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Projected annual average change in fisheries-related jobs in the 2050s relative to number of jobs in the 2000s under high-range climate change scenario (SRES A1B) and the low-range climate change scenario (constant 2000 level). (Note: Western Sahara is not included in this analysis because no employment data are available)

Projected annual average change in fisheries-related jobs in the 2050s relative to number of jobs in the 2000s under high-range climate change scenario (SRES A1B) and the low-range climate change scenario (constant 2000 level). (Note: Western Sahara is not included in this analysis because no employment data are available)

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West Africa was identified as one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change in previous global analyses. Adverse changes in marine resources under climate change may pose significant threats to the livelihoods and well-being of the communities and countries that depend on fisheries for food and income. However, quantitative studies on the po...

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... projected change in fisheries-related jobs in the 2050s relative to the number of jobs in the 2000s under the two climate change scenarios is shown in Figure 5. The total number of jobs provided by the fisheries sector in West ...
Context 2
... contrast, the total number of jobs associated with fisheries under the constant 2000 level is predicted to be 580 000 with a job loss of only about 23%. Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Togo will also face severe impacts on the number of jobs supported by the fisheries sector with more than 50% of job losses under the SRES A1B scenario ( Figure 5). ...

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... They are affected by changes to storm patterns and strength, sea-level rise (SLR), and flooding (Adger, 1999;Islam et al., 2014). In addition, rising sea surface temperatures, ocean acidification, and deoxygenation affect marine ecosystems, impacting the productivity and availability of already overexploited fish stocks (Cheung et al., 2010;Sumaila et al., 2011;Lam et al., 2012;Belhabib, Lam and Cheung, 2016). These impacts are expected to be strongest in tropical coastal regions, such as West Africa, where the majority of small-scale fishing communities are located (Bunce et al., 2010;Lam et al., 2012;FAO, 2018). ...
... In addition, rising sea surface temperatures, ocean acidification, and deoxygenation affect marine ecosystems, impacting the productivity and availability of already overexploited fish stocks (Cheung et al., 2010;Sumaila et al., 2011;Lam et al., 2012;Belhabib, Lam and Cheung, 2016). These impacts are expected to be strongest in tropical coastal regions, such as West Africa, where the majority of small-scale fishing communities are located (Bunce et al., 2010;Lam et al., 2012;FAO, 2018). However, there have been concerns that global and national focus on climate change mitigation can distract from the developmental challenges that SSF communities face. ...
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This study examines the relative importance and severity of climate change in the context of multiple socio-economic stressors in rural coastal fishing communities in Ghana. Although climate change poses significant threats to these communities, it is yet unclear where it fits in the range of stressors that shape the vulnerability of such communities. Without an understanding of how vulnerability is experienced by the fishing communities, it is difficult to appreciate what adaptation to climate change means to them and which adaptation options are realistic. Household surveys, interviews, gender and age-group disaggregated focus group discussions and participatory risk mapping were used to assess type, importance and severity of climatic and socio-economic stressors that impinge on the lives and livelihood of the fishing communities. Climatic stressors include erratic rainfall, increased storminess, flooding and high temperatures. Socio-economic stressors include infrastructural (e.g., water and energy insecurity), socio-cultural (e.g., conflicts and land insecurity), occupational (e.g., exploitation, power asymmetries, illegal fishing), and environmental (e.g., plastic waste pollution) factors. The participatory risk maps showed that climatic stressors generally rank higher than all others in importance due to their direct impact on fishing and fish processing activities. However, socio-economic stressors were more severely felt, especially in major fishing seasons. The study therefore highlights socio-economic stressors as realistic focus for adaptation priorities that can safeguard the lives, livelihood and wellbeing of rural coastal-small scale fishing communities.
... Inland fisheries support the national economies of several countries in SSA, such as Tanzania, Mali, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, etc., mainly through employment creation, as a source of foreign currency, contributing to the GDP, and boosting government revenues through fishery taxes and agreements [6]. The sector is an economic base industry and supports several secondary economic activities such as boat construction, fish processing, and international logistics [135]. There are limited national figures on the contribution of inland fisheries to employment and the GDP of African nations. ...
... The observed impacts of climate change and variability on fisheries include changes in the distribution of fish species, declining fish productivity, shrinking fishing grounds, and the disappearance of valuable fish species [9, 35,41]. For example, research in West Africa has suggested that fish landings in this region are expected to drop by 26% by the 2050s under the Special Report on Emissions Scenario (SRES) A1B, and a substantial decline (about 50%) in fish landings is predicted in six west Africa countries (Ghana, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Nigeria, Togo and Sierra Leone) under the same SRES A1B climate change scenario [135]. Therefore, the predicted decline in fish landings under the SRES A1B climate scenario is expected to result in a 21% drop in total landed value and a 50% loss in fishery-related jobs by the year 2050 [135]. ...
... For example, research in West Africa has suggested that fish landings in this region are expected to drop by 26% by the 2050s under the Special Report on Emissions Scenario (SRES) A1B, and a substantial decline (about 50%) in fish landings is predicted in six west Africa countries (Ghana, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Nigeria, Togo and Sierra Leone) under the same SRES A1B climate change scenario [135]. Therefore, the predicted decline in fish landings under the SRES A1B climate scenario is expected to result in a 21% drop in total landed value and a 50% loss in fishery-related jobs by the year 2050 [135]. Furthermore, the drought conditions observed in the Niger Delta of West Africa in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in losses of about USD 20 million per year [91]. ...
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Sub-Saharan Africa’s freshwater fisheries contribute significantly to the livelihoods and food security of millions of people within the region. However, freshwater fisheries are experiencing multiple anthropogenic stressors such as overfishing, illegal fishing, pollution, and climate change. There is a substantial body of literature on the effects of climate change on freshwater fisheries in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study reviews the existing literature and highlights the effects of climate change on freshwater fisheries, the adaptation strategies of fishery-dependent households in response to the effects, and fisheries’ management and mitigation efforts in the face of climate change. The general effects of climate change on freshwater environments include warming water temperatures, increased stratification, modified hydrological processes, and increased pollutants. These effects adversely affect the physiological processes of fish and the overall wellbeing of fishery-dependent people. To cope with the effects of fluctuating fishery resources due to climate change, fishery-dependent people have adopted several adaptation strategies including livelihood diversification, changing their fishing gear, increasing their fishing efforts, and targeting new species. Several management attempts have been made to enhance the sustainability of fishery resources, from local to regional levels. This study recommends the participation of the resource users in the formulation of policies aimed at promoting climate change adaptation and the resilience of freshwater fisheries for sustainable development.
... It is worth mentioning that this noted travel or migration pattern dates back to over a hundred years [60][61][62]. The issue of declining stock of fish, which featured prominently in community concerns, is also supported by evidence that points to a variety of factors such as poor fishing/management practices, overfishing, illicit trading and climate change [63][64][65][66]. These pieces of extant evidence show that both declining fish stock and resultant migration may not necessarily be a direct outcome of oil extraction in Ghana, which is a much recent phenomenon. ...
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Oil and gas discovery in Ghana since 2007 has attracted the interest of many international and local actors, including transnational corporations. Despite an expected ‘oil boom’, the industry has perpetuated exclusion and poverty in communities in the neighbourhood of extractive activities in a manner that is particularly gendered, which is a reflection of the enclaved and exclusionary nature of the industry. This paper employs the theoretical framing of feminist political ecology to examine the gendered disparities in the sharing of benefits and access to coping mechanisms. The paper relies on data from fieldwork conducted in Ghana in 2019 to explore how the power and agency of varying stakeholders result in differentiated impacts of the hydrocarbon industry on communities. We present evidence suggesting that gendered inequalities – which are further sustained by entrenched local cultural practices and norms – determine who has access to, manages, and uses resources in a particular context. Considering that the gendered and intersectional impacts of mainstream economies remain poorly understood, this paper contributes to the existing scholarship on both the outcomes of Ghana's hydrocarbon industry and feminist political ecology theorizing.
... Anthropogenic climate change is clearly impacting worldwide fisheries (Brander 2007;Sumaila et al. 2011;Lam et al. 2012;Allison and Bassett 2015;Plagányi 2019) and therefore the livelihoods and food security of fisherfolk that depend on this resource (Shaffril et al. 2013(Shaffril et al. , 2017Geetha et al. 2015;Sidi 2015;Muchuru and Nhamo 2018;Johnson et al. 2019;Turner et al. 2020). Loring et al. (2019) summarize "Fish is among the most eaten foods and traded commodities in the world, and small-scale fisheries provide food, jobs, and life satisfaction to billions of people worldwide." ...
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The Sudd in South Sudan, formed by the White Nile's Baḥr al-Jabal section, is one of the largest and most important wetlands in the world. Communities in the region almost exclusively depend on fisheries for food and livelihoods. Although threatened by over-exploitation and habitat changes, fish populations are also affected by climate change. Using semi-structured questionnaires, we assessed fisherfolk’s opinions of how recent variation in climate affected their livelihoods and the environment. Fisherfolk perceived that climate had changed in the past decade and were negatively impacted by this. Interviewees reported average higher temperatures, a greater frequency of floods and droughts, unpredictable timing of seasons, and erratic rainfall. Destruction of fishing villages/camps, loss and damage of fishing equipment, shifts in the fishing calendar, reduction of fish trade, fish catch declines as well as psycho-social problems were given as the major consequences of climate change. Causes of climate change and variability were perceived to be linked to uncontrolled harvest of forest resources, anger of G-d and ancestors, and natural variability in climate. Most respondents expressed a desire to adopt more responsible behavior such as plantings trees and establishing community nurseries, being educated on climate change risks and sustainable fisheries management. Our results show that fisherfolk in the Sudd are troubled by climate change impacts on their livelihoods and on fish populations. Based on our information, further research and more focused conservation management of the Sudd wetlands are needed to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.
... These effects could greatly impact artisanal and small-scale fisheries since catches are mainly done in coastal and continental platform waters. Thus, human systems will also be affected, primarily those that support their income and food security on the fishing of marine species (FAO, 2012;Lam et al., 2012). ...
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Small-scale fisheries (SSF) contribute to nearly half of global landings and provide multiple socioeconomic benefits to coastal communities. The pacific coast SSF represents 37% of the total fisheries landings in Colombia. Scientific literature continually shows that tropical marine habitats are most vulnerable to oceanic changes associated with climate change. This study prioritized three pelagic species (Euthynnus lineatus, Scomberomorus sierra, and Cynoscion albus) based on their landing statistics to develop potential current and future species distributions using five ensembled machine learning models including Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt), Boosted Regression Tree (BRT), Random Forest (RF), and Classification Tree (CT). Future distributions of these species in the medium-term (2050s) and long-term (2080s) were modeled using the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 2.6 and 8.5 emission scenarios for four ensembled Global Circulation Models (GCMs) obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). In addition, change detections were calculated to identify contraction and expansion of areas, and the distributional core shift was determined to estimate the spatial movements. Results indicate that E. lineatus and S. sierra will potentially move to deeper waters away from the coastline. Alternatively, C. albus could be a species to potentially gain more importance for the fishing sector due to potential variations in climate. These results constitute a critical scientific basis for evaluating the climate change vulnerability of the fishing sector and the decision-making process in the future of small-scale fishery management in the southern Colombian Pacific Ocean.
... Understanding the economics of climate change in fisheries and aquaculture is critical for informing policy and decisionmakers when developing cost-effective adaptation and mitigation strategies. To date, a few studies have used economic methods to examine: a) the impacts of climate change on fisheries and aquaculture (Briones, 2006;Lam et al., 2012); b) the cost of climate change adaptation in fisheries and aquaculture (Narain et al., 2011;Rosegrant et al., 2016); and c) profitability and welfare implications of climate change adaptation strategies Lan et al., 2018). These studies provide insights into and enhance our knowledge of the impacts of climate change on fishing incomes and the returns to investment in adaptation strategies. ...
... In another study, Briones (2006) shows that climate change can cause a decline in fish supply that remains persistent even after the shock disappears, implying that climate change can cause permanent losses in productivity. Lam et al. (2012) project a substantial reduction in marine fish production and decline in fish protein supply in West Africa by the 2050s under climate change. This study further finds that climate change can lead to a 21% drop in annual landed value, 50% decline in fisheriesrelated jobs and a total annual loss of US$311 million in the whole economy of West Africa. ...
... This class of models are useful for the optimisation of biological resources as inputs in production. While the majority of studies focus on the national (Briones, 2006;Garza-Gil et al., 2010;Lam et al., 2012), some studies encapsulate a multi-national or global scale (e.g. (Gaines et al., 2018;Lehodey et al., 2012). ...
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... Existing research on West African fisheries under climate change suggests that the region's fish stocks and communities will be heavily impacted by changes that arise from global warming (e.g., Barange et al. 2018). One estimate suggests that by the 2050s there may be as much as a 21% drop in annual landed value, fisheriesrelated jobs may be reduced by 50%, and costs to West Africa's economy might be as much as US$311 million (Lam et al. 2012). Ghana, like much of the region, is set to see climate change impact both fish stocks and behaviors, already considered to be a key part of the decline of the Ghanaian fishing industry (Atindana et al. 2019). ...
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... Africa hosts regions that are amongst the most susceptible to global climate change [18]. Climate change projections [19][20][21][22] indicate that most of northern and southern Africa will experience high water stress while eastern, central, and western Africa will be subject to increasingly heavy rains and flooding [23,24]. Changes in precipitation and temperature patterns due to climate change will create further stress in inland lake, river and oceanic ecosystems with ramifications on fish supply and the broader wellbeing of actors in the food systems. ...
... Changes in precipitation and temperature patterns due to climate change will create further stress in inland lake, river and oceanic ecosystems with ramifications on fish supply and the broader wellbeing of actors in the food systems. Climate change is projected to reduce the potential fisheries catch in the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) in Africa [21]. Coupling with climate change impacts, the activities of foreign fishing vessels in African EEZs are also likely to impact fish availability and access in Africa [25]. ...
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One of the most pressing challenges facing food systems in Africa is ensuring availability of a healthy and sustainable diet to 2.4 billion people by 2050. The continent has struggled with development challenges, particularly chronic food insecurity and pervasive poverty. In Africa’s food systems, fish and other aquatic foods play a multifaceted role in generating income, and providing a critical source of essential micronutrients. To date, there are no estimates of investment and potential returns for domestic fish production in Africa. To contribute to policy debates about the future of fish in Africa, we applied the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agriculture Commodities and Trade (IMPACT) to explore two Pan-African scenarios for fish sector growth: a business-as-usual ( BAU ) scenario and a high-growth scenario for capture fisheries and aquaculture with accompanying strong gross domestic product growth ( HIGH ). Post-model analysis was used to estimate employment and aquaculture investment requirements for the sector in Africa. Africa’s fish sector is estimated to support 20.7 million jobs in 2030, and 21.6 million by 2050 under the BAU . Approximately 2.6 people will be employed indirectly along fisheries and aquaculture value chains for every person directly employed in the fish production stage. Under the HIGH scenario, total employment in Africa’s fish food system will reach 58.0 million jobs, representing 2.4% of total projected population in Africa by 2050. Aquaculture production value is estimated to achieve US$ 3.3 billion and US$ 20.4 billion per year under the BAU and HIGH scenarios by 2050, respectively. Farm-gate investment costs for the three key inputs (fish feeds, farm labor, and fish seed) to achieve the aquaculture volumes projected by 2050 are estimated at US$ 1.8 billion per year under the BAU and US$ 11.6 billion per year under the HIGH scenario. Sustained investments are critical to sustain capture fisheries and support aquaculture growth for food system transformation towards healthier diets.
... One exception was a study conducted in West Africa by Lam et al. (2013) that estimated there would be an overall loss of 50% of jobs in fisheries by 2050, relative to the year 2000. Togo, Côte d'Ivoire, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Ghana and Liberia were shown to be particularly high risk (Lam et al., 2012). ...
... Other challenges identified by other authors include the shortage of inputs (fingerlings and feed), lack of knowledge resulting in poor management practices, inadequate funding, theft, and direct involvement of government in production (Lam et al., 2012). Use of poor quality seeds, inadequate information, high cost of feeds, traditional techniques, small-size holdings, poor infrastructural facilities, and low capital investment are also factors reported to be limiting the growth of aquaculture sector in Nigeria (Ugwumba & Chukwuji, 2010;Adewumi, 2015;Adebayo & Daramola, 2013). ...
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Coronavirus 2019 is a global health concern that has left most countries in a state of severe economic meltdown. Scientific research has been down on the virus and its impact on various sectors but that of the Nigerian aquaculture industry has been missing. This paves the way for this research to aim at bridging this gap by looking at the perception of fish farmers on the influence of coronavirus on their activities, the challenges they face during the period of the virus, and the coping strategies adopted to mitigate the impact of the virus. The research used cross sectional survey design with the sample size being 11 fish farmers living in Oyo state, Nigeria. Homogeneous purposive sampling was used and primary data collected through the use of google form. The data collected was analysis using SPSS version 25.0. The result of the analysed data showed that: on socioeconomic characteristics; the majority of the respondent reported that Coronavirus has had an effect on their fishing activity and they were mostly small scale farmers with catfish being the predominate fish farmed. The majority of fish farmers perceived demand decline, high cost of production, fish being more expensive, and reduction of manpower on the farm due to lockdown measures. Reduction in walk-in customers to the farm was revealed as the major challenge posed by the pandemic, while the inability to get technical support as least. On coping strategies adopted, it was revealed that farmers have resorted to the development of their own feed.