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Proportion of Energy Sent Out by Sources in 2010 (%)  

Proportion of Energy Sent Out by Sources in 2010 (%)  

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Context 1
... the Electricity Authority of Cambodia (EAC) reports the usage of different sources of power, the main source of power in which licensees across the country are utilizing is diesel which is imported from abroad making the electricity tariff very volatile. In 2010, diesel accounted for almost 93% of the total power sources used to generate electricity ( Figure 3). ...

Citations

... The Royal Government of Cambodia curiously keeps an eye on further developing electrification throughout the country, and the electrical power sectors are providing by independent power producer, import and public sections to serve different areas [2]. Cambodia also has a clear structure of electricity organizations to share responsibilities on regulation, policy and size of authority [3]. ...
Article
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The main purpose of this paper attempted to examine major factors that affect the electricity consumption of residential consumer type in Cambodia by observing through two approaches, socio-economic and direct-use perspectives. The end-use model and stepwise linear regression analysis were applied. The residential consumers were categorized into three levels of household income, such as; high, medium and low. The results of the actual data from survey questionnaire illustrated that determinant factors of electricity usage depended on the income level. High income households consumed 52% in residential sector, more than medium and low income households which had 34% and 14%, respectively. The regression analysis expressed, from socio-economic factors, the electricity consumption of residents had significantly been influenced by total monthly income, level of education and number of people per household. In direct-use perspective, comfort appliances consumed the most energy for 40.53% of total monthly consumption. It followed by cooking appliances with 33.53%, and recreation used 10.9% in the household. Lighting system required 7.85%; hence, the least consumed energy materials were cleaning-use, only 7.19% of total monthly usage. The residential consumers could wisely consume their monthly electricity consumption by saving on the affected factors.
... From 1990 to 2010, power consumption in five ASEAN countries (Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippine and Vietnam) saw an almost threefold boost (Vithayasrichareon et al. 2012). Heads of ASEAN Power Utilities Authorities (HAPUA) was set up in 1981, and in the period 2004-2009, the ASEAN Power Grid (APG) was endorsed by ASEAN energy ministers (Poch and Tuy 2012). The APG remained as the vital formula in energy cooperation in the region. ...
Article
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Worldwide primary energy needs are satisfied basically from non-renewable sources that are limited in supply and innately hazardous to the environment. Biomass-based power systems are very much potent to address the environmental issues fostering sustainable development, while being able to provide a secured and uninterrupted power supply at the same time. Biomass-based power generation systems not only reduce the GHG emissions but also have enormous opportunities of job creation and promote biomass re-growth through sustainable land management practices. This paper overviews the biomass scenario in Southeast Asian and EU countries to give an overview of the potential and scalable energy harnessed from biomass resources. Economic analyses presented on biomass gasification-based power generation have been evaluated with three specific cost estimations, namely low, average and high. Key economic performance metrics of biomass gasification-based dual-fuel internal combustion engine generator with low investment estimates are as follows: a positive net present value of USD 7.5 million; internal rate of return 14.45%; and a payback period of 5.45 years. A review of the technologies can provide a base for strategic energy policy for the next generation of sustainable energy policies and helps policymakers to frame strategies aiming for clean technology and sustainable development. Biomass integrated gasification combined cycle-based systems are found to be most suitable for power generation or biofuel synthesis. Graphic abstract
... Myanmar's level of electrification is the lowest in the region, and only approximately 30% of its 53 million people have reliable access to electricity. 33 The vast majority of Myanmar's total energy consumption in 2015-approximately 62%-was provided by biomass (fuelwood and charcoal), with electricity providing only 6.7%. 34 The primary reason for this is not a lack of resources but rather a lack of investment and transmission connectivity. ...
... Historically prices in urban areas have been as high as 25 c/kWh, whereas rural residents often paid more than 80 c/kWh. 33 In early 2017 the government began implementing tiered usage rates and dropped the overall cost. For households using less than 10 kWh per month, the price dropped from approximately 20 US c/kWh to 12 c/kWh, whereas those using between 10-50 kWh per month would see fees reduced to 15 c/kWh. ...
Presentation
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STIMSON INNOVATIVE IDEAS CHANGING THE WORLD AND CHINA-MEKONG RIVER AND MYANMAR The Stimson Center is a nonpartisan policy research center working to protect people, preserve the planet, and promote security & prosperity. Stimson’s award-winning research serves as a roadmap to address borderless threats through concerted action. Our formula is simple: we gather the brightest people to think beyond soundbites, create solutions, and make those solutions a reality. We follow the credo of one of history’s leading statesmen, Henry L. Stimson, in taking “pragmatic steps toward ideal objectives.” We are practical in our approach and independent in our analysis. Our innovative ideas change the world. https://www.stimson.org/sites/default/files/file-attachments/Cronin-China%20Supply%20Chain%20Shift.pdf https://www.stimson.org/sites/default/files/file-attachments/SC_EnergyPublication.FINAL_.pdf https://www.stimson.org/content/powering-mekong-basin-connect https://www.stimson.org/sites/default/files/file-attachments/WEB-FEB_Cambodia%20Report.pdf https://www.frontiermyanmar.net/en/slower-smaller-cheaper-the-reality-of-the-china-myanmar-economic-corridor Slower, smaller, cheaper: the reality of the China-Myanmar Economic Corridor https://www.frontiermyanmar.net/en/peace-through-development-chinas-experiment-in-myanmar Peace through development: China’s experiment in Myanmar https://asia.nikkei.com/Opinion/China-walks-political-tightrope-in-Myanmar China walks political tightrope in Myanmar Beijing should leverage its influence with military https://www.frontiermyanmar.net/en/why-china-is-sceptical-about-the-peace-process Why China is sceptical about the peace process https://www.stimson.org/content/%E2%80%98loose-end%E2%80%99-peace-process The ‘loose end’ of the peace process The Stimson Center communications@stimson.org
... Due to these taxation and pricing policy, lower electricity price was set in Korea. 5 According to[13], the increasing price of electricity affects the prices of consumer goods and services. Therefore, the Korean government set the electricity price to be lower than the actual cost in order to prevent an increase in the prices of consumer goods and services. ...
... We would be able to align these literatures according to demand-side approaches and supply-side approaches (SeeTable 1). First, several studies tried to investigate the demand management of electricity from consumers' side, mostly from short-term views.[13]examined the benefits and challenges of DSM of UK electricity system. They considered DSM as a possible contributor to reduce the generation margin bringing benefits of about £250-£400/kW in their modern gas-fired-type plant.[12], ...
Article
Although South Korea experienced a rolling blackout in 2011, the possibility of a blackout in South Korea continues to increase due to rapid electrification. This study examines the problems of energy taxation and price distortions as possible reasons for the rapid electrification in South Korea, which is occurring at a faster rate than in Japan, Europe, and other developed countries. Further, we suggest new energy taxation and price systems designed to normalize electricity prices. In order to do so, we consider two possible scenarios: the first imposes a tax on bituminous coal for electricity generation and the second levies a tax to provide compensation for the potential damages from a nuclear accident. Based on these scenarios, we analyze the effects of a new energy system on electricity price and demand. The results show that a new energy system could guarantee the power generation costs and balance the relative prices between energy sources, and could also help prevent rapid electrification. Therefore, the suggested new energy system is expected to be utilized as a basis for energy policy to decrease the speed of electrification, thus preventing a blackout, and to induce the rational consumption of energy in South Korea.
... Thus the price of electricity is unstable because it is linked to the fluctuating cost of diesel. As Cambodia is an oil-importing country, the cost of diesel is sensitive to global market movements (Poch and Tuy 2012). Although Cambodia and Laos have proceeded at different paces, in both countries on-grid electrification is on track to become sustainable. ...
Article
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The report starts by presenting the numerous arguments for reducing energy subsidies, both at a general level and for Myanmar in particular. After identifying electricity pricing as the main area for potential energy subsidy reform in Myanmar, and the reasons for such reform. It then examines the experiences of other countries, drawing on a newly compiled dataset of past efforts at reforming energy subsidies, the largest such dataset ever gathered. Particular attention is paid to the experiences of other ASEAN countries. From this review of the experiences of other countries, proposals are made for how Myanmar might proceed with reforming its own electricity prices. Recommendations include a proactive communication strategy, strengthening key government institutions and the division of powers in electricity pricing, improving the production and availability of data on electricity generation costs and pricing and ensuring that key groups benefit from the revenue generated by higher electricity prices. The report argues that, despite some challenges, Myanmar is well positioned to carry out electricity subsidy reform.
... Due to its lack of infrastructure, Cambodia has the lowest electrifi cation rates of the four Mekong countries. Only about 25 per cent of the population is connected to the electricity grid (Poch and Tuy, 2012 ). The country is highly dependent on imported diesel and oil for energy, making electricity both costly and unreliable (Poch and Tuy, 2012 ). ...
... Only about 25 per cent of the population is connected to the electricity grid (Poch and Tuy, 2012 ). The country is highly dependent on imported diesel and oil for energy, making electricity both costly and unreliable (Poch and Tuy, 2012 ). In this context, the Cambodian government is prioritizing investments in the energy sector, and developing hydropower for both domestic consumption and export is high on the agenda. ...
Book
An international river basin is an ecological system, an economic thoroughfare, a geographical area, a font of life and livelihoods, a geopolitical network and, often, a cultural icon. It is also a socio-legal phenomenon. This book is the first detailed study of an international river basin from a socio-legal perspective. The Mekong River Basin, which sustains approximately 70 million people across Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam, provides a prime example of the socio-legal complexities of governing a transboundary river and its tributaries. The book applies its socio-legal analysis to bring a fresh approach to understanding conflicts surrounding water governance in the Mekong River Basin. The authors describe the wide range of uses being made of legal doctrine and legal argument in ongoing disputes surrounding hydropower development in the Basin, putting to rest lingering caricatures of a single, 'ASEAN' way of navigating conflict. They call into question some of the common assumptions concerning the relationship between law and development. The book also sheds light on important questions concerning the global hybridization or crossover of public and private power and its ramifications for water governance. With current debates and looming conflicts over water governance globally, and over shared rivers in particular, these issues could not be more pressing. © 2016 Ben Boer, Philip Hirsch, Fleur Johns, Ben Saul and Natalia Scurrah . All rights reserved.
... Therefore direct subsidies or crosssubsidies are commonly offered for centralized electricity consumption in rural areas and this full cost of electricity provision is often not passed on to consumers. For example, in Brazil [23], Cambodia [24], Ghana [25] and South Africa [26], rural grid tariffs do not generally exceed $0.30 per kWh. These rates imply a level of subsidization in grid connected regions where connection costs are high or consumption levels are low. ...
Article
We develop a cost-benefit framework for extending electricity access in currently un-electrified regions. We first show that distributed technologies may be the lowest-cost electrification option in areas where electricity consumption is low and grid connection costs are high. We also show that some centralized electrification programs provide services with subsidized rates far below cost recovery. An economic model is developed to compare three financial mechanisms that can be used to make capital intensive, distributed electrification technologies more accessible to rural populations; direct subsidies, rental programs and microloans. These contracts are compared on their ability to increase consumer utility for a given cost to the providing agency. We show that a direct technology subsidy is generally preferred when the desired subsidization is high and that, under certain parameter combinations, microloan and rental programs can improve energy access for the poor while also making a profit for the providing agency.
... The energy crisis during the 1970s and high energy prices had negatively affected the economic performance of every sector within the Asian region. In Cambodia, high GDP growth rate over the past 10 years has stimulated substantiallyincreasing demands for electricity within the country (Poch and Tuy, 2012). The recently published news from the Business Monitor Online (2010) stated that the quality of electricity supply in Cambodia ranked at 121 out of 133 countries; the reason is that the country's power supply services have been heavily damaged by war. ...
Article
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It is recognized that energy-output relationship studies from an economic perspective have become popular among researchers recently. This study deals with the electricity consumption and outputs of some major economic sectors in Cambodia. The newly developed ARDL bound testing approach has been employed to examine the cointegration relationship. The Granger causality test of the aforementioned ARDL framework has also been used to investigate the corresponding causality effect. Analysis and discussion based on the data of Cambodia, for the period of 1980 to 2010, are presented. Interestingly, there is no any cointegration relationship identified between electricity consumption and sectoral outputs. But, causality effect has been identified from electricity consumption towards the sectoral outputs. Based on the findings, few recommendations have been made in the hope of systematizing the energy more efficiently within the scrutinized sectors.
... For the EdC grid, which is generally available in urban areas, consumers pay US ¢9-25 per kWh, while consumers in rural areas pay US ¢40-80 per kWh(Lieng, 2010). The differences in tariffs between the urban and rural areas are due to several factors; including different capacities of electricity suppliers, economy of scale, load factor, fuel transportation cost, cost of capital and financing, power supply losses, and high risk premium for rural consumers(Poch and Tuy, 2012). ...
Thesis
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This thesis seeks to explore the dynamic relationship between militarisation, renewable and non-renewable energy, CO2 emissions and economic growth for the period of 1975-2016 in the case of Myanmar. Autoregressive Distributed Lag, Dynamic OLS, Fully Modified OLS Gregory Hansen Cointegration and Granger causality test are applied to analyse time series dataset. This thesis includes two different but interconnected papers that shed light on the multifaceted aspects of the military-economic, energy-economic and environment-economic relationship with each other. Paper 1 found that a 1% increase in military expenditure leads to a decrease in GDP of 0.63% but a 1% increase in energy consumption increases GDP by 4% in the long run over the period of 1975-2014. The Granger causality test located bidirectional causality between militarisation and energy consumption, and militarisation and economic growth. Paper 2 provides an evidence that total energy use plays an insignificant role in promoting economic growth. However, decomposition analysis reveals that only renewable energy use significantly promotes, while non-renewable energy negatively influences, economic growth. Furthermore, non-renewable energy use is counterproductive in the presence of technological inefficiency. The overall results are robust under different estimation scenarios including structural break, endogeneity and mixed order of integration. This study presents a new avenue of knowledge by investigating the role of militarisation, aggregated and decomposed energy use, CO2 ¬emissions and technological efficiency in promoting economic growth in the context of Myanmar. The results emphasise the production and use of renewable energy to achieve sustainable economic development in Myanmar. Keywords: ARDL, CO2 emissions, CO2 intensity, energy consumption, economic growth, militarisation, Myanmar, non-renewable energy use, renewable energy use.