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Process of submission an application of subsidies 

Process of submission an application of subsidies 

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This paper evaluates the impact of agricultural extension services in the Dominican Republic. In particular, we analyze the direct impact of the Program for Technological Support in the Agricultural Sector (PATCA). The analysis relies on a unique dataset gathered by PATCA’s executing unit in 2008. The survey included 1,572 farmers operating in crop...

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... were expected to contribute to the implementation of the technology either in cash or in kind. Once the technology was installed and the AAA supervised it was correctly applied and that the price was consistent with market prices, providers could request the funding allocated to the producer by the program through the Banco de Reservas of each region ( Figure 2 shows the process). The activities of the program were divided in three phases. ...

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... Indirect benefits include energy cost savings (i.e., diesel fuel cost of operating a tube-well), reduced greenhouse gas emissions, enhanced fertilizer use efficiency, improved seed germination, and increased crop yields and crop income (Abdullaev et al., 2007;Aryal et al., 2015;Bhatt et al., 2021;Hoque & Hannan, 2014;Jat et al., 2009;Khatri-Chhetri et al., 2020;Rezaei-Moghaddam & Tohidyan Far, 2019;Rickman, 2002;Rizwan et al., 2018). Environmental benefits due to improved surface drainage include controlling waterlogging, salinity (Miao et al., 2021), and soil erosion (González et al., 2009;Miao et al., 2021;Rezaei-Moghaddam & Tohidyan Far, 2019;Tohidyan Far & Rezaei-Moghaddam, 2020). However, some studies have reported negative impacts of LLL on the soil aeration function, crop root growth (Brye et al., 2005), and crop yield (Walker et al., 2003). ...
Article
This paper investigates the factors that influence the adoption of laser land leveler and its impact on groundwater usage in the Punjab province of Pakistan. A farm household survey of 504 agriculture producers was conducted in 2019. A discrete‐time duration model is used to investigate factors influencing the speed of adoption and an endogenous switching regression (ESR) model is used to evaluate its impact on groundwater usage. About 70% of the surveyed households adopted the technology, and the average time to adoption was 9 years. Key factors accelerating the speed of adoption include strong legal land rights, access to information about the technology, and exposure to the technology. In contrast, long distance to rental market deaccelerates the speed of adoption. The adoption of laser land leveler reduced groundwater use by about 23%. The results imply that institutional arrangements, such as improving access to extension services, exposure to innovation, and legal land rights, can enhance the adoption and diffusion of the technology and conserve groundwater.
... (Abdullaev et al., 2007;Gulati et al., 2017). Laser land levelling enhance the use of nutritious materials and reduce chemical fertilizers consumption (Jat et al., 2006;González et al., 2009). In addition to reducing the amount of seeds and increasing yield with less fuel consumption used for pumping water and agricultural machinery (Jehangir et al. 2007). ...
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The main purpose of this study is to improve the tillage operational efficiency of a chisel plough through the use of laser levelling technology. Such technology can help farmers attain consistent tilled layer depth throughout the entire field. A modified laser control unit was attached to chisel plough and it coupled with a hydraulic system. Under the current modification, the laser unit, as it communicates with the receiver tower, would be able to adjust the ploughing depth. The readings of point levels for the subsurface layer were taken at a grid spacing of 5.0 m x 5.0 m, a resolution commonly used to show the changes in soil topography. The experiment was repeated in three plots, 1-hectare each. Irrigation water advance times and total applied irrigation water amounts were recorded and used as indicator of the performance of the developed prototype and to evaluate the effect of laser controlled ploughing on flood irrigation efficiency. Results indicated that the use of laser-controlled chisel plough improved field level and proper tilled layer enabling other field machines to work in a stable depth of tilled layers. After using the laser-controlled chisel plough, the elevation (relative to the reference point) ranged from 34.0 cm to 43.0 cm with an average recorded value of 39.8 cm and a standard deviation of 0.990 cm. Using the regular plough resulted in relative elevation values, which ranged from 22.0 cm to 52.0 cm with an average elevation value of 39.4 cm and a standard deviation of 5.702 cm. Irrigation water advance times were shorter with plots that were ploughed using the laser-controlled chisel. Total applied irrigation water was 9835-m 3 ha-1 and 8468 m 3 ha-1 for plots where the normal chisel plough and laser-controlled chisel plough were used respectively.
... Generally, increased farm efficiency is linked to farm operators specializing in agricultural production (Khanal, 2020). Sustainable growth in agricultural productivity is connected to farmer adoption of agricultural production technologies (Gonz alez et al., 2009) and a higher degree of crop specialization. Agricultural specialization and commercialization, and increased productivity are seen as the predominant cause of the transformation of economies into more diversified non-agricultural economic activities (Emran and Shilpi, 2012). ...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to analyze the effects of crop specialization on agricultural productivity and commercialization for farmers who produce high-value crops in the Northern Savannah Ecological Zone of Ghana. Design/methodology/approach The study used the USAID/Ghana Feed the Future (FTF) survey, which collected data on high-value crops (i.e. maize, rice and soya). Data for the analysis consists of 2,903 farm households. The study utilized the three-stage generalized method of moment estimation technique to deal with the potential endogeneity of crop specialization within the context of productivity and commercialization and heteroscedasticity issues in the data. Findings The study found that crop specialization positively relates to agricultural productivity and commercialization, suggesting that increased crop specialization in the production of high-value stimulates productivity and opens market opportunities for farm households. These findings imply that crop specialization seems more beneficial to farmers as it significantly improves productivity and commercialization. Research limitations/implications The study was conducted in the Northern Savannah Ecological Zone of Ghana and not the entire country. Originality/value To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to have jointly modeled crop specialization, agricultural productivity and commercialization. The main advantage of using this system approach is that it uses more information, thereby providing more precise parameter estimates.
... However, this result depends on the technology adopted, either a labour-saving technology or increased crop-yielding technology such as fertilisers, irrigation (Eberhardt and Vollrath 2016). Examining the impact of technology on agricultural productivity of farmers in the Dominican Republic, González et al. (2009) found a positive effect of land-levelling and pasture conservations on the productivity of rice producers and breeders as these were the only technology adopted in the region. ...
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This paper examines whether technology and energy have a role to play in agriculture value addition in nine sub-Saharan African countries for a sample period between 1981 and 2015. We employ the Autoregressive Distributed Lag modelling technique to examine the relationship among the variables. Models with technology, energy use, and a combination of technology and energy were considered, respectively. Only Nigeria recorded a positive and significant impact of technology on its agricultural value addition in both the short run and long run in the first model. In the second model, energy use positively and significantly influenced agricultural value addition in two countries (Botswana and South Africa) in the short run. However, the long-run coefficients of energy use were found to be positive and significant for Benin and South Africa. In the third model, short-run coefficients of technology were largely positive but statistically insignificant across the countries, while its long-run coefficient was largely positive but only statistically significant for Nigeria. Also, the short-run effect of energy use remained positively significant for Botswana and South Africa as observed in the earlier model. However, its long-run effect was only positive and statistically significant in three countries (Benin, South Africa, and Togo). Thus, the study recommends the need for huge investment in technology and energy use as well as the sensitisation of local farmers in adopting technology to further enhance the quality of their output.
... Different studies have confirmed that laser levelling technology will decrease farming costs in different cultivation and harvest stages (Abdullaev et al., 2007). Laser land levelling causes the reduction of pesticides consumption, improves the use of nutritious materials and reduces consumption of chemical fertilizers (Abdullaev et al., 2007;Jat et al., 2006;Gonzales et al., 2009). Decreasing the amount of water consumption, uniform distribution of water, reducing irrigation frequency and time and water wasting are among the most important impacts (Abdullaev et al., 2007;Jat et al., 2006;Jehangir et al., 2007;Gonzales et al., 2009;Das et al., 2018;Shahani et al., 2016;Ashraf et al., 2017). ...
... Laser land levelling causes the reduction of pesticides consumption, improves the use of nutritious materials and reduces consumption of chemical fertilizers (Abdullaev et al., 2007;Jat et al., 2006;Gonzales et al., 2009). Decreasing the amount of water consumption, uniform distribution of water, reducing irrigation frequency and time and water wasting are among the most important impacts (Abdullaev et al., 2007;Jat et al., 2006;Jehangir et al., 2007;Gonzales et al., 2009;Das et al., 2018;Shahani et al., 2016;Ashraf et al., 2017). Reducing the use of seeds, uniformity of germination and crop growth and increasing yield have been mentioned in some studies (Abdullaev et al., 2007;Jat et al., 2006;Jehangir et al., 2007). ...
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Agriculture is the main occupation in Nepal and around 60.4% Nepalese are actively engaged in the agricultural sector. Wheat is the third most important cereal crop after rice and maize in terms of area and production, in Nepal. Currently, less than 2 % area of the total wheat cultivation, is under zero – till wheat. Zero tillage (ZT) is a vital component of resource conserving technologies (RCTs) that are implementing to produce crops with lower inputs resulting in higher profit. ZT of wheat after rice generates significant benefits at the farm level, both in terms of significant yield gains (6–10%, particularly due to more timely planting of wheat) and cost savings (5–10%, particularly tillage savings) as compared to conventional tillage (CT). The paper reviews the prospects of ZT wheat technology in Nepal, based on the published information. ZT is the most widely used technology of wheat in Nepal, among other resource – conserving technologies. ZT wheat yielded 3.44 t ha-1 whereas CT wheat yielded 3.22 t ha-1. The total cost incurred under ZT wheat is NRs. 39,431/- whereas NRs. 48,300/- is of CT. The benefit: cost ratio was found 2.38 in ZT compared to 1.81 in CT which was 31.5 % more over the CT method of wheat cultivation. Hence, ZT technology in Nepal is cost – effective technology facilitating 15 days earlier sowing of wheat with higher yield and needs to be promoted on a large scale.
... Cacao plantation performed better when projectcooperators embraced the technologies transferred to them (Figures 7-9) compared to the farm of project-cooperator who did not adopt ( Figure 10). Farmer's level of technology adoption affects the performance as well as productivity of the farm (González, Ibarraran, Maffioli, & Rozo, 2009;Khatur & Haider, 2016;Tesfaye, Bedada, & Mesay, 2016). Khatur and Haider (2016) reported that a one percent increase in technology adoption leads to increase in rice productivity by 0.22 percent in Bangladesh. ...
Article
One way to realize the targeted 100 thousand metric tons of dried cocoa beans by the Philippines on year 2022 is the massive establishment of new cacao plantations. With the financial support through the grant-in-aid program of the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources, Research and Development, Central Mindanao University reached-out to neighboring communities and helped the people in Bukidnon, Philippines to establish new cacao plantations using the high-yielding clones recommended by the National Seed Industry Council. A total of 39 project-cooperators were involved and were provided with farm inputs as well as seminars and trainings on cacao production through the "Science and Technology Community-Based Farm (STCBF) for a Sustainable Cacao Production in Bukidnon" project. However, it cannot be denied that characters of project-cooperators have great influence on the performance of cacao plantation. This study was undertaken to determine the influence of prior learnings (previous seminars and trainings on cacao production), regularity of farm visit, involvement in farm hands-on activities and level of technology adoption of project-cooperators on the performance of established cacao plantation. Characters of project-cooperators with regard to farm management were documented during the farm monitoring and evaluation conducted by our team. Results revealed that project-cooperators who visited their farm regularly have better cacao plantation performance than those of project-cooperators who visited their farm occasionally. Apparently, cacao plantation performed better if project-cooperators were highly receptive to transferred technology. These findings can be used as guide to agricultural extension workers in Bukidnon, Philippines in the selection of project-cooperators or project beneficiaries with regard to establishment of cacao plantations.
... Different studies have confirmed that laser levelling technology will decrease farming costs in different cultivation and harvest stages (Abdullaev et al. 2007;Gulati et al. 2017). Laser land levelling causes the reduction of pesticides consumption, improves the use of nutritious materials and reduces consumption of chemical fertilizers (Abdullaev et al. 2007;Jat et al. 2006;Gonzalez et al. 2009). Decreasing the amount of water consumption, uniform distribution of water, reducing irrigation frequency and time and water wasting are among the most important impacts (Abdullaev et al. 2007;Gonzalez et al. 2009;Das et al. 2018;Jehangir et al. 2007;Shahani et al. 2016;Ashraf et al. 2017). ...
... Laser land levelling causes the reduction of pesticides consumption, improves the use of nutritious materials and reduces consumption of chemical fertilizers (Abdullaev et al. 2007;Jat et al. 2006;Gonzalez et al. 2009). Decreasing the amount of water consumption, uniform distribution of water, reducing irrigation frequency and time and water wasting are among the most important impacts (Abdullaev et al. 2007;Gonzalez et al. 2009;Das et al. 2018;Jehangir et al. 2007;Shahani et al. 2016;Ashraf et al. 2017). Reducing the use of seeds, uniformity of germination and crop growth and increasing yield have been mentioned in some studies (Abdullaev et al. 2007;Jehangir et al. 2007;Jat et al. 2006). ...
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Application of technologies has an important role in agricultural development. Identifying and assessing the impacts of agricultural technologies is necessary. This study aimed at assessing the impacts of laser levelling economically, socially, environmentally, and technically in the viewpoint of the agricultural experts and identifying factors determining their perception of the impacts. The study samples (151 experts) were selected using multi-stage random sampling in Fars Province, Iran. The results revealed that experts considered uniform distribution of water, using conservation tillage, facilitating agricultural activities, decreased water consumption and decrease of water wasting as the most important technical impacts of laser levelling technology. The most environmentally important impacts were the decrease of soil erosion and retention of crop residues. Experts stated the most significant social impacts as improvement in villages living conditions and sense of belonging to rural areas. Besides, an increase of income and reduction of inputs costs were among the economic impacts of laser levelling technology. According to the results, attitude towards water and soil resources conservation and environmental beliefs had the highest direct effect on individual perception toward impacts. Practical recommendations have been presented based on the results of the study.
... Various studies have reported the impacts of laserland-leveling project. Decreasing the amount of water consumption, uniform distribution of water, reducing irrigation frequency, and time and water wasting is among the most important impacts [1,5,9,16,19,22,36]. Gonzalez et al. [16]; Abdullaev et al. [1], [19,20] have asserted that laser-land leveling causes the reduction of pesticides consumption, improves use of soil nutritious, and reduces chemical fertilizers consumption. ...
... Various studies have reported the impacts of laserland-leveling project. Decreasing the amount of water consumption, uniform distribution of water, reducing irrigation frequency, and time and water wasting is among the most important impacts [1,5,9,16,19,22,36]. Gonzalez et al. [16]; Abdullaev et al. [1], [19,20] have asserted that laser-land leveling causes the reduction of pesticides consumption, improves use of soil nutritious, and reduces chemical fertilizers consumption. Jat et al. [19] noted that amount of fuel consumed by water pumping and agricultural machinery would be reduced by laser-land leveling. ...
... Reducing weeds, pests, and plant diseases are considered as other advantages of this technology [16,19,31]. Gonzalez et al. [16] reported that reduction in soil erosion is due to the implementation of laser-land-leveling project. ...
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Background Impact assessment is an important process that helps the policy makers to understand the consequences of possible and actual government interventions. Assessing the impacts and consequences is considered as applicable means for policy makers and planners of projects, since not only it measures and presents the plans’ developments, but also for determining their impacts on the target group. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to assess the impacts of laser-land-leveling technology in Iran, comparing the impacts among two groups of farmers adopting traditional-leveling and laser-land-leveling projects and identifying factors influencing perception regarding laser-land-leveling technology impacts. Methodology The research draws on a mixed-methods approach, which includes two distinct research phases. First, 375 farmers were selected using survey based on stratified random sampling for quantitative part. Twenty-Seven farmers were also interviewed in the qualitative phase. Results The most important impacts of laser-land leveling were uniform germination of the crop, uniform distribution of water, decrease of soil erosion, increasing positive competition, and increasing net income. In addition, the results revealed that adopters of laser-land leveling expressed more impacts than another group. Conclusions Attitude towards water and soil resources’ conservation was the most important variable to predict the impacts’ perception among traditional-leveling adopters. It is necessary to officials to increase the information of farmers regarding different consequences of the project and contributing them to make proper decisions for farm management.
... A counterfactual is defined as "knowledge of what would have happened to those same people if they simultaneously had not received treatment" (Olmos A., 2015citing Shadish et al., 2002. In this context, as to González et al. 2009, if Y represents the outcome variable and if D is a dummy variable that takes the value of 1 if the individual was treated and 0 otherwise, the "average treatment effect on the treated" will be given by: ...
... Using the mean outcome of non-beneficiaries-which is more likely observed in most of the cases-do not solve the problem given that there is a possibility that the variables that determine the treatment decision also affect the outcome variables. In this case, the outcome of treated and non-treated individuals might differ leading to selection bias (González et al., 2009). To clarify this idea, the mean outcome of untreated individuals has to be added to (1) from which the following expression can be easily derived: ...
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This study examines the impact of adoption of improved wheat technology package (including improved wheat varieties, information regarding improved wheat management practices as well as artificial/chemical fertilizer) on productivity using 1,611 sample farm households in four major administrative regions of Ethiopia. Propensity score matching (PSM) technique was employed since it is an increasingly utilized standard approach for evaluating impacts using observational data of a single period. It is found that full adoption of improved wheat technology package appears to significantly increase productivity growth on the average by 51 to 55% for farm households in the study area. Thus, the study recommends that full adoption of improved wheat technology package could be an effective strategy to enhance productivity and, thereby, production that contributes a lot to the structural transformation of the Ethiopian economy.
... It is possible that the range of solenodons has contracted and the species has become largely or completely restricted to forest habitats as a consequence of changes in scale and intensity of farming in the Dominican Republic (Turvey et al. 2017). The area of land under agriculture has increased, and the types of crops grown and associated management practices have changed during recent decades (Bravo-Ureta and Pinheiro 1997;Raynolds 2002;González et al. 2009). Agricultural activities are known to significantly decrease soil fertility in the Dominican Republic (Templer et al. 2005), and absence of solenodons from farmland plots could be a consequence of knock-on effects of reduced soil fertility and changing landscape and crop structure on abundance and availability of potential solenodon prey species. ...
Article
The Hispaniolan solenodon, Solenodon paradoxus, and Hispaniolan hutia, Plagiodontia aedium, are the Dominican Republic’s only surviving endemic non-volant land mammals, and are high priorities for conservation. The country has an extensive protected area (PA) network designed to maintain habitats and benefit biodiversity, but which faces significant anthropogenic threats likely to detrimentally impact both species. We examined how differences in habitats, forest structure, topography, and human activity influence presence of solenodons and hutias across the Dominican Republic. Systematic surveys of seven PAs were undertaken to record indirect signs, with presence-absence data analyzed using a multi-model inference approach incorporating ecological variables from both field and GIS data. Solenodons were detected relatively frequently, whereas detections of hutias were uncommon. Lower elevations, increased surrounding tree cover, canopy closure, and reduced levels of low vegetation are all associated with increased probability of detecting solenodons, whereas agriculture and mangrove represent poor-quality habitat. Increased canopy closure, tree basal area (indicating older-growth forest), and increased rock substrate (providing more den sites) are associated with increased probability of detecting hutias. Our findings indicated that human activities within PAs are likely to negatively affect both species, and conservation activities should focus on preventing encroachment and conversion of forest to agriculture to maintain high-quality forest habitats.