluster-III were round shape fruit type and accessions CO-11044, CO-11046 andCO-11047 under cluster-I were high fruiting with longer fruit-bearing period and could be utilized for breeding purpose as these are the traits preferred by consumers or processors in Nepalese market.