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Protein and PER Value of Chicken Meat

Protein and PER Value of Chicken Meat

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Introduction Dietary recommendations for a healthful diet Contributions of poultry to the human diet References

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... PER value found in experiments is commonly standardized for a reference protein, usually casein. Table 7 shows both protein content and PER values for a variety of chicken retail cuts ( Hernández et al., 1996). Protein digestibility can be determined both in vitro and in vivo. ...

Citations

... Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) had a lower concentration of 16.7 and 14.6% in the raw samples, the main compound being linoleic acid (RI of 2103). These results are in agreement with those of other studies on the fatty acid profile of chicken lipids, where oleic acid is the most concentrated [14,[18][19][20]. On the other hand, the chickens used in this study were grown with corn, which have oleic and linoleic acids as their main fatty acids in the corn lipid fraction. ...
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This study evaluated similarities/dissimilarities of raw and processed chicken breast and thigh lipids that were complexed by β-cyclodextrin, using a combined FTIR–PCA technique. Lipid fractions were analyzed as non-complexed and β-cyclodextrin-complexed samples via thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and ATR-FTIR. The lipid complexation reduced the water content to 7.67–8.33%, in comparison with the β-cyclodextrin hydrate (~14%). The stabilities of the complexes and β-cyclodextrin were almost the same. ATR-FTIR analysis revealed the presence of important bands that corresponded to the C=O groups (1743–1744 cm−1) in both the non-complexed and nano-encapsulated lipids. Furthermore, the bands that corresponded to the vibrations of double bonds corresponding to the natural/degraded (cis/trans) fatty acids in lipids appeared at 3008–3011 and 938–946 cm−1, respectively. The main FTIR bands that were involved in the discrimination of raw and processed chicken lipids, and of non-complexed and complexed lipids, were evaluated with PCA. The shifting of specific FTIR band wavenumbers had the highest influence, especially vibrations of the α(1→4) glucosidic bond in β-cyclodextrin for PC1, and CH2/3 groups from lipids for PC2. This first approach on β-cyclodextrin nano-encapsulation of chicken lipids revealed the possibility to stabilize poultry fatty components for further applications in various ingredients for the food industry.
... Soriano-Santos (2010) and Emmanuel et al. (2020) reported carbohydrate content of 2.1% and 2.3%, respectively, for chicken meat. However, the values obtained for this study were higher than those reported by Soriano-Santos (2010) and Emmanuel et al. (2020), and this could be attributed to the infusion of the chicken breast in the ingredient-mix for specific temperatures and times. The ingredients in the ingredient-mix formulation might be responsible for the high carbohydrate content. ...
... Global production of poultry meat is close to 100 million tons in 2016 (Mottet & Tempio, 2017). Meat separation processing leads to the generation of by-products such as meat residues or trimmed meat, which has high protein content, especially myofibrillar proteins (Jayathilakan, Sultana, Radhakrishna, & Bawa, 2012;Soriano-Santos, 2010). In general, these residues have been used for preparation of processed foods including sausages and chicken balls. ...
Article
Chicken protein isolate (CPI)/fish skin gelatin (GE) blend films containing gallic acid (GA) or tannic acid (TA) at varying concentrations (0, 0.375, 0.75, 1.5 and 3.0 %, w/w based on protein content) were characterized. Incorporation of phenolics generally increased (p < 0.05) tensile strength and elongation at break, and decreased (p < 0.05) solubility of resulting films. However, higher (p < 0.05) a*-, b*- and ΔE*-values and lower (p < 0.05) seal strength and seal efficiency were noted for all films containing phenolics, especially at higher concentrations. CPI/GE films containing TA possessed more compact structure and lower (p < 0.05) water vapor permeability than those added with GA. However, films containing 0.75 % GA possessed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity and were used to form pouches for packing chicken skin oil (CS-O). Less peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and volatile compounds were attained, while polyunsaturated fatty acids were more retained for CS-O packaged in CPI/GE pouches containing 0.75 % GA after 15 days of storage than those packaged in CPI/GE pouches without GA or commercial pouches. Incorporation of 0.75 % GA improved mechanical properties and antioxidant activity of CPI/GE blend film, thus highlighting the potential of the resulting pouches as active food packaging.
... Chicken is often regarded as one of the most desirable meats worldwide due to its proteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), calcium, phosphorus, and iron content, as well as its potential medicinal function and low cost (Soriano-Santos, 2010). In recent decades, the genetic selection for body weight, growth rate, and feed conversion rate of broiler chickens has contributed to a prominent increase in production efficiency, such as meat yield; however, there has also been a parallel decrease in meat quality. ...
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Skeletal muscle development and intramuscular fat (IMF) content, which positively contribute to meat production and quality, are regulated by precisely orchestrated processes. However, changes in three-dimensional chromatin structure and interaction, a newly emerged mediator of gene expression, during the skeletal muscle development and IMF deposition have remained unclear. In the present study, we analyzed the differences in muscle development and IMF content between one-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broiler (AA) and Chinese indigenous Lushi blue-shelled-egg chicken (LS) and performed Hi-C analysis on their breast muscles. Our results indicated that significantly higher IMF content, however remarkably lower muscle fiber diameter was detected in breast muscle of LS chicken compared to that of AA broiler. The chromatin intra-interaction was prior to inter-interaction in both AA and LS chicken, and chromatin inter-interaction was heavily focused on the small and gene-rich chromosomes. For genomic compartmentalization, no significant difference in the number of B type compartments was found, but AA had more A type compartments versus LS. The A/B compartment switching of AA versus LS showed more A to B switching than B to A switching. There were no significant differences in the average sizes and distributions of topologically associating domains (TAD). Additionally, approximately 50% of TAD boundaries were overlapping. The reforming and disappearing events of TAD boundaries were identified between AA and LS chicken breast muscles. Among these, the HMGCR gene was located in the TAD-boundary regions in AA broilers, but in TAD-interior regions in LS chickens, and the IGF2BP3 gene was located in the AA-unique TAD boundaries. Both HMGCR and IGF2BP3 genes exhibited increased mRNA expression in one-day-old AA broiler breast muscles. It was demonstrated that the IGF2BP3 and HMGCR genes regulated by TAD boundary sliding were potential biomarkers for chicken breast muscle development and IMF deposition. Our data not only provide a valuable understanding of higher-order chromatin dynamics during muscle development and lipid accumulation but also reveal new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of muscle development and IMF deposition in chicken.
... Kim et al. (2017) stated that broiler meat has up to 22% of protein, from which about 40% of the total AA being essential. According to Soriano-Santos (2010), broiler meat contains all the EAA and has a higher amount of Leu, Lys, Asp and Glu. Generally, AA are the main precursors of flavour substances of the meat. ...
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The study evaluated the chemical and amino acids (AA) composition of breast and thigh muscle in broilers fed sorghum and sorghum-pea diets, as partial substitute of corn and soybean meal (SBM). A total of 540 3-wk-old broilers (Cobb 500) randomly assigned to three groups were fed with corn-SBM control diet (C), corn-sorghum-SBM diet (S) and corn-sorghum-peas-SBM diet (SP) for finisher phase. At slaughter, muscle samples were collected for chemical analyses. The results showed that dietary sorghum or sorghum-pea inclusion did not affect (p>0.05) the chemical composition (dry matter, protein, fat and ash) of broilers muscle tissue. The total AA (TAA), essential AA (EAA) or flavour-related AA (FAA) concentrations from breast or thigh muscle did not differ (p>0.05) between treatments. A significant effect (p<0.05) was found for some individual EAA. The valine and phenylalanine concentrations were higher, and cysteine and methionine levels were lower in both muscles than the C group. The higher deposition (p<0.05) was found for most AA, except glycine and arginine, in the breast vs thigh, as an effect of muscle tissue. As results, the TAA, EAA, NEAA, FAA and EAA/NEAA ratio increased in the breast vs thigh muscle. Interactions between diets and muscle tissue were noticed for serine, threonine, methionine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, lysine, arginine, TAA and EAA. In conclusion, sorghum or sorghum-peas can partially substitute the corn and SBM in broiler diets, with no adverse effects on chemical composition and beneficial nutrients, such as EAA and FAA that are important for the nutritional quality of meat. Keywords: Amino acids; broiler; meat; peas; sorghum
... What is more, consumers have been advised that to improve their blood lipid profile and/or to reduce their weight, they should remove the skin and subcutaneous fat from their meat (as it is the source of fat and cholesterol). However, poultry skin contains not only sulfur amino acids, collagen, elastin, and vitamins that dissolve in fats, but also minerals (Soriano-Santos, 2010;Marangoni et al., 2015;Stangierski and Le snierowski, 2015). ...
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The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of various types of heat processing used by consumers (water bath cooking WBC, oven convection roasting OCR, grilling G, pan frying PF) on the energy and the nutritional value of goose breast meat (with and without skin). The material used in the study comprised 72 breast muscles cut from carcasses of 17-week-old White Koluda® geese. The energy value (MJ), the chemical composition (water, fat, protein, ash) and mineral composition (phosphorus P, sodium Na, calcium Ca, potassium K, magnesium Mg, iron Fe, zinc Zn, cooper Cu, manganese Mn) were determined in both raw and thermally processed muscles. It has been concluded that various methods of heat processing have a significant impact on the energy and nutritional values of meat. From a dietary point of view, the most beneficial was OCR meat without skin, and WBC, OCR, PF meat with skin as well, since it had the lowest energy value as well as content and retention of fat, phosphorus, and sodium. However, as for the content of the other minerals and their retention, WBC seems to be the optimal form of heat treatment of skinless muscles. 100 g of such meat provides 3.1; 33.7; 145; 180 and 9% Nutrient Reference Values-Requirements (NRVs-R) for Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Mn respectively in a diet of an adult person. As for meat with skin, the optimal method of heat processing to retain minerals is grilling. 100 g of meat processed in this way provides 3.9; 39.7; 125.7; 175; 6 and 12.7% NRVs-R of Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Mn. It follows from the above information that goose breast meat, as analyzed here, cannot be considered as a source of calcium since it provides less than 4% of NRVs-R. The results of the study will be useful for the consumers’ nutritional choices. The geese breast meat, depending on the heat processing used and the content of skin, may be a valuable component of a varied diet, providing nutrients and minerals.
... In this study, the metataxonomic analysis revealed the discrimination of the characterized microbial community profiles based on the chicken part and storage time. Factors such as the initial microbiota, processing practices, structural and compositional characteristics of the chicken parts, and storage temperature appear to shape the chicken meat microbiome, and, consequently, the evolution of spoilage, differently [13,39,42,63,64]. In brief, the 16S rRNA metataxonomic analysis performed in this study revealed a complex taxonomical structure for both chicken breast and thigh fillets, including >200 OTUs at the genus level. ...
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Chicken is one of the most widely consumed meats worldwide. The exploration of the bacterial diversity of chicken meat may provide new insights into the chicken-associated microbiome that will lead to moderation of food spoilage or safety. This study was undertaken to explore the bacterial communities of chicken breast and thigh fillets stored at refrigeration (0 °C and 5 °C) and slightly abuse (10 °C) temperatures for 5 days through conventional cultural methods along with next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis. Total viable counts (TVC), Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp., and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were enumerated, while the bacterial communities were mapped through 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Chicken breast and thigh fillets possessed a complex bacterial structure that incorporated a total of >200 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) at the genus level. The core microbiota of fresh samples consisted of Acinetobacter, Brochothrix, Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas, Psychrobacter, and Vibrionaceae (family). These genera persisted until the end of storage in >80% of samples, except Psychrobacter and Flavobacterium, while Photobacterium was also identified. Hierarchical clustering showed a distinction of samples based on storage time and chicken part. Conventional plate counting with growth media commonly used in spoilage studies did not always correspond to the microbial community profiles derived from NGS analysis, especially in Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Photobacterium, and Vibrionaceae. Results of the present study highlight Photobacterium and Vibrionaceae, in general, as potent chicken meat spoilers and suggest the necessity to combine classical microbiological methods along with NGS technologies to characterize chicken meat spoilage microbiota.
... Nutritionally, chicken meat is a rich source of high value protein compared to vegetable proteins (Soriano-Santos, 2010). In addition, the low energy content with a high proportion of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and other nutrients including zinc, iron, selenium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, vitamin A, Bcomplex vitamins and folic acid, places chicken meat as a healthy food, indicated for use in healthy diets, when compared to other meat sources (Ahmad et al., 2018). ...
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Article
The aim of this study was to determine the change in the value of morpho-metric parameters of antlers and the total trophy score in relation to the age of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.). The study was conducted on 228 roe deer trophies from the "Barajevska reka" hunting ground in Serbia, aged one to seven years. From the second to the fourth year, the growth of antlers was the most intense, and the differences compared to one year old animals were significant (P <0.001). The highest average length of the branches was monitored in six years old animals (22.4 ± 2.05 cm), with significant differences (P <0.001) compared to younger animals, except for the three years old animals (P>0.05). From the second to the fifth year, a gradual increase in antler weight (from 192.2 ± 30.41 g to 221.9 ± 61.86 g) and antler volume (from 74 cm3 to 90 cm3 ) was observed, with the highest values of antler weight (291.8 ± 58.43 g and 319.1 ± 98.89 g, respectively) and antler volume (123.8 cm3 and 121.2 cm3) in six and seven year old animals. Overall trophy scores increased from year one to year seven (42.6 ± 7.86 vs 97.4 ± 27.40), with differences in trophy scores for animals aged six and seven years significantly greater than for animals aged one to five years (P <0.001). The highest quality antlers have six and seven year olds, at which time their hunting should be conducted. Key words: Capreolus capreolus L., antlers, age, trophy
... Nevertheless, despite the lack of literature, it is evident that floor type seems to affect meat quality, as demonstrated by Manohar et al. [63] who stated that cholesterol level in the thigh and breast meat was higher in litter reared broilers than those caged irrespective of the stocking densities and age. This decrease in meat cholesterol content meets the market's need as this feature recently favored by health-conscious consumers [64]. ...
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Article
Commercial practice in poultry production management has been susceptible to increased problems, driven by concerns about safety of food and animal welfare. Thus, the main proposal of the present study was to evaluate the influence of different stocking densities on performance, blood, and carcass traits of Pekin ducklings reared on two different floor types (wood shaving litter, WSL or plastic slatted floor, PLS). A total of 450 one-day-old ducklings were randomly allocated into six equal experimental groups stocking density (nine, 15 and 21 birds/m2 during the first 14 d and three, five and seven birds/m2 until 49 days) reared on two floor types (WSL and PLS), five replicate pens each. Increased stocking density reduced body weight (BW), weight gain (WG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) values and increased feed intake (FI) in both floor types at 14 days old. At 49 days old, reared ducklings on PLS type verified higher BW and WG and reduced FCR values. Moreover, increasing stocking density in both floor types significantly reduced the breast, thigh, and left fillet percentages. Conversely, reared birds floored on PLS system decreased the triglycerides (TG) and increased the total cholesterol (TC) serum content. Furthermore, the meat contents of TG and TC were decreased in birds reared on higher stocking density but not affected by floor type. Further, serum antioxidant indices were reduced in PLS birds on low stocking densities. In conclusion, housing Pekin ducklings on PLS improved their growth performance, carcass traits, meat cholesterol, and antioxidant status, particularly at stocking density of three and five birds/m2.
... Chicken meat has an average of up to 20% protein, with over 40% of the total amino acids (AAs) being essential (Kim et al. 2017). Chicken meat offers all the essential AAs (EAAs) and is characterized by a high content of leucine, lysine, aspartic and glutamic acid (Sales and Hayes 1996;Soriano-Santos 2010;Ramane et al. 2011). The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS) which depict the protein digestibility reveal that meat has a high score of 0.92 as compared to other protein sources (Barron-Hoyos et al. 2013). ...
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Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of bee pollen, propolis and probiotics on the amino acid (AA) profile of chicken meat. A total of 240 Ross 308 broiler chicken individuals of mixed sex were randomly divided into four groups (n = 60): control – without supplementation, group with probiotic (3.3 g Lactobacillus fermentum), group with 400 mg bee pollen extract and 3.3 g probiotic, group with 400 mg propolis extract and 3.3 g probiotic. The fattening period lasted for 42 days. The AA profile was not affected by dietary probiotics or probiotics + bee pollen extract in the breast and thigh muscles, however, a higher concentration of Tyr (p ≤ 0.05) was found in the breast muscle in the group with probiotics + propolis extract supplementation. Considering the AA composition and relatively high essential amino acid score (EAAI), breast meat from chickens receiving the probiotic and propolis extract appears to be an interesting source of proteins with an increased (p ≤ 0.05) Phe + Tyr (76.27%) content when compared with the control group (73.49%). With regard to the bee pollen, we can state that this dietary supplement did not lead to any improvement in the AA profile of chicken meat. In conclusion, the dietary probiotic and propolis extract supplementation elicited the best AA profile of the chicken meat among the observed treatments in comparison with the control group and thus may become a promising method to improve the quality of chicken meat.