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Properties of radish leaves

Properties of radish leaves

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Radish (Raphanus sativus L) is the one of the most ancient, widely cultivated, quick growing, cool season, cold tolerant root vegetable of Brassicaceae family. Leaves, roots and seeds of radish has variety of health benefits and used in the treatment of various diseases. The entire plant of radish is eatable. Increase in the fecal excretion of tota...

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... considering the recovery from foliage ( Figure 1). The recovered fresh leaf moisture content was found to be 87.50% (Table 1). The chlorophyll and carotene content of raw radish leaves were found to be 105.76±5.06 ...

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... Radish (Raphanus sativus) is one of the most widely cultivated and rapidly growing cold season root vegetable belonging to Cruciferae family. Leaves, seeds, and roots of radish plant confer a variety of health benefits and have been widely used in the treatment of various gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urinary disorders [1]. The world production of radish is ~ 7 million tonnes per year [2], where tonnes of leaves are wasted, constituting 30-50% of the total weight of a radish plant. ...
... The biological value of radish leaves, i.e., proportion of protein absorbed from the leaf that gets incorporated into the tissue of the organism, is considerably high (76.6) which is attributable to the presence of various amino acids and other bioactive constituents present in them [1]. ...
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This research focused on the preparation of radish leaf protein concentrates (RLPC) by applying enzyme-assisted extraction, where α-amylase, protease, and xylanase were employed for the same. The α-amylase-assisted extraction showed maximum extraction yield (10.22%) and protein content (66.93%). Therefore, this method was optimized using response surface methodology where optimized conditions of extraction temperature (42.8 °C), amylase concentration (18,446 U), and extraction time (4.44 h) resulted in an extraction yield of 9.56% and protein content of 89.41% in the extracted RLPC. Fractionation of the protein concentrate demonstrated the maximum presence of glutelins followed by prolamins, albumins, and globulins. The apparent molecular weights of the RLPC and its isolated fractions ranged between 35 and 92 kDa. The RLPC showed a high in vitro protein digestibility (92.17%), considerable antioxidant activity (DPPH, FRAP, ABTS), and desirable structural and functional properties (water and oil holding capacity, emulsion capacity and stability, least gelation concentration, etc.). Threonine, methionine, and tryptophan were found to be the most abundant amino acids present in the RLPC. The microbial load of the stored RLPC was observed to be in acceptable range during 6 weeks of storage under ambient and refrigerated temperature conditions. Conclusively, α-amylase-extracted RLPC serves as a potential alternative edible plant-based protein fortification source for various food formulations. Graphical Abstract
... Spinach on dry basis is an excellent source of protein, minerals, iron, and vitamins especially vitamin A, B1, B2, and C [9]. The spinach as a leafy vegetable can dry, handle, and preserve more easily in powder form [10]. The little amount of spinach use as supplemented feed to the chicks did not enhance and better the nutritional rate of the meat but also improved the color quality and taste of the meat [11]. ...
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Vegetable waste (spinach, potato, and cauliflower) is a rich and natural source of nutrients, potentially good for supplying minerals, essential amino acids, and antioxidants to the birds. Relatively, its cost very low, easily to accessible, easily process & pose little risk of illness. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of vegetable waste (VW) as feed supplement on growth performance and hematology of broiler chicks. For this purpose, a total of 200 (4 days old) vaccinated chicks were acquired from a commercial hatchery Multan which was acclimated for three weeks (21 days) on basal starter feed after that 25-day-old chicks with uniform body weight were allocated according to a CRD (completely randomized design) into four dietary treatments with three replicates of each contained 15 chicks in 12 pens. In dietary treatments, chicks were feed with basal feed (BF) and supplemented feed with vegetable waste (VW) of spinach, potato, and cauliflower. For this purpose, the dietary treatments included control treatment (T1) (100% BF+0% VW) and other dietary treatments (T2) (75% BF+25% VW), (T3) (50% BF+50% VW), and (T4) (25% BF+75% VW). The body weight, feed intake, food conversion ratio (FCR), and mortality were checked on weekly and daily basis. For hematology analysis, after the 1st experimental week (25-day-old chicks) and the last 5th experimental week (56-day-old chicks), the samples of blood were gathered from the wing’s veins of two birds from each treatment in random way. At the end of five weeks (35 days), birds with uniform average body weight were selected per treatment with three replicates (2 bird/replicate) and then were manually slaughtered according to the Halal method to analyze the weight of internal body organs of broilers by physical and statistical analysis (ANOVA). There was no significant effect (P>0.05) on feed intake and FCR among all the dietary treatments. But in average, body weight and BWG were higher in treatment (T2) (P
... The entire radish plant is considered  to be edible and can be eaten in the raw form. Despite of having incredibly good amount of protein and being a rich source of essential vitamins and minerals, the radish leaves are not utilized to their full potential (Ankita and Prasad, 2015). World production of radish is reported to be 7 million tonnes per year. ...
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Leaf protein concentrate was extracted from radish leaves using heat coagulation and analyzed for its antioxidant capacity, mineral content, functional properties and microbial stability. Radish leaf protein concentrates (RLPC) constituted 48.3 % protein content and a yield of 38.51% (DW). Glutelins (42.27 %), prolamins (29.07%) and albumins (19.32 %) were found to be three major fractions of protein concentrate, while globulins (9.38%) was a minor component and their apparent molecular weights ranged between 12-60 kDa. Antioxidant activities (FRAP, ABTS and DPPH) were higher in RLPC as compared to the isolated fractions. Among fractions, globulins and prolamins exhibited highest DPPH and FRAP activity while highest ABTS activity was associated with glutelins, respectively. Functional properties viz., water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, emulsifying capacity and emulsion stability of the RLPC were 545, 347, 51.8 and 49.4%, respectively. The maximum solubility of RLPC was observed at pH 12 (44.64%) and the minimum solubility was observed at pH 4 (28.24%). A considerable amount of minerals were present in the RLPC, Ca and Fe being the most abundant. Microbial load of RLPC remained in acceptable limits up to 35 and 21 days of storage under refrigerated and ambient conditions, respectively. These results indicated that LPC have desirable functional properties, a considerable mineral content, high antioxidant activity and sufficient microbial stability. Thus they could be used as a functional ingredient to be incorporated in food products to supplement diet and combat protein deficiency.
... Our results are supported by Gocher et al. (2017) who reported 109 mg chlorophyll in 100 g cauliflower leaves. Ankita and Prasad (2015) reported 105.76 and 3.96 mg chlorophyll and β-carotene per 100 g fresh radish leaves, respectively. Agarwal and Varma (2014) also observed 3.4 mg chlorophyll g -1 fresh radish leaves. ...
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The present study was aimed to explore the antioxidant potential of some unconventional leafy greens, namely turnip, radish, cauliflower and carrot. These leafy greens, procured from a local vegetable market, were analyzed for ascorbic acid content using AOAC protocol. The standard chemical assay methods were used to ascertain the contents of bioactive compounds namely chlorophyll, total carotenoids, flavonoids and total phenols in leaves. Antioxidant activity was estimated based on DPPH assay. The study revealed that ascorbic acid content in fresh leaves ranged from 62.85 to 66.27 mg 100 g-1 with highest contents in turnip and lowest in cauliflower leaves. The chlorophyll (164.5 mg 100 g-1) and total carotenoids contents (5.59 mg 100 g-1) were significantly (p≤0.05) high in cauliflower leaves. Radish had significantly higher flavonoid (400.6 mg QE 100 g-1) and total phenols (231.9 mg GAE 100 g-1) as compared to the other leaves. The antioxidant activity in leaves ranged from 14.76 to 77.52% with highest value in carrot and lowest in cauliflower. The study revealed that fresh leaves of these vegetables as a good source of bioactive compounds may add diversity and antioxidants to the diets that may protect the body from oxidative stress and free-radical damage.
... Six papers reported qualitative and quantitative information on the proximate composition of radish (Ankita & Prasad, 2015;Ashraf, Sultana, Iqbal, & Mushtaq, 2016;Ashraf et al., 2018;Azam, Khan, Mahmood, & Hameed, 2013;Chihoub et al., 2019;Goyeneche et al., 2015). The total content of carbohydrates, fibers, lipids, proteins, and ash was reported in both roots and leaves. ...
... A comparison of these chemicals' concentrations among all the articles was not possible since the reported units differed between them. However, we present in Table 1 the results obtained by Chihoub et al. (2019), Goyeneche et al. (2015), and Ankita and Prasad (2015), who compared the proximate composition of leaves, leaves together with stems, and roots in mg/100 g F.W. The data shows that leaves, compared to the root, are richer in macronutrients and fiber content. The concentration of proteins in leaves is almost seven times higher than the concentration described in roots (3810 mg/100 g F.W vs. 570 mg/100 g F.W, respectively), according to Goyeneche et al. (2015). ...
... The concentration of proteins in leaves is almost seven times higher than the concentration described in roots (3810 mg/100 g F.W vs. 570 mg/100 g F.W, respectively), according to Goyeneche et al. (2015). However, Ankita and Prasad (2015) reported a lower value in leaves for this nutrient (123.7 mg/100 g F.W), even smaller than the one found by Goyeneche in roots (supplemental Table 4). ...
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Background Bioactive compounds in Raphanus sativus (radish) have been used to treat several diseases; therefore, radish has attracted increasing scientific attention due to its nutritional and phytochemical composition. Scope and approach The available evidence on the nutrient and bioactive composition of radish was systematically assessed. Four databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane trials) were searched, up to September 26th, 2020, for key articles assessing the chemical composition of radish. Two independent reviewers carried out screening, selection of articles, and data extraction. Key findings and conclusions Of 1214 references, 63 met our inclusion criteria. We found 609 chemical compounds within 23 categories. Red (30% of all studied varieties), white (13%), and black (6%) radish were the most studied varieties. Nutrients and phytochemicals were reported mainly in roots and leaves. The largest categories were flavonoids (38.8% of the reported data), non-flavonoid polyphenols (8.4%), terpenes and derivatives (8.2%), fat and fatty related compounds (6.4%), and glucosinolates and breakdown products (5.6%). Leaves have high concentrations of macronutrients, calcium, potassium, sodium, fiber, fatty acids, and non-flavonoid polyphenols while sprouts are a major source of flavonoids, specifically anthocyanins, β-carotene and vitamin C. Roots are rich in non-flavonoid polyphenols together with terpenes and derivatives, and glucosinolates, the latter also highly concentrated in seeds. Raphanus sativus is a rich source of nutrients and phytochemicals. Leaves and sprouts could be considered part of a healthy diet, and together with roots, they could be explored as raw material for the development of nutraceuticals.
... Based on the scientific report from other countries, seeds of Karkade are documented is rich in protein and fat (Mokhtari et al., 2018). Ankita (2015) reported that leaves of Girgir and Figl are rich in dietary fiber, minerals and vitamin, respectively. Concerning on health benefits, leaves and roots of Figl(radish) have been used in the treatment of stomach disorders, urinary infections, hepatic inflammation, cardiac disorders and ulcers in folk medicine, the pharmaceutical potential of these edible parts of the plant is attributed to the presence of its beneficial secondary metabolites, such as glucosinolates, polyphenols and isothiocyanates (Manivannan et al., 2019). ...
Article
In Ethiopia, particularly in the Benishangul-Gumuz region, there are several underutilized plants like Figl (Raphanus sativus), Girgir (Eruca sativa) and Karkade (Hibiscus sabdariffa) which are cultivated and consumed only by the local communities. However, information on nutrient, anti-nutrient contents and mineral bioavailability of edible parts of these plants are limited. Given this, leaves and roots of Figl, leaves of Girgir, calyces and seeds of Karkade were evaluated for their proximate, mineral and anti-nutrient contents following the standard analytical methods. The result on dry matter basis revealed that protein contents (26.32 g/100g) were high for brown seeds of Karkade, dried leaves of Figl (26.71 g/100g) and Girgir (24.23 g/100g). The fat and energy contents were high for seeds of Karkade (15.58-18.00 g/100g; 371.64-376.69 kcal/100g). The fiber content was high for dried leaves of Figl (28.39 g/100g) and low for calyces of Karkade (15.33-16.54 g/100g). There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in terms of mineral contents. The dried leaves of Figl were high in calcium, sodium, potassium, and phosphorous contents while dried leaves of Girgir were high in iron and zinc contents. With exception of oxalate content, seeds of Karkade were low in tannin, phytate and alkaloid. The phytate: mineral ratio analysis showed the bioavailability of iron is likely to be inhibited from roots of Figl and calyces of Karkade; zinc bioavailability from calyces of Karkade which suggests processing for phytate reduction is important. The result showed the seeds of Karkade are good sources of protein, fat and energy with low antinutritional contents that may favor mineral bioavailability with potential for utilization in baby food formulations to alleviate protein energy malnutrition. The leaves of Figl and Girgir can also be exploited in different food formulations to improve macro and micronutrient deficiency.
... The obtained leaf sample were dehydrated at 80°C for 1hr and then at 60°C for next 2 hr. After this process, the leaves were manually crushed before using mixer grinder to get spinach leaf powder [11]. This powder was stored in a sealed container for further use. ...
... The ridges were of good quality and very impressive for all the three powders on various surfaces like plastic, Glass foil and note book (Figs. [9][10][11][12]. In most of the surfaces the quality of the fingerprint developed by spinach powder are in equivalence with the eosin dye. ...
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This is an Open Access Journal / article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. All rights reserved. There have been several attempts in past to use chemicals, pigments, dyes to visualise latent fingerprints which are the prime evidence in the crime scene. The disadvantages of using such material motivated the scientist in search of non-toxic and an easily available material to replace the toxic compounds. The present work has been designed to study the possibility of using Spinach powder to visualize latent finger prints. In order to enhance retention of pigments, blanching and dehydration process was adapted to prepare the spinach powder. This is evaluated based on TLC separation where the color and size of spot was compared with the control sample. The prepared powder was tested on various surfaces and compared with already reported natural material, turmeric and a chemical dye, Eosin yellow. The powder dusting method was followed to visualize the fingerprints.The retention of pigment has been enhanced by blanching and dehydration treatment of Spinach. The Spinach powder gave impressive results on various surfaces like, wood, floor, rubber, glass, plastic, CD, and foil.The spinach powder prepared by this method is not only safe, but cost effective as well and can be used to decipher latent fingerprints on various surfaces in an eco-friendly manner.
... Therefore the dehydration procedure is a a significant process that is mainly applied to remove the moisture from the surface, thus enhancing the shelf life of spinach for extended usage (Szulc and Lenart, 2012). The leaves are also compressed into a powder form for easier storability, handling, and usability (Ankita andPrasad, 2015a, 2015b). In recent years, many studies have highlighted the importance of cheese as a good sources for essential nutritious for the human body. ...
... The values for spinach powder were (calcium 2988 mg/100 g, potassium 3334 mg/100 g, magnesium 1428 mg/100 g, iron 26.69 mg/100 g, zinc 3.23 mg/100 g, copper 0.718 mg/100 g, and manganese 4.8 mg/100 g), which gave a good value to the spinach powder. Increasing the supplementation of spinach powder from 0.5 to 2% has demonstated excellent improvement in protein, fiber, DPPH scaving activity, total phenol and mineral content in UF-cheese when compared to control samples (Ankita, 2015). ...
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Spinach fine powder is a good source of protein, fiber, antioxidant, and minerals, making it a suitable ingredient to be used in the formulation of foods with high nutritional or biological values. In the current study, spinach nano-powder (0.50, 1.00, 1.50, and 2%) was used in the manufacturing of ultra-filtered soft chesses (UF-soft chesses). The quality of the cheeses was assessed by measuring their chemical compositions, colors, sensory, and antioxidant properties. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that particles of spinach powder followed a normal distribution pattern with an average diameter of about 328 nm. By increasing the addition of spinach nano-powder with retentate its content of fiber, minerals, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity was improved. Moreover, the total solid, protein and acidity contents increased significantly with the increased percentage of added spinach nano-powder reaching maximum values after four weeks of cold storage. Cheese containing 0.5% and 1% spinach powder demonstrated higher values for sensory parameters than other treatments. UF-cheese prepared in this work represents a novel functional dairy product that can potentially provide the human body with better nutrients.
... The results of the study revealed that radish leaves contain 3.3 mg/100 g neoxanthin, 22.3 mg/100 g lutein, 11.2 mg/100 g β-carotene and 42.95 mg/100 g total carotenoids. In another study by Ankita and Prasad (2015), the concentration of chlorophyll and carotene in fresh radish leaves was found to be 105.76 mg/100 g and 3.96 mg/100g, respectively. ...
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Unconventional greens are underutilized greens that are not part of a normal diet or grown commercially on a large scale. Unconventional greens possess immense nutritional potential which can contribute towards nutritional security. Unconventional greens are micronutrient dense nature’s gift to mankind that provides vitamins and minerals along with antioxidants. They are inexpensive sources of micronutrients such as ascorbic acid, vitamin A, βcarotene, folic acid, riboflavin, tocopherols, calcium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, phytochemicals, antioxidants, and essential fatty acids. Increasing the consumption of unconventional greens in our diet can be a food-based approach for treating micronutrient deficiency. These unconventional greens are easily available in the vegetable market at no cost. These are not utilized by general masses rather used for cattle feed due to lack of awareness about their nutritional value. Intake of unconventional greens in the daily diet can be one of the strategies for improving nutritional status. The unconventional vegetable greens are gaining importance as a means to increase the per capita availability of food, hence, it can be explored to improve the nutritional scenario of the country.
... mg per 100 g). Ankita and Prasad [26] reported chlorophyll content in the range of 294 to 539 mg/100 g in radish leaf powder dehydrated at temperature of 50 to 90˚C. Total carotenoids was the highest in cauliflower leaves (33.36 mg per 100 g) followed by turnip leaves (29.85 mg per 100 g), radish leaves (26.85 mg per 100 g) and carrot leaves (12.60 mg per 100 g). ...
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Drying time and temperature were optimized for four unconventional leafy greens namely turnip (Brassica rapa), radish (Raphanus sativus), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) and carrot (Daucus carota) at the temperature ranging between 40 to 60˚C and time varying between 4 to 18 hours. The results showed that the optimized drying time at 40˚C was 12 hours for turnip and 14 hours for radish, cauliflower and carrot leaves. Twelve hours had been optimized for turnip, radish and carrot leaves at 50˚C while optimized time for cauliflower leaves was 10 hours. At higher temperature i.e., 60˚C, the optimized time for all the vegetable leaves was 10 hours. The radish leaf powder had maximum antioxidant activity (87.04%) at 40˚C closely followed by carrot leaf powder (82.64%) at 50˚C and turnip leaf powder (82.34%) at 40˚C. The least antioxidant activity among dried leaf powder was observed in case of cauliflower leaves (38.84 to 51.38%) when dried for optimized time periods at 40 to 60˚C. Prolonged drying i.e. 2-4 hours beyond optimized time had a detrimental effect on antioxidant activity, the percent reduction in antioxidant activity being maximum in carrot leaf powder i.e., 79.47%. The optimized antioxidant rich vegetable leaf powders can be enriched in various food products with sufficient health promoting properties.