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Proposed algorithms within the eMBMS logical architecture and the original functionalities of entities. 

Proposed algorithms within the eMBMS logical architecture and the original functionalities of entities. 

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Traditional live television (TV) broadcasting systems are proven to be spectrum inefficient. Therefore, researchers propose to provide TV services on fourth-generation (4G) long-term evolution (LTE) networks. However, static broadcast, a typical broadcasting method over cellular network, is inefficient in terms of radio resource usage. To solve thi...

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... following variables and parameters are defined before presenting the main algorithms. Let i be the index of time seg- ments for a day. Let J be the set of cells in the region and j be the index of cells. Let K be the set of TV channels that are being selected for broadcasting and indexed by k m . Let Q ij ⊆ K be the set of selected TV channels by ADTVS to be broadcast in time segment i at cell j. In each time segment i at each cell j, |Q ij | out of |K| TV channels are selected for broadcasting, which implies that 0 ≤ |Q ij | ≤ |K|. The set Q ij is defined as the complement of Q ij such that Q ij ∪ Q ij = K. The other model parameters are listed in Table I. In the proposed framework, the following algorithms are introduced. Algorithm 1 is the main algorithm, which consists of Algorithms 2-4. It is executed in every time segment i for each cell j in MCE. The time length of a TV program is typi- cally range from half an hour to two hours. Therefore, setting the length of each time segment from 15 min to 1 h is com- parable to most of the TV programs. Algorithm 2 estimates available resources. Algorithm 3 measures popularity of TV channels according to user preferences. Algorithm 4 allocates available radio resources to popular TV channels for broad- casting. These algorithms are considered as an extension to for ∀j ∈ J do Run Algorithm 2 for estimating available radio resources Run Algorithm 3 for measuring TV channels popularity Run Algorithm 4 for allocating radio resources to popu- lar channels for broadcasting end end the existing LTE entities described in the previous section. Fig. 3 shows the proposed algorithms within the MBMS logical ...

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... On the contrary, the streaming quality and code rate of the multimedia streaming service using unicast communication is based on the status of each UE. Thus, some resource allocation schemes that try to tackle different issues for the multicast communication over RAN have been devised [8][9][10][11]. ...
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... The experimental results shown that the method uses multicast to provide the good tradeoff between improving the efficiency of spectrum and improving unicast UEs' data rates. However, the radio resource allocation unit for both unicast communication and eMBMS in [9,10] was in the unit of RB, which does not comply with 3GPP standards, i.e., using the unit of subframe for MBSFN. Thus, the authors of [11] proposed a scheme to resolve this problem, i.e., it considers subframe as the unit of allocated resource for eMBMS, and decreases the computational complexity of the algorithm. ...
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... Lau et. al [7] believe that the so-called TV news live broadcast is in the scene of the news facts, news images, sound and the front-line reporter's reports, interviews, and so on into the network electrical signal transmission back to the immediate broadcast way. Walker et al. [8] pointed out that with the spread of modern electronic technology, TV news broadcasts carry real-time information through news studios or news websites and simultaneously convey opinions and emotional information to the audience. ...
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... In this line, different studies have been published. For example, [21] proposes a framework to maximize radio resource usage when providing TV broadcasting over LTE networks, whereas [20] presents a resource allocation framework for adaptive video streaming over LTE based on the DASH standard. This work also aims at optimizing the use of the 4G network, as [20,21], but, in this case, the key element is a proxy installed in the on-board server. ...
... For example, [21] proposes a framework to maximize radio resource usage when providing TV broadcasting over LTE networks, whereas [20] presents a resource allocation framework for adaptive video streaming over LTE based on the DASH standard. This work also aims at optimizing the use of the 4G network, as [20,21], but, in this case, the key element is a proxy installed in the on-board server. Moreover, our proposal is validated in a mobility scenario and not with simulations. ...
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... Along a similar theme, a more recent work by Lau et al further explored broadcast television over cellular networks. 9 The work used live scenarios collected within the real-work context to develop an audience-driven TV scheduling framework that can optimize the scheduling of broadcast resources. ...
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... The introduced scheduling approach has achieves an optimal percentage in reducing delay and as well as packet loss decreases in less percentage. Lau et al. [49], has introduced a framework model for inefficient radio resource usage in LTE broadcasting. The framework which defined by author is Audience Driven Live Television Scheduling method, to enhance radio resource usage for television broadcasting over LTE network system. ...
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... The introduced scheduling approach has achieved an optimal percentage in reducing delay and as well as packet loss decreases in less percentage. Lau et al. [49], has introduced a framework model for inefficient radio resource usage in LTE broadcasting. The framework which defined by an author is Audience Driven Live Television Scheduling method, to enhance radio resource usage for television broadcasting over LTE network system. ...
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