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Proposed topology of MaaS including Levels 0-4 (left) and examples (right) 

Proposed topology of MaaS including Levels 0-4 (left) and examples (right) 

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Conference Paper
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The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the concept of MaaS and what characterizes a ‘MaaS service’, as well as to propose a topology of MaaS as a tool for facilitating the discussion of MaaS, enabling the ‘comparison of’ different services, understanding MaaS’ potential effects, and aiding the integration of societal goals into MaaS services...

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Citations

... Thus, MaaS is identified as a seamless integrated door-to-door mobility service [2]. Qualitative approaches to analysis the transport integration have been presented [3], [4], but quantitative method is missing. In order to introduce a supplementary approach, our objective is to develop a quantitative method to study the integration index of transport system. ...
... The highest value of index is obtained by Whim (XIII), in which the MaaS operator is a private company. Whim is evaluated as the benchmarking in the integration studies [3], [4] as well. In addition, Whim (https://whimapp.com/) is available in Helsinki, West Midlands, Antwerp, Vienna, Tokyo, and Singapore as an application of international mobility service. ...
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... However, the concept is still surrounded by uncertainties, and its current development and deployments are mainly centered in developed countries [6,7]. In addition, as Public Transport (PT) entails the backbone of successful MaaS schemes [8][9][10], it is understood that to properly implement efficient MaaS services, capable offerings of PT are pivotal. ...
... MaaS offers a wide range of integrated services. Ref. [9] thus proposes different levels of service integration ranging from integrated information solutions without payment to the integration of societal objectives (as value created for the territory in terms of well-being, for example). • Potential to create new markets: for transport providers, MaaS can offer new sales channels, access to untapped customer demand, simplified user account, and payment management, as well as richer data on travel demand patterns and dynamics. ...
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... Moreover, we will add external costs such as traffic congestion, traffic accident, CO2 emissions, and pollution to cost-benefit analysis. These reductions of external costs are indicators at MaaS integration level 4 defined by Sochor et al. [11], and are important indicators for quantitative analysis of MaaS. ...
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... Through MaaS ′ platform, end users can plan, book, pay, retrieve their tickets and get real-time information for their trip (Jittrapirom et al., 2017;Kamargianni et al., 2016). All of this is made possible through the integration of information about these modes, which is the first, basic level in the MaaS topology proposed by Sochor et al. (2017). As a matter of fact, Kamargianni et al. (2016), Lyons et al. (2019) and Pangbourne et al. (2019) suggest that MaaS is an innovation that extends what preceded it, namely integrated multimodal travel information. ...
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... 18 However, a user will have expended cognitive effort or relied upon others' cognitive effort in order to acquire a state of journey familiarity. 19 Corresponds to Level 0 in Sochor et al. (2017) where this is also referred to as 'no integration' with Lyft rather than Uber as one example; ...
... 23 https://techcrunch.com/2018/04/11/uber-gets-into-car-rentals-and-public-transit/. 24 Corresponds to Level 1 in Sochor et al (2017) where referred to as 'integration of information' with Google as one example. 25 http://www.traveline.info/. ...
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... However, this definition is not exhaustive, since there is no clear agreement on one definition of MaaS ( Smith et al., 2018). However, MaaS is frequently described by different authors ( Kamargianni et al., 2015) (Kamargianni et al., 2016) ( Sochor et al., 2017) (Durand et al., 2018) (Jittrapirom et al., 2017) in terms of integration of several transport options (public transport, taxi, car-sharing, ride-sharing, bike-sharing, car-rental) in one platform with integrated ticket and payment in monthly payments and/or pay-as-you-go. ...
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Conference Paper
Purpose By presenting a shift away from the prevailing ownership-based transport systems and towards access-based ones, the concept of Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) has been recently gaining ground and becoming a concrete business model opportunity. MaaS goal is to offer tailored-made on-demand mobility solutions by integrating on a single service, public and private transport modes (Hensher, 2017). However, the concept is still uncertain (Caiati et al., 2017) and its current development and applicability is centered on developed countries. On the other hand, we advocate that MaaS is modular, adaptable and applicable to several realities. In developing countries – for instance – where public transport are mostly inefficient and insufficient, MaaS schemes could help to “balance the scale” with private transportation offerings, such as: rides (casual carpooling). In a sense that within urban mobility, there are mainly two commuters’ groups: 1) car-owners – who may or not carpool and, 2) not car-owners – who generally use public transport or some other form of mobility (e.g., carpooling – either paid or not). Thus, car owners who do not share rides (carpool) are considered one of the biggest hurdles for urban mobility today. Thereby, solutions aimed on reduce car-occupancy inefficiency while additionally complementing public transport would be a feasible MaaS alternative in developing countries that struggle with public transport offerings. The present work sought to focus on such issues in the context a small city in a developing country (Brazil), since this city holds several universities and therefore many students, who – on their daily commute – routinely practice casual carpooling (whether as passengers or as drivers). Given the aforementioned, this study aimed on answering the following questions: Why do car-owners offer rides or why not? Are there factors that can motivate casual carpooling practices among non-offering drivers? What are the users’ profiles (drivers and passengers)? What motivates casual carpooling and what causes people to use it or not? Thereby, was to identify the motivating factors of the practice of casual carpooling and propose a strategy to implement it in a MaaS scheme. Design The survey was applied to over 300 university students in Lavras - Brazil. This city of approximately 100,000 inhabitants was chosen as a study object given its peculiar mobility features. Due to the high number of university students (who attend one of the four universities in the city), casual carpooling is common practice on their daily commute – since public transportation is insufficient and does not have enough capillarity to meet demand. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques and as a way of understanding the socioeconomic factors associated with the habit of offering and picking up rides (casual carpooling), logistic models were used and adjusted via the software R (version 3.5.1.). Also, we have used a web scraping on the platform Blablacar. Findings Among the students who drive, 78.9% offer casual carpooling rides to their peers. This may be explained due to the widespread dissemination of casual carpooling practices in the city, with several "casual carpooling points" (similar to bus stops) spread around the city as well as the public university campus (Federal University of Lavras – UFLA). Such practice, however, is more common among UFLA’s students (88.4%) rather than the other three private institutions (64.5%). Among the drivers that offer rides, 34.4% claimed to offer them to everyone at any point in the city. Thus, approximately 44% of those who offer rides, will only let into their cars those people that are properly waiting on a “casual carpooling stop”. Furthermore, drivers that claimed to only offer rides to friends and acquaintances (44.5%), states that incentives such as paid rides (45.7%) or tax exemption (3.9%) would make them more susceptible to offer rides for everyone. We observed that the motivation to offer rides are not strictly financial. This was evidenced in the similar monthly driving expenses among those who offer rides to those who do not (49€ and 48€ respectively). In addition, 91.1% offer a ride in solidarity while only 7.7% do it for financial reasons. Among the drivers who do not offer rides, 37.5% claimed they are afraid of thefts, while 29.1% complained about the feeling of “losing their freedom”. Also, the majority of those pointed out that no kind of rewards would make them change their minds (62.5%). Besides, the casual carpooling practices were analyzed by gender, day/night shift, and age. We noticed that although there is a gender difference in ride offerings, it is not significant (81.3% of men versus 76.4% of women). Among the passengers, the practice is also slightly more common among men (57.5% to 53.3%). By the day/night shift, we noticed a sudden drop in n the number of casual carpooling at night (25.4% versus 74.6% during the day). Young adults comprised the great majority of comm, with 62.5% of people aged between 17 and 25 years old adopting such practices, comparatively, 50% of respondents over 40 claimed they do not offer rides. Evidence point out that consumers, in all age groups but special the Millennials (Lasmar et al., 2018), are increasingly expecting their experiences in transport and other sectors, to be delivered “as-a-service”, and in turn, to get more value as results. In sum, 4 distinct groups were identified in the sample: 1) supporters of solidary casual carpooling for anyone; 2) supporters of casual carpooling for anyone gave some sort of incentives are provided; 3) supporters of casual carpooling for family/friends, and 4) non-casual carpooling supporters. We also infer that the city’s infrastructure (casual carpooling stops) and local culture stimulate casual carpooling practices. However, for those who need encouragement, factors such as; safety, information sharing, and practices that can compensate or facilitate access can further assist in casual carpooling dissemination. As an example we have Wazepool, a casual carpooling service recently launched in Brazil similar to the French platform CityGo. Practical implications Most studies on MaaS are being carried out in developed countries with efficient public transportation systems. This study aimed to contribute to initial discussions about MaaS schemes in developing countries through a redesign in private vehicle usage. We noted that casual carpooling practices have consumers’ acceptance and therefore, can be further stimulated. In this way, casual carpooling may prove to be a feasible transport mode on MaaS schemes where public transports are not efficient.